The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE (DOS), often referred to as
the STATE DEPARTMENT, is the
The Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building
located at 2201 C Street, NW , a few blocks away from the White House
The Department is led by the Secretary of State , who is nominated by
the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the
Cabinet . The current Secretary of State is
* 1 History * 2 Duties and responsibilities
* 3 Organization
* 3.1 Mission statement * 3.2 Core activities
* 3.3 Secretary of State
* 3.3.1 Staff * 3.3.2 Other agencies
* 4 Diplomats in Residence * 5 The Fulbright Program * 6 Jefferson Science Fellows Program * 7 Franklin Fellows Program * 8 Department of State Air Wing
* 9 Expenditures
* 9.1 Audit of expenditures
* 10 Central Foreign Policy
Old State Department building in
The U.S. Constitution , drafted in
The House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS on July 21, 1789, and President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties.
These responsibilities grew to include management of the United
States Mint , keeper of the Great Seal of the
On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas
From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in
Philadelphia, the capital of the
In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill
Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building. A joint
venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody, Clancy and the
Louis Berger Group
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The Executive Branch and the U.S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U.S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U.S. foreign affairs agency, and its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U.S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It also provides an array of important services to U.S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visiernational crime, foreign military training programs, the services the Department provides, and more—are paid for by the foreign affairs budget, which represents little more than 1% of the total federal budget. As stated by the Department of State, its purpose includes:
* Protecting and assisting U.S. citizens living or traveling abroad; * Assisting U.S. businesses in the international marketplace; * Coordinating and providing support for international activities of other U.S. agencies (local, state, or federal government), official visits overseas and at home, and other diplomatic efforts. * Keeping the public informed about U.S. foreign policy and relations with other countries and providing feedback from the public to administration officials. * Providing automobile registration for non-diplomatic staff vehicles and the vehicles of diplomats of foreign countries having diplomatic immunity in the United States.
The Department of State conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the Foreign Service personnel system for positions that require service abroad. Employees may be assigned to diplomatic missions abroad to represent The United States, analyze and report on political, economic, and social trends; adjudicate visas; and respond to the needs of U.S. citizens abroad. The U.S. maintains diplomatic relations with about 180 countries and maintains relations with many international organizations, adding up to a total of more than 250 posts around the world. In the United States, about 5,000 professional, technical, and administrative employees work compiling and analyzing reports from overseas, providing logistical support to posts, communicating with the American public, formulating and overseeing the budget, issuing passports and travel warnings , and more. In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of State works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Defense , the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Commerce. As required by the principle of checks and balances , the Department also consults with Congress about foreign policy initiatives and policies.
To: "Advance freedom for the benefit of the American people and the international community by helping to build and sustain a more democratic, secure, and prosperous world composed of well-governed states that respond to the needs of their people, reduce widespread poverty, and act responsibly within the international system."
The DOS promotes and protects the interests of American citizens by (1) 'Promoting peace and stability in regions of vital interest'; (2) 'Creating jobs at home by opening markets abroad'; (3) 'Helping developing nations establish investment and export opportunities'; and (4) 'Bringing nations together and forging partnerships to address global problems, such as terrorism, the spread of communicable diseases, cross-border pollution, humanitarian crises, nuclear smuggling, and narcotics trafficking.'
BioPrepWatch reported that, on May 30, 2013, the State Department submitted the Country Reports on Terrorism 2012 to Congress. Most terrorist attacks have been decentralized and target the Middle East countries. There have been no other reports that have previously talked about this topic, but the biggest shifts in terrorism in 2012 included an increase in state-sponsored terrorism in Iran. The State Department states the best way to counter international terrorist attacks is to work with international partners to cut funding, strengthen law-enforcing institutions and eliminate terrorist safe havens.
SECRETARY OF STATE
The Secretary of State is the chief executive officer of the
Department of State and a member of the Cabinet that answers directly
to, and advises, the President of the
United States Deputy Secretary of State
* Chief of Staff Organizational chart of the U.S. Department of
* Office of Global Intergovernmental Affairs
National Foreign Affairs Training Center (which houses the Foreign
Service Institute )
* Office of the Legal Adviser
* Office of the Inspector General
* Office of Management Policy
* Office of Protocol
* Office of the Science and Technology Adviser
* Office of the Senior Advisor for Civil Society and Emerging
* Office of Global Women\'s Issues
Bureau of Intelligence and Research
* Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs : The fourth-ranking State Department official. Becomes Acting Secretary in the absence of the Secretary of State and the two Deputy Secretaries of State. This position is responsible for bureaus, headed by Assistant Secretaries, coordinating American diplomacy around the world:
Bureau of African Affairs
* Under Secretary of State for Management : The principal adviser to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary on matters relating to the allocation and use of Department's budget, physical property, and personnel. This position is responsible for bureaus, headed by Assistant Secretaries, planning the day-to-day administration of the Department and proposing institutional reform and modernization:
* Bureau of Administration Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is greeted by Department employees during her arrival on her first day.
* Office of Children\'s Issues
Bureau of Human Resources
* Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment : The senior economic advisor for the Secretary and Deputy Secretary on international economic policy. This position is responsible for bureaus, headed by Assistant Secretaries, dealing with trade, agriculture, aviation, and bilateral trade relations with America's economic partners:
* Bureau of Economic and
* Under Secretary of State for Public
* Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International
Security Affairs : This Under Secretary coordinates the Department's
role in U.S. military assistance. Since the 1996 reorganization, this
Under Secretary also oversees the functions of the formerly
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
* Under Secretary of State for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights : This Under Secretary leads the Department's efforts to prevent and counter threats to civilian security and advises the Secretary of State on matters related to governance, democracy, and human rights.
Bureau of Counterterrorism
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
* Counselor : Ranking with the Under Secretaries, the Counselor is the Secretary's and Deputy Secretary's special advisor and consultant on major problems of foreign policy. The Counselor provides guidance to the appropriate bureaus with respect to such matters, conducts special international negotiations and consultations, and undertakes special assignments from time to time as directed by the Secretary.
Since the 1996 reorganization, the Administrator of the United States
Agency for International Development (USAID), while leading an
independent agency, has also reported to the Secretary of State, as
DIPLOMATS IN RESIDENCE
Map showing the 16 regions represented by Diplomats in Residence
Diplomats in Residence are career Foreign Service Officers and Specialists located throughout the U.S. who provide guidance and advice on careers, internships, and fellowships to students and professionals in the communities they serve. Diplomats in Residence represent 16 population-based regions that encompass the United States.
THE FULBRIGHT PROGRAM
The FULBRIGHT PROGRAM, including the FULBRIGHT–HAYS PROGRAM, is a
program of competitive, merit-based grants for international
educational exchange for students, scholars, teachers, professionals,
scientists and artists, founded by
The Fulbright Program provides 8,000 grants annually to undertake graduate study, advanced research, university lecturing, and classroom teaching. In the 2015–16 cycle, 17% and 24% of American applicants were successful in securing research and English Teaching Assistance grants, respectively. However, selectivity and application numbers vary substantially by country and by type of grant. For example, grants were awarded to 30% of Americans applying to teach English in Laos and 50% of applicants to do research in Laos. In contrast, 6% of applicants applying to teach English in Belgium were successful compared to 16% of applicants to do research in Belgium.
The U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Educational and Cultural
Affairs sponsors the Fulbright Program from an annual appropriation
from the U.S. Congress. Additional direct and in-kind support comes
from partner governments, foundations, corporations, and host
institutions both in and outside the U.S. The Fulbright Program is
administered by cooperating organizations like the Institute of
International Education . It operates in over 160 countries around the
world. In each of 49 countries, a bi-national Fulbright Commission
administers and oversees the Fulbright Program. In countries without a
Fulbright Commission but that have an active program, the Public
Affairs Section of the U.S. Embassy oversees the Fulbright Program.
More than 360,000 persons have participated in the program since it
began. Fifty-four Fulbright alumni have won
JEFFERSON SCIENCE FELLOWS PROGRAM
The Jefferson Science Fellows Program was established in 2003 by the DoS to establish a new model for engaging the American academic science, technology, engineering and medical communities in the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy.
FRANKLIN FELLOWS PROGRAM
The Franklin Fellows Program was established in 2006 by the DoS to
bring in mid-level executives from the private sector and non-profit
organizations to advise the Department and to work on projects.
Fellows may also work with other government entities, including the
DEPARTMENT OF STATE AIR WING
Logo of the "Air Wing" of The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL)- Office of Aviation, U.S. Department of State
In 1978, the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) formed an office to use excess military and government aircraft for support of foreign nations' counter-narcotics operations. The first aircraft used was a crop duster used for eradication of illicit crops in Mexico in cooperation with the local authorities. The separate Air Wing was established in 1986 as use of aviation assets grew in the war on drugs.
The aircraft fleet grew from crop spraying aircraft to larger
transports and helicopters used to support ground troops and transport
personnel. As these operations became more involved in direct combat,
a further need for search and rescue and armed escort helicopters was
evident. Operations in the 1980s and 1990s were primarily carried out
Following the events of the
September 11 attacks
In FY 2010 the Department of State, together with 'Other
International Programs' (for example, USAID ), had a combined
projected discretionary budget of $51.7 billion. The United States
Federal Budget for
The end-of-year FY 2010 DoS Agency Financial Report, approved by Secretary Clinton on 15 November 2010, showed actual total costs for the year of $27.4 billion. Revenues of $6.0 billion, $2.8 billion of which were earned through the provision of consular and management services, reduced total net cost to $21.4 billion.
Total program costs for 'Achieving Peace and Security' were $7.0 billion; 'Governing Justly and Democratically', $0.9 billion; 'Investing in People', $4.6 billion; 'Promoting Economic Growth and Prosperity', $1.5 billion; 'Providing Humanitarian Assistance', $1.8 billion; 'Promoting International Understanding', $2.7 billion; 'Stengthening Consular and Management Capabilities', $4.0 billion; 'Executive Direction and Other Costs Not Assigned', $4.2 billion.
AUDIT OF EXPENDITURES
The Department of State's independent auditors are Kearney & Company . Since in FY 2009 Kearney & Company qualified its audit opinion , noting material financial reporting weaknesses, the DoS restated its 2009 financial statements in 2010. In its FY 2010 audit report, Kearney border:solid #aaa 1px">
* Awards of the
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ "What We Do: Mission". Retrieved 2014-07-23.
* ^ Office of Management and Budget. "Table 5.2—Budget Authority
by Agency: 1976–2021". Obama
* ^ "IIE Programs". Institute of International Education. Retrieved
* ^ "53 Fulbright Alumni Awarded the Nobel Prize" (PDF). U.S.
Department of State.
* ^ "Notable Fulbrighters". U.S. Department of State.
* ^ "MacArthur Supports New Science and Security Fellowship Program
at U.S. Department of State". MacArthur Foundation. 2002-10-08.
* ^ "Jefferson Science Fellowship Program – U.S. Department of
State". Retrieved February 1, 2015.
* ^ Operation Development Leadership Project, Alumni Corner,
* ^ A B "US Department Of State Magazine, May 2011" (PDF).
* ^ A B "