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U.S. Department of Defense

* Dept. of the Navy
Navy
(since 1798)

HEADQUARTERS The Pentagon
The Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia
Arlington County, Virginia
, U.S.

MOTTO(S) "_Non sibi sed patriae_" (English: "_Not for self but for country_")

COLORS Blue, Gold

MARCH " Anchors Aweigh " _ Play (help ·info )

EQUIPMENT see Equipment section below

ENGAGEMENTS See list_

* American Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War War of 1812 Second Barbary War West Indies Anti-Piracy Operations Seminole Wars
Seminole Wars
African Anti-Slavery Operations Aegean Sea Anti-Piracy Operations First Sumatran expedition
First Sumatran expedition
United States
United States
exploration expedition Patriot War Second Sumatran expedition Capture of Monterey Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
Bombardment of Greytown Battle of Ty-ho Bay First Fiji expedition Filibuster War Second Opium War Second Fiji expedition Reform War Paraguay expedition American Civil War Bombardment of Qui Nhon
Bombardment of Qui Nhon
Shimonoseki Campaign Formosa expedition United States expedition to Korea Egyptian Expedition (1882) Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations Kingdom of Hawaii overthrowal Second Samoan Civil War Banana Wars

* Spanish–American War * Negro Rebellion * Occupation of Nicaragua * Occupation of Haiti * Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916)

Philippine–American War Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
World War I
World War I
Bombardment of Samsun World War II
World War II
Korean War 1958 Lebanon crisis
1958 Lebanon crisis
Vietnam War
Vietnam War
Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965) Iranian Hostage Rescue Multinational Force in Lebanon Invasion of Grenada Bombing of Libya (1986) Tanker War

* Earnest Will * Prime Chance * Eager Glacier * Nimble Archer * Praying Mantis

Invasion of Panama Gulf War
Gulf War
Iraqi no-fly zones Somali Civil War Bosnian War Kosovo War International Force for East Timor Operation Enduring Freedom

* Afghanistan (2001–2014) * Philippines * Horn of Africa * Pankisi Gorge * Trans Sahara * Caribbean and Central America

Iraq War
Iraq War
Operation Burnt Frost Operation Odyssey Dawn
Operation Odyssey Dawn
2014 Intervention against ISIL Operation Inherent Resolve War in Afghanistan (2015–present) 2017 Shayrat missile strike

DECORATIONS

Presidential Unit Citation

Navy
Navy
Unit Commendation

Meritorious Unit Commendation
Meritorious Unit Commendation

WEBSITE www.navy.mil

COMMANDERS

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF President Donald Trump
Donald Trump

SECRETARY OF DEFENSE James Mattis

SECRETARY OF THE NAVY Richard V. Spencer

CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS ADM John M. Richardson

VICE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS ADM William F. Moran

MASTER CHIEF PETTY OFFICER MCPON Steven S. Giordano

INSIGNIA

FLAG _

JACK

PENNANT

ROUNDEL

ANCHOR, CONSTITUTION_, AND EAGLE

The UNITED STATES NAVY (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States
United States
. The U.S. Navy
Navy
is the largest, most capable navy in the world, with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage . The U.S. Navy
Navy
has the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service , two in the reserve fleet , and two new carriers under construction. The service has 322,421 personnel on active duty and 107,577 in the Navy
Navy
Reserve . It has 276 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of June 2017 .

The U.S. Navy
Navy
traces its origins to the Continental Navy
Navy
, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers. It played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U.S. Navy
Navy
maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific , the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
, and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. It is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U.S. foreign and military policy.

The Navy
Navy
is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy
Navy
, which is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy
Navy
. The Department of the Navy
Navy
is itself a division of the Department of Defense , which is headed by the Secretary of Defense . The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is a four-star admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy.

CONTENTS

* 1 Mission

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 From re-establishment to the Civil War

* 2.3 20th century

* 2.3.1 World War I
World War I
and interwar years * 2.3.2 World War II
World War II
* 2.3.3 Cold War
Cold War

* 2.4 21st century

* 3 Organization

* 3.1 Operating forces * 3.2 Shore establishments

* 3.3 Relationships with other service branches

* 3.3.1 United States Marine Corps * 3.3.2 United States Coast Guard

* 4 Personnel

* 4.1 Uniforms

* 4.1.1 Commissioned officers * 4.1.2 Commissioned warrant officer ranks * 4.1.3 Enlisted
Enlisted
* 4.1.4 Badges of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy

* 5 Bases

* 5.1 Eastern United States
United States
* 5.2 Western United States
United States
and Hawaii * 5.3 United States
United States
territories * 5.4 Foreign countries

* 6 Equipment

* 6.1 Ships

* 6.1.1 Aircraft
Aircraft
carriers * 6.1.2 Amphibious warfare vessels * 6.1.3 Cruisers * 6.1.4 Destroyers
Destroyers
* 6.1.5 Frigates and Littoral combat ships * 6.1.6 Mine countermeasures
Mine countermeasures
ships * 6.1.7 Patrol boats * 6.1.8 Submarines

* 6.2 Aircraft
Aircraft
* 6.3 Weapons

* 7 Naval jack * 8 Notable sailors * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

MISSION

The mission of the Navy
Navy
is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. — Mission statement of the United States Navy
Navy

The U.S. Navy
Navy
is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States . The Navy's three primary areas of responsibility:

* The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. * The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, and all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy. * The development of aircraft , weapons, tactics, technique, organization, and equipment of naval combat and service elements.

U.S. Navy
Navy
training manuals state that the mission of the U.S. Armed Forces is "to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest. "As part of that establishment, the U.S. Navy's functions comprise sea control , power projection and nuclear deterrence , in addition to "sealift " duties.

HISTORY

Main article: History of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy

ORIGINS

It follows then as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, and with it, everything honorable and glorious. —  George Washington
George Washington

The Navy
Navy
was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors, captains, and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War , Massachusetts
Massachusetts
had its own Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Naval Militia . The establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress
Continental Congress
. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, and make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy
Navy
, then the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington
George Washington
resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS _Hannah_ to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships; this resolution created the Continental Navy
Navy
and is considered the first establishment of the U.S. Navy. The Continental Navy
Navy
achieved mixed results; it was successful in a number of engagements and raided many British merchant vessels, but it lost twenty-four of its vessels and at one point was reduced to two in active service. In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War drew to a close, Congress had sold _Alliance_ , the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy
Navy
due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy.

In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt , authorized the Navy
Navy
to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy
Navy
in 1775.

FROM RE-ESTABLISHMENT TO THE CIVIL WAR

_ USS Constellation_ vs _L\'Insurgente_ during the Quasi-War

The United States
United States
was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U.S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U.S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service (USRCS), the primary predecessor of the U.S. Coast Guard . Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794. The Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS _United States_ , USS _Constellation_ , and USS _Constitution_ . Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy
Navy
during this period, John Adams
John Adams
is "often called the father of the American Navy
Navy
". In 1798–99 the Navy
Navy
was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 1801 to 1805, in the First Barbary War , the U.S. Navy
Navy
defended U.S. ships from the Barbary pirates, blockaded the Barbary ports and executed attacks against the Barbary' fleets.

The U.S. Navy
Navy
saw substantial action in the War of 1812 , where it was victorious in eleven single-ship duels with the Royal Navy. It drove all significant British forces off Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and Lake Champlain and prevented them from becoming British-controlled zones. The result was a major defeat for the British invasion of New York state , and the defeat of the military threat from the Native American allies of the British. Despite this, the U.S. Navy
Navy
was unable to prevent the British from blockading its ports and landing troops. After the war, the U.S. Navy
Navy
again focused its attention on protecting American shipping assets, sending squadrons to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean where it participated in the Second Barbary War that ended piracy in the region, South America, Africa, and the Pacific. From 1819 to the outbreak of the Civil War, the Africa Squadron operated to suppress the slave trade , seizing 36 slave ships, although its contribution was smaller than that of the much larger British Royal Navy. _ USS Constitution_ vs HMS _Guerriere_ during the War of 1812

During the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
the U.S. Navy
Navy
blockaded Mexican ports, capturing or burning the Mexican fleet in the Gulf of California and capturing all major cities in Baja California peninsula. In 1846–1848 the Navy
Navy
successfully used the Pacific Squadron under Commodore Robert Stockton and its marines and blue-jackets to facilitate the capture of California with large scale land operations coordinated with the local militia organized in the California Battalion . The Navy
Navy
conducted the U.S. military's first large-scale amphibious joint operation by successfully landing 12,000 army troops with their equipment in one day at Veracruz, Mexico . When larger guns were needed to bombard Veracruz, Navy
Navy
volunteers landed large guns and manned them in the successful bombardment and capture of the city. This successful landing and capture of Veracruz opened the way for the capture of Mexico City and the end of the war. The U.S. Navy
Navy
established itself as a player in United States
United States
foreign policy through the actions of Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan, which resulted in the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.

Naval power played a significant role during the American Civil War , in which the Union had a distinct advantage over the Confederacy on the seas. A Union blockade on all major ports shut down exports and the coastal trade, but blockade runners (mostly owned and operated by British companies) provided a thin lifeline. The brown-water Navy\'s control of the river systems made internal travel difficult for Confederates and easy for the Union. The war saw ironclad warships in combat for the first time at the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, which pitted USS _Monitor_ against CSS _Virginia_ . For two decades after the war, however, the U.S. Navy's fleet was neglected and became technologically obsolete.

20TH CENTURY

The Great White Fleet demonstrates U.S. naval power in 1907; it was proof that the U.S. Navy
Navy
had blue-water capability .

Our ships are our natural bulwarks. —  Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson

A modernization program beginning in the 1880s when the first steel hulled warships stimulated the American steel industry, and "the new steel navy" was born. This rapid expansion of the U.S. Navy
Navy
and its easy victory over the Spanish Navy
Navy
in 1898 brought a new respect for American technical quality. Rapid building of at first pre-dreadnoughts, then dreadnoughts brought the U.S. in line with the navies of countries such as Britain and Germany
Germany
. In 1907, most of the Navy's battleships, with several support vessels, dubbed the Great White
White
Fleet , were showcased in a 14-month circumnavigation of the world. Ordered by President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
, it was a mission designed to demonstrate the Navy's capability to extend to the global theater. By 1911, the U.S. had begun building the super-dreadnoughts at a pace to eventually become competitive with Britain. _ Columbia , personification of the United States, wearing a warship bearing the words "World Power" as her "Easter bonnet" on the cover of Puck _, 6 April 1901.

World War I
World War I
And Interwar Years

The U.S. Navy
Navy
saw little action during World War I
World War I
. It concentrated on mine laying operations against German U-Boats. Hesitation by the senior command meant that naval forces were not contributed until late 1917. Battleship Division Nine was dispatched to Britain and served as the Sixth Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet. Its presence allowed the British to decommission some older ships and reuse the crews on smaller vessels. Destroyers
Destroyers
and U.S. Naval Air Force units contributed to the anti-submarine operations. The strength of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
grew under an ambitious ship building program associated with the Naval Act of 1916 .

Naval construction, especially of battleships was limited by the Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference
of 1921–22. The aircraft carriers USS _Saratoga_ (CV-3) and USS _Lexington_ (CV-2) were built on the hulls of partially built battle cruisers that had been canceled by the treaty. The New Deal used Public Works Administration funds to build warships, such as USS _Yorktown_ (CV-5) and USS _Enterprise_ (CV-6) . By 1936, with the completion of USS _Wasp_ (CV-7) , the U.S. Navy possessed a carrier fleet of 165,000 tonnes displacement , although this figure was nominally recorded as 135,000 tonnes to comply with treaty limitations. Franklin Roosevelt, the number two official in the Navy
Navy
Department during World War I, appreciated the Navy
Navy
and gave it strong support. In return, senior leaders were eager for innovation and experimented with new technologies, such as magnetic torpedoes, and developed a strategy called War Plan Orange for victory in the Pacific in a hypothetical war with Japan that would eventually become reality.

World War II

Main article: United States
United States
Navy
Navy
in World War II
World War II
_ The battleship USS Idaho_ shells Okinawa on 1 April 1945

The U.S. Navy
Navy
grew into a formidable force in the years prior to World War II
World War II
, with battleship production being restarted in 1937, commencing with USS _North Carolina_ (BB-55) . Though ultimately unsuccessful, Japan attempted to neutralize this strategic threat with the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
on 7 December 1941. Following American entry into the war, the U.S. Navy
Navy
grew tremendously as the United States
United States
was faced with a two-front war on the seas. It achieved notable acclaim in the Pacific Theater , where it was instrumental to the Allies' successful "island hopping " campaign. The U.S. Navy participated in many significant battles, including the Battle of the Coral Sea , the Battle of Midway , the Solomon Islands Campaign , the Battle of the Philippine Sea
Battle of the Philippine Sea
, the Battle of Leyte Gulf , and the Battle of Okinawa . By war's end in 1945, the U.S. Navy
Navy
had added hundreds of new ships, including 18 aircraft carriers and 8 battleships, and had over 70% of the world's total numbers and total tonnage of naval vessels of 1,000 tons or greater. At its peak, the U.S. Navy
Navy
was operating 6,768 ships on V-J Day in August 1945.

Doctrine had significantly shifted by the end of the war. The U.S. Navy
Navy
had followed in the footsteps of the navies of Great Britain and Germany
Germany
which favored concentrated groups of battleships as their main offensive naval weapons. The development of the aircraft carrier and its devastating utilization by the Japanese against the U.S. at Pearl Harbor, however, shifted U.S. thinking. The Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
attack destroyed or took out of action a significant number of U.S. Navy battleships. This placed much of the burden of retaliating against the Japanese on the small number of aircraft carriers.

Cold War

_ USS George Washington_ (SSBN-598) , a ballistic missile submarine

The potential for armed conflict with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during the Cold War
Cold War
pushed the U.S. Navy
Navy
to continue its technological advancement by developing new weapons systems, ships, and aircraft. U.S. naval strategy changed to that of forward deployment in support of U.S. allies with an emphasis on carrier battle groups.

The navy was a major participant in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
, blockaded Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis , and, through the use of ballistic missile submarines , became an important aspect of the United States' nuclear strategic deterrence policy. The U.S. Navy
Navy
conducted various combat operations in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
against Iran in 1987 and 1988, most notably Operation Praying Mantis . The Navy
Navy
was extensively involved in Operation Urgent Fury , Operation Desert Shield , Operation Desert Storm , Operation Deliberate Force
Operation Deliberate Force
, Operation Allied Force , Operation Desert Fox and Operation Southern Watch .

The U.S. Navy
Navy
has also been involved in search and rescue/search and salvage operations, sometimes in conjunction with vessels of other countries as well as with U.S. Coast Guard ships. Two examples are the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash incident and search for the nuclear bombs, and Task Force 71 of the Seventh Fleet operation in search for Korean Air Lines Flight 007 shot down by the Soviets on 1 September 1983.

21ST CENTURY

When a crisis confronts the nation, the first question often asked by policymakers is: 'What naval forces are available and how fast can they be on station?' — Admiral Carlisle A. H. Trost

The U.S. Navy
Navy
continues to be a major support to U.S. interests in the 21st century. Since the end of the Cold War
Cold War
, it has shifted its focus from preparations for large-scale war with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to special operations and strike missions in regional conflicts. The navy participated in Operation Enduring Freedom , Operation Iraqi Freedom , and is a major participant in the ongoing War on Terror , largely in this capacity. Development continues on new ships and weapons, including the _Gerald R. Ford_-class aircraft carrier and the Littoral combat ship . Because of its size, weapons technology, and ability to project force far from U.S. shores, the current U.S. Navy remains a potent asset for the United States. Moreover, it is the principal means through which the U.S. maintains international global order, namely by safeguarding global trade and protecting allied nations.

In 2007, the U.S. Navy
Navy
joined with the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. The strategy was presented by the Chief of Naval Operations , the Commandant of the Marine Corps , and Commandant of the Coast Guard at the International Sea Power Symposium in Newport, RI on 17 October 2007. The strategy recognized the economic links of the global system and how any disruption due to regional crises—man-made or natural—can adversely impact the U.S. economy and quality of life. This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent these crises from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to prevent negative impacts on the U.S.

In 2010, Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Gary Roughead, noted that demands on the Navy
Navy
have grown as the fleet has shrunk and that in the face of declining budgets in the future, the U.S. Navy
Navy
must rely even more on international partnerships.

In its 2013 budget request, the navy focused on retaining all eleven big deck carriers, at the expense of cutting numbers of smaller ships and delaying the SSBN replacement. By the next year the USN found itself unable to maintain eleven aircraft carriers in the face of the expiration of budget relief offered by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 and CNO Jonathan Greenert said that a ten ship carrier fleet would not be able to sustainably support military requirements. The British First Sea Lord George Zambellas said that the USN had switched from "outcome-led to resource-led" planning.

One significant change in U.S. policymaking that is having a major effect on naval planning is the Pivot to East Asia . In response this, Secretary of the Navy
Navy
Ray Mabus has stated that 60 percent of the total U.S. fleet will be deployed to the Pacific by the year 2020. The Navy's most recent 30-year shipbuilding plan, published in 2016, calls for a future fleet of 308 ships in order to meet the challenges of an increasingly competitive international environment.

*

U.S. Navy
Navy
officers aboard the aircraft carrier USS _Abraham Lincoln_ (CVN-72) monitor defense systems during early 2010s maritime security operations exercises. *

The USS _America_ Amphibious assault ship , launched in 2012. *

U.S. Navy
Navy
patrol boat near Kuwait Naval Base in 2009

ORGANIZATION

Main article: Structure of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
Simplified flowchart of U.S. Navy
Navy
command structure

The U.S. Navy
Navy
falls under the administration of the Department of the Navy
Navy
, under civilian leadership of the Secretary of the Navy
Navy
(SECNAV) . The most senior naval officer is the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) , a four-star admiral who is immediately under and reports to the Secretary of the Navy. At the same time, the Chief of Naval Operations is one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff , which is the second-highest deliberatory body of the armed forces after the United States
United States
National Security Council , although it only plays an advisory role to the President and does not nominally form part of the chain of command. The Secretary of the Navy
Navy
and Chief of Naval Operations are responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Navy
Navy
so that it is ready for operation under the command of the unified combat command commanders .

OPERATING FORCES

Main article: List of units of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy

There are nine components in the operating forces of the U.S. Navy: the United States Fleet Forces Command (formerly United States Atlantic Fleet), United States Pacific Fleet , United States
United States
Naval Forces Central Command , United States Naval Forces Europe , Naval Network Warfare Command , Navy
Navy
Reserve , United States
United States
Naval Special Warfare Command , Operational Test and Evaluation Force , and Military Sealift Command . Fleet Forces Command controls a number of unique capabilities, including Military Sealift Command, Naval Expeditionary Combat Command , and Navy
Navy
Cyber Forces .

The United States
United States
Navy
Navy
has six active numbered fleets – Third , Fifth , Sixth , Seventh Fleet and Tenth Fleets are each led by a vice admiral , and the Fourth Fleet is led by a rear admiral . These six fleets are further grouped under Fleet Forces Command (the former Atlantic Fleet), Pacific Fleet, Naval Forces Europe-Africa, and Naval Forces Central Command, whose commander also doubles as Commander Fifth Fleet; the first three commands being led by four-star admirals. The United States First Fleet existed after the Second World War from 1947, but it was redesignated the Third Fleet in early 1973. In early 2008, the navy reactivated the United States Fourth Fleet to control operations in the area controlled by Southern Command, which consists of US assets in and around Central and South America.

SHORE ESTABLISHMENTS

_ USS Kitty Hawk_ (CV-63) docks at the U.S. Navy
Navy
base in Yokosuka, Japan .

Shore establishments exist to support the mission of the fleet through the use of facilities on land. Among the commands of the shore establishment, as of April 2011 , are the Naval Education and Training Command , the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command , the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command , the Naval Facilities Engineering Command , the Naval Supply Systems Command , the Naval Air Systems Command , the Naval Sea Systems Command , the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery , the Bureau of Naval Personnel , the United States
United States
Naval Academy , the Naval Safety Center , the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center , and the United States Naval Observatory . Official Navy websites list the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the chief of naval operations as part of the shore establishment, but these two entities effectively sit superior to the other organizations, playing a coordinating role.

RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER SERVICE BRANCHES

United States
United States
Marine Corps

_ A Marine F/A-18 from VMFA-451 prepares to launch from USS Coral Sea_ (CV-43) Main article: United States Marine Corps

In 1834, the United States Marine Corps came under the Department of the Navy
Navy
. Historically, the Navy
Navy
has had a unique relationship with the USMC, partly because they both specialize in seaborne operations. Together the Navy
Navy
and Marine Corps form the Department of the Navy
Navy
and report to the Secretary of the Navy
Navy
. However, the Marine Corps is a distinct, separate service branch with its own uniformed service chief – the Commandant of the Marine Corps, a four-star general.

The Marine Corps depends on the Navy
Navy
for medical support (dentists , doctors , nurses , medical technicians known as corpsmen ) and religious support (chaplains ). Thus Navy
Navy
officers and enlisted sailors fulfill these roles. When attached to Marine Corps units deployed to an operational environment they generally wear Marine camouflage uniforms, but otherwise they wear Navy
Navy
dress uniforms unless they opt to conform to Marine Corps grooming standards.

In the operational environment, as an expeditionary force specializing in amphibious operations, Marines often embark on Navy ships to conduct operations from beyond territorial waters. Marine units deploying as part of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) operate under the command of the existing Marine chain of command. Although Marine units routinely operate from amphibious assault ships, the relationship has evolved over the years much as the Commander of the Carrier Air Group/Wing (CAG) does not work for the carrier commanding officer, but coordinates with the ship's CO and staff. Some Marine aviation squadrons, usually fixed-wing assigned to carrier air wings train and operate alongside Navy
Navy
squadrons; they fly similar missions and often fly sorties together under the cognizance of the CAG. Aviation is where the Navy
Navy
and Marines share the most common ground, since aircrews are guided in their use of aircraft by standard procedures outlined in series of publications known as NATOPS manuals.

United States
United States
Coast Guard

_ A U.S. Coast Guard helicopter prepares to land on the flight deck of the amphibious assault ship USS Wasp_ (LHD-1) . Main article: United States Coast Guard

The United States Coast Guard , in its peacetime role with the Department of Homeland Security , fulfills its law enforcement and rescue role in the maritime environment. It provides Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) to Navy
Navy
vessels, where they perform arrests and other law enforcement duties during naval boarding and interdiction missions. In times of war, the Coast Guard operates as a service in the Navy. At other times, Coast Guard port security units are sent overseas to guard the security of ports and other assets. The Coast Guard also jointly staffs the Navy's naval coastal warfare groups and squadrons (the latter of which were known as harbor defense commands until late-2004), which oversee defense efforts in foreign littoral combat and inshore areas.

PERSONNEL

Main article: Personnel of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
Navy
Navy
SEALs at one of the entrances Zhawar Kili
Zhawar Kili
cave complex.

The United States
United States
Navy
Navy
has nearly 500,000 personnel, approximately a quarter of whom are in ready reserve. Of those on active duty, more than eighty percent are enlisted sailors, and around fifteen percent are commissioned officers ; the rest are midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy and midshipmen of the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps at over 180 universities around the country and officer candidates at the Navy's Officer Candidate School .

Enlisted
Enlisted
sailors complete basic military training at boot camp and then are sent to complete training for their individual careers .

Sailors prove they have mastered skills and deserve responsibilities by completing Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS) tasks and examinations. Among the most important is the "warfare qualification", which denotes a journeyman level of capability in Surface Warfare, Aviation Warfare, Information Dominance Warfare, Naval Aircrew, Special
Special
Warfare, Seabee
Seabee
Warfare, Submarine
Submarine
Warfare or Expeditionary Warfare. Many qualifications are denoted on a sailor's uniform with U.S. Navy
Navy
badges and insignia .

UNIFORMS

See also: Uniforms of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy

The uniforms of the U.S. Navy
Navy
have evolved gradually since the first uniform regulations for officers were issued in 1802 on the formation of the Navy
Navy
Department. The predominant colors of U.S. Navy
Navy
uniforms are navy blue and white . U.S. Navy
Navy
uniforms were based on Royal Navy uniforms of the time, and have tended to follow that template.

Commissioned Officers

See also: United States
United States
Navy
Navy
officer rank insignia and Ranks and insignia of NATO navies officers

The commissioned officer ranks of the U.S. Navy
Navy
are divided into three categories: junior officers , senior officers , and flag officers . Junior officers are those officers in pay grades O-1 to O-4, while senior officers are those in pay grades O-5 and O-6, and flag officers are those in pay grades of O-7 and above.

Pay grade STUDENT OFFICER O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10 O-11 (SPECIAL)

US Navy (Edit )

Midshipman - Officer Candidate Ensign
Ensign
Lieutenant (junior grade) Lieutenant Lieutenant Commander Commander Captain Rear Admiral (lower half) Rear Admiral Vice Admiral Admiral Fleet Admiral

Abbrv. MIDN / OC ENS LTJG LT LCDR CDR CAPT RDML RADM VADM ADM FADM1

* 1 Rank in abeyance . Appointments no longer made to this rank in peacetime. * Note: Pin-on insignia for paygrades O-3, O-2, and O-1 shown above are incorrectly depicted as U.S. Army / U.S. Air Force insignia; the U.S. Naval Services (Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard) use insignia that do not have beveled edges and the O-3 insignia have the connecting links near the ends of the bars rather than towards the center. (See the illustration at Lieutenant rank insignia (Navy) for correct depiction of bars)

Commissioned Warrant Officer Ranks

PAY GRADE W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5

INSIGNIA

TITLE Chief Warrant Officer Two Chief Warrant Officer Three Chief Warrant Officer Four Chief Warrant Officer Five

ABBREVIATION CWO-2 CWO-3 CWO-4 CWO-5

Enlisted

See also: List of United States
United States
Navy
Navy
enlisted rates and Ranks and insignia of NATO navies enlisted

Sailors in pay grades E-1 through E-3 are considered to be in apprenticeships. They are divided into five definable groups, with colored group rate marks designating the group to which they belong: Seaman/Seawoman, Fireman, Airman, Constructionman, and Hospitalman. E-4 to E-6 are non-commissioned officers (NCOs), and are specifically called Petty Officers in the Navy. Petty Officers perform not only the duties of their specific career field but also serve as leaders to junior enlisted personnel. E-7 to E-9 are still considered Petty Officers, but are considered a separate community within the Navy. They have separate berthing and dining facilities (where feasible), wear separate uniforms, and perform separate duties.

After attaining the rate of Master Chief Petty Officer, a service member may choose to further his or her career by becoming a Command Master Chief Petty Officer (CMC). A CMC is considered to be the senior-most enlisted service member within a command, and is the special assistant to the Commanding Officer in all matters pertaining to the health, welfare, job satisfaction, morale, utilization, advancement and training of the command's enlisted personnel. CMCs can be Command level (within a single unit, such as a ship or shore station), Fleet level (squadrons consisting of multiple operational units, headed by a flag officer or commodore), or Force level (consisting of a separate community within the Navy, such as Subsurface, Air, Reserves).

CMC insignia are similar to the insignia for Master Chief, except that the rating symbol is replaced by an inverted five-point star, reflecting a change in their rating from their previous rating (i.e., MMCM) to CMDCM. The stars for Command Master Chief are silver, while stars for Fleet or Force Master Chief are gold. Additionally, CMCs wear a badge, worn on their left breast pocket, denoting their title (Command/Fleet/Force).

PAY GRADE E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9

US Navy (Edit ) _NO INSIGNIA_

Seaman Recruit Seaman Apprentice Seaman Petty Officer Third Class Petty Officer Second Class Petty Officer First Class Chief Petty Officer Senior Chief Petty Officer Master Chief Petty Officer Command Master Chief Petty Officer Fleet/ Force Master Chief Petty Officer Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy
Navy

Badges Of The United States
United States
Navy

See also: Badges of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy

INSIGNIA AND BADGES OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY are military "badges" issued by the United States
United States
Department of the Navy
Navy
to naval service members who achieve certain qualifications and accomplishments while serving on both active and reserve duty in the United States
United States
Navy. Most naval aviation insignia are also permitted for wear on uniforms of the United States Marine Corps .

As described in Chapter 5 of U.S. Navy
Navy
Uniform Regulations, "badges" are categorized as _breast insignia_ (usually worn immediately above and below ribbons) and _identification badges_ (usually worn at breast pocket level). Breast insignia are further divided between _command_ and _warfare and other qualification_.

Insignia come in the form of metal "pin-on devices" worn on formal uniforms and embroidered "tape strips" worn on work uniforms. For the purpose of this article, the general term "insignia" shall be used to describe both, as it is done in Navy
Navy
Uniform Regulations. The term "badge", although used ambiguously in other military branches and in informal speak to describe any pin, patch, or tab, is exclusive to _identification badges_ and authorized _marksmanship awards _ according to the language in Navy
Navy
Uniform Regulations, Chapter 5. Below are just a few of the many badges maintained by the Navy. The rest can be seen in the article cited at the top of this section:

*

Naval Aviator Badge *

Submarine
Submarine
Officer and Enlisted
Enlisted
*

Surface Warfare Officer Insignia

BASES

Main article: List of United States
United States
Navy
Navy
installations Map of Navy
Navy
bases in the United States
United States

The size, complexity, and international presence of the United States Navy
Navy
requires a large number of navy installations to support its operations. While the majority of bases are located inside the United States itself, the navy maintains a significant number of facilities abroad, either in U.S.-controlled territories or in foreign countries under a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA).

EASTERN UNITED STATES

The second largest concentration of installations is at Hampton Roads , Virginia
Virginia
, where the navy occupies over 36,000 acres (15,000 ha) of land. Located at Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
are Naval Station Norfolk , homeport of the Atlantic Fleet; Naval Air Station Oceana , a Master Jet Base ; Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek ; and Training Support Center Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
as well as a number of Navy
Navy
and commercial shipyards that service navy vessels. The Aegis Training and Readiness Center is located at the Naval Support Activity South Potomac in Dahlgren, Virginia
Virginia
. Maryland is home to NAS Patuxent River , which houses the Navy's Test Pilot School . Also located in Maryland is the United States Naval Academy , situated in Annapolis
Annapolis
. NS Newport in Newport, Rhode Island is home to many schools and tenant commands, including the Officer Candidate School , Naval Undersea Warfare Center , and more, and also maintains inactive ships.

There is also a naval base in Charleston, South Carolina. This is home to the Nuclear A-School, and the Nuclear Field Power school, and one of two nuclear 'Prototype' Schools. The state of Florida is the location of three major bases, NS Mayport , the Navy's fourth largest, in Jacksonville, Florida ; NAS Jacksonville , a Master Air Anti-submarine Warfare base; and NAS Pensacola ; home of the Naval Education and Training Command , the Naval Air Technical Training Center that provides specialty training for enlisted aviation personnel and is the primary flight training base for Navy
Navy
and Marine Corps Naval Flight Officers and enlisted Naval Aircrewmen . There is also NSA Panama City , Florida which is home to the Navy
Navy
Diving and Salvage Training Center.

The main U.S. Navy
Navy
submarine bases on the east coast are located in Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, Connecticut and NSB Kings Bay in Kings Bay, Georgia . The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard near Portsmouth, New Hampshire , which repairs naval submarines. NS Great Lakes , north of Chicago, Illinois is the home of the Navy's boot camp for enlisted sailors.

The Washington Navy
Navy
Yard in Washington, DC is the Navy's oldest shore establishment and serves as a ceremonial and administrative center for the U.S. Navy, home to the Chief of Naval Operations , and is headquarters for numerous commands.

WESTERN UNITED STATES AND HAWAII

Underwater Demolition Team members using the casting technique from a speeding boat. Combat Camera Underwater Photo Team – A US Navy
Navy
diver during underwater photography training off the coast of Guantanamo Bay.

The navy's largest complex is Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake , California, which covers 1.1 million acres (4,500 km2) of land, or approximately 1/3 of the United States
United States
Navy's total land holdings.

Naval Base San Diego
Naval Base San Diego
, California, is the main homeport of the Pacific Fleet (although its headquarters is located in Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
, Hawaii). NAS North Island is located on the north side of Coronado , and is home to Headquarters for Naval Air Forces and Naval Air Force Pacific, the bulk of the Pacific Fleet's helicopter squadrons, and part of the West Coast aircraft carrier fleet. NAB Coronado is located on the southern end of the Coronado Island and is home to the navy's west coast SEAL teams and special boat units. NAB Coronado is also home to the Naval Special Warfare Center , the primary training center for SEALs.

The other major collection of naval bases on the west coast is in Puget Sound , Washington . Among them, NS Everett is one of the newer bases and the navy states that it is its most modern facility.

NAS Fallon , Nevada serves as the primary training ground for navy strike aircrews, and is home to the Naval Strike Air Warfare Center . Master Jet Bases are also located at NAS Lemoore , California and NAS Whidbey Island , Washington, while the carrier-based airborne early warning aircraft community and major air test activities are located at NAS Point Mugu , California. The naval presence in Hawaii is centered on NS Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
, which hosts the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet and many of its subordinate commands.

UNITED STATES TERRITORIES

_ USS Carl Vinson_ (CVN-70) pier side in Apra Harbor , Guam
Guam
.

Guam
Guam
, an island strategically located in the Western Pacific Ocean, maintains a sizable U.S. Navy
Navy
presence, including NB Guam
Guam
. The westernmost U.S. territory, it contains a natural deep water harbor capable of harboring aircraft carriers in emergencies. Its naval air station was deactivated in 1995 and its flight activities transferred to nearby Andersen Air Force Base .

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
in the Caribbean formerly housed NS Roosevelt Roads , which was shut down in 2004 shortly after the controversial closure of the live ordnance training area on nearby Vieques Island .

FOREIGN COUNTRIES

The largest overseas base is the United States
United States
Fleet Activities Yokosuka , Japan, which serves as the home port for the navy's largest forward-deployed fleet and is a significant base of operations in the Western Pacific.

European operations revolve around facilities in Italy (NAS Sigonella and Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station Naples ) with NSA Naples as the homeport for the Sixth Fleet and Command Naval Region Europe, Africa, Southwest Asia (CNREURAFSWA), and additional facilities in nearby Gaeta
Gaeta
. There is also NS Rota in Spain
Spain
and NSA Souda Bay in Greece
Greece
.

In the Middle East, naval facilities are located almost exclusively in countries bordering the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
, with NSA Bahrain serving as the headquarters of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command
U.S. Naval Forces Central Command
and U.S. Fifth Fleet .

NS Guantanamo Bay in Cuba is the oldest overseas facility and has become known in recent years as the location of a detention camp for suspected al-Qaeda operatives.

EQUIPMENT

Main article: Equipment of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy

As of 2013 , the navy operates over 280 ships, 3,650+ aircraft, 50,000 non-combat vehicles and owns 75,200 buildings on 3,300,000 acres (13,000 km2). In addition, the Navy
Navy
has more than one hundred vessels operated by the Military Sealift Command (MSC) crewed by a combination of civilian contractors and a small number of uniformed Naval personnel.

SHIPS

Main articles: List of United States
United States
Navy
Navy
ships and List of current ships of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
See also: List of currently active United States
United States
military watercraft , United States
United States
Navy
Navy
ships , and United States
United States
ship naming conventions

The names of commissioned ships of the U.S. Navy
Navy
are prefixed with the letters "USS", designating " United States
United States
Ship". Non-commissioned, civilian-manned vessels of the navy have names that begin with "USNS", standing for " United States
United States
Naval Ship" The names of ships are officially selected by the secretary of the navy, often to honor important people or places. Additionally, each ship is given a letter-based hull classification symbol (for example, CVN or DDG) to indicate the vessel's type and number. All ships in the navy inventory are placed in the Naval Vessel Register , which is part of "the Navy List" (required by article 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea). The register tracks data such as the current status of a ship, the date of its commissioning, and the date of its decommissioning. Vessels that are removed from the register prior to disposal are said to be _stricken_ from the register. The navy also maintains a reserve fleet of inactive vessels that are maintained for reactivation in times of need.

The U.S. Navy
Navy
was one of the first to install nuclear reactors aboard naval vessels; today, nuclear energy powers all active U.S. aircraft carriers and submarines . In the case of the _Nimitz_-class carrier, two naval reactors give the ship almost unlimited range and provide enough electrical energy to power a city of 100,000 people. The U.S. Navy
Navy
previously operated nuclear-powered cruisers, but all have been decommissioned.

The U.S. Navy
Navy
had identified a need for 313 combat ships in early 2010s, but under its plans at the time could only afford 232 to 243. In March 2014, the Navy
Navy
started counting self-deployable support ships such as minesweepers, surveillance craft, and tugs in the "battle fleet" in order to reach a count of 272 as of October 2016, and it includes ships that have been put in "shrink wrap".

Aircraft
Aircraft
Carriers

_ USS Nimitz_ (CVN-68) , a _Nimitz_-class aircraft carrier . Main article: List of aircraft carriers of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy

An aircraft carrier is typically deployed along with a host of additional vessels, forming a carrier strike group . The supporting ships, which usually include three or four Aegis -equipped cruisers and destroyers, a frigate, and two attack submarines, are tasked with protecting the carrier from air, missile, sea, and undersea threats as well as providing additional strike capabilities themselves. Ready logistics support for the group is provided by a combined ammunition, oiler, and supply ship. Modern carriers are named after American admirals and politicians, usually presidents.

The Navy
Navy
has a statutory requirement for a minimum of 11 aircraft carriers. Currently there are 10 that are deployable and one, the USS _Gerald R. Ford_ (CVN-78) , is currently undergoing extensive systems and technologies testing until around 2021.

Amphibious Warfare Vessels

_ USS Bataan_ (LHD-5) , a _Wasp_-class amphibious assault ship . _ USS San Antonio_ (LPD-17) , a _San Antonio_-class amphibious transport dock . Main article: List of United States
United States
Navy
Navy
amphibious warfare ships

Amphibious assault ships are the centerpieces of US amphibious warfare and fulfill the same power projection role as aircraft carriers except that their striking force centers on land forces instead of aircraft. They deliver, command, coordinate, and fully support all elements of a 2,200-strong Marine Expeditionary Unit
Marine Expeditionary Unit
in an amphibious assault using both air and amphibious vehicles. Resembling small aircraft carriers, amphibious assault ships are capable of V/STOL , STOVL , VTOL
VTOL
, tiltrotor, and rotary wing aircraft operations. They also contain a well deck to support the use of Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) and other amphibious assault watercraft. Recently, amphibious assault ships have begun to be deployed as the core of an expeditionary strike group , which usually consists of an additional amphibious transport dock and dock landing ship for amphibious warfare and an Aegis-equipped cruiser and destroyer, frigate, and attack submarine for group defense. Amphibious assault ships are typically named after World War II
World War II
aircraft carriers.

Amphibious transport docks are warships that embark, transport, and land Marines, supplies, and equipment in a supporting role during amphibious warfare missions. With a landing platform, amphibious transport docks also have the capability to serve as secondary aviation support for an expeditionary group. All amphibious transport docks can operate helicopters, LCACs, and other conventional amphibious vehicles while the newer _San Antonio_ class of ships has been explicitly designed to operate all three elements of the Marines' "mobility triad": Expeditionary Fighting Vehicles (EFVs), the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft, and LCACs. Amphibious transport docks are named after U.S. cities, with the exception of the USS _John P. Murtha_ (LPD-26) , named after a former Congressman and USMC Officer and USS _Mesa Verde_ (LPD-19) , named for Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado
Colorado
.

The dock landing ship is a medium amphibious transport that is designed specifically to support and operate LCACs, though it is able to operate other amphibious assault vehicles in the United States inventory as well. Dock landing ships are normally deployed as a component of an expeditionary strike group's amphibious assault contingent, operating as a secondary launch platform for LCACs. All dock landing ships are named after cities or important places in U.S. and U.S. Naval history.

Cruisers

Main article: List of cruisers of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
_ USS Port Royal_ (CG-73) , a _Ticonderoga_-class cruiser .

Cruisers are large surface combat vessels that conduct anti-air/anti-missile warfare, surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, and strike operations independently or as members of a larger task force. Modern guided missile cruisers were developed out of a need to counter the anti-ship missile threat facing the United States Navy. This led to the development of the AN/SPY-1 phased array radar and the Standard missile with the Aegis combat system coordinating the two. _Ticonderoga_-class cruisers were the first to be equipped with Aegis and were put to use primarily as anti-air and anti-missile defense in a battle force protection role. Later developments of vertical launch systems and the Tomahawk missile gave cruisers additional long-range land and sea strike capability, making them capable of both offensive and defensive battle operations. The _Ticonderoga_ class is the only active class of cruiser. All cruisers in this class are named after battles.

Destroyers

Main article: List of destroyers of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
_ USS Zumwalt_ (DDG-1000) , a _Zumwalt_ -class stealth guided missile destroyer .

Destroyers
Destroyers
are multi-mission medium surface ships capable of sustained performance in anti-air, anti-submarine, anti-ship, and offensive strike operations. Like cruisers, guided missile destroyers are primarily focused on surface strikes using Tomahawk missiles and fleet defense through Aegis and the Standard missile. Destroyers additionally specialize in anti-submarine warfare and are equipped with VLA rockets and LAMPS Mk III Sea Hawk helicopters to deal with underwater threats. When deployed with a carrier strike group or expeditionary strike group, destroyers and their fellow Aegis-equipped cruisers are primarily tasked with defending the fleet while providing secondary strike capabilities. With very few exceptions, destroyers are named after U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard heroes.

Frigates And Littoral Combat Ships

Main article: List of frigates of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
See also: Littoral combat ship _ USS Independence_ (LCS-2) , a Littoral combat ship . _ USS Freedom_ (LCS-1) underway in special naval camouflage .

Modern U.S. frigates mainly perform anti-submarine warfare for carrier and expeditionary strike groups and provide armed escort for supply convoys and merchant shipping. They are designed to protect friendly ships against hostile submarines in low to medium threat environments, using torpedoes and LAMPS helicopters. Independently, frigates are able to conduct counterdrug missions and other maritime interception operations. As in the case of destroyers, frigates are named after U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard heroes. As of autumn 2015, the U.S. Navy
Navy
has retired its most recent class of frigates, and expects that by 2020 the Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) will assume many of the duties the frigate had with the fleet. The LCS is a class of relatively small surface vessels intended for operations in the littoral zone (close to shore). It was "envisioned to be a networked, agile, stealthy surface combatant capable of defeating anti-access and asymmetric threats in the littorals". They have the capabilities of a small assault transport, including a flight deck and hangar for housing two helicopters, a stern ramp for operating small boats, and the cargo volume and payload to deliver a small assault force with fighting vehicles to a roll-on/roll-off port facility. The ship is easy to reconfigure for different roles, including anti-submarine warfare , mine countermeasures , anti-surface warfare , intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, homeland defense, maritime intercept, special operations, and logistics, all by swapping mission-specific modules as needed. The LCS program is still relatively new as of 2015 with only a few active ships, but the navy has announced plans for up to 32 ships. (See: List of littoral combat ships ) The navy has announced that a further 20 vessels to be built after that will be redesignated as 'frigates'.

* In addition, USS _Constitution_ , commissioned in 1797 and one of the original six frigates of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
, remains in commission at the Charlestown Navy
Navy
Yard in Boston. She serves as a tribute to the heritage of the Navy, and occasionally sails for commemorative events such as Independence Day and various victories during the War of 1812 . _Constitution_ is currently the oldest commissioned warship afloat. HMS _Victory_ is older, and in commission, but is in permanent drydock.

Mine Countermeasures Ships

Main article: List of mine warfare vessels of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
_ USS Warrior_ (MCM-10) in port

Mine countermeasures
Mine countermeasures
vessels are a combination of minehunters , a naval vessel that actively detects and destroys individual naval mines , and minesweepers , which clear mined areas as a whole, without prior detection of the mines. The navy has approximately a dozen of these in active service, but the mine countermeasure (MCM) role is also being assumed by the incoming classes of littoral combat ships. MCM vessels have mostly legacy names of previous US Navy
Navy
ships, especially WWII-era minesweepers.

Patrol Boats

Main article: List of patrol vessels of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
_ USS Typhoon_ (PC-5) departing Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek in Virginia
Virginia
.

A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defense duties. There have been many designs for patrol boats, though the navy currently only has a single class. They may be operated by a nation's navy or coast guard, and may be intended for marine ("blue water ") and/or estuarine or river ("brown water ") environments. The Navy
Navy
has approximately a dozen in active service, which are mainly used in the littoral regions of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
, but have also been used for home port patrols and drug interdiction missions. The navy's current class of patrol boats have names based on weather phenomena.

Submarines

Main article: Submarines in the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
_ USS Kentucky_ (SSBN-737) , an _Ohio_-class ballistic missile submarine . _ USS Virginia_ (SSN-774) , a _Virginia_ -class attack submarine .

All current and planned U.S. Navy
Navy
submarines are nuclear-powered, as only nuclear propulsion allows for the combination of stealth and long duration, high-speed sustained underwater movement that makes modern nuclear submarines so vital to a modern blue-water navy. The U.S. Navy operates three types: ballistic missile submarines , guided missile submarines , and attack submarines . U.S. Navy
Navy
(nuclear) ballistic missile submarines carry the stealthiest leg of the U.S. strategic triad (the other legs are the land-based U.S. strategic missile force and the air-based U.S. strategic bomber force). These submarines have only one mission: to carry and, if called upon, to launch the Trident nuclear missile . The primary missions of attack and guided missile submarines in the U.S. Navy
Navy
are peacetime engagement, surveillance and intelligence, special operations, precision strikes, and control of the seas. To these, attack submarines also add the battlegroup operations mission. Attack and guided missile submarines have several tactical missions, including sinking ships and other subs, launching cruise missiles , gathering intelligence, and assisting in special operations.

As with other classes of naval vessels, most U.S. submarines (or "boats") are named according to specific conventions. The boats of the current U.S. ballistic missile submarine class, _Ohio_-class , are named after U.S. states. As the four current U.S. guided missile submarines are converted _Ohio_-class boats, they have retained their U.S. state names. The members of the oldest currently-commissioned attack submarine class, the _Los Angeles_ class , are typically named for cities. The follow-on _Seawolf_-class ' three submarines—_Seawolf_, _Connecticut_ and _Jimmy Carter_—share no consistent naming scheme. With the current _Virginia_-class class attack submarines, the U.S. Navy
Navy
has extended the _Ohio_ class' state-based naming scheme to these submarines. Attack submarines prior to the _Los Angeles_ class were named for denizens of the deep, while pre-_Ohio_-class ballistic missile submarines were named for famous Americans and foreigners with notable connections to the United States.

AIRCRAFT

Four Navy
Navy
F/A-18F Super Hornets . Main articles: List of United States
United States
naval aircraft and List of military aircraft of the United States
United States
(naval) See also: List of United States
United States
Navy
Navy
aircraft squadrons and List of active United States
United States
military aircraft

Carrier-based aircraft are able to strike air, sea, and land targets far from a carrier strike group while protecting friendly forces from enemy aircraft, ships, and submarines. In peacetime, aircraft's ability to project the threat of sustained attack from a mobile platform on the seas gives United States
United States
leaders significant diplomatic and crisis-management options. Aircraft
Aircraft
additionally provide logistics support to maintain the navy's readiness and, through helicopters, supply platforms with which to conduct search and rescue , special operations , anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and anti-surface warfare (ASuW).

The U.S. Navy
Navy
began to research the use of aircraft at sea in the 1910s, with Lieutenant Theodore G. "Spuds" Ellyson becoming the first naval aviator on 28 January 1911, and commissioned its first aircraft carrier, USS _Langley_ (CV-1) , in 1922. United States
United States
naval aviation fully came of age in World War II, when it became clear following the Attack on Pearl Harbor , the Battle of the Coral Sea
Battle of the Coral Sea
, and the Battle of Midway that aircraft carriers and the planes that they carried had replaced the battleship as the greatest weapon on the seas. Leading navy aircraft in World War II
World War II
included the Grumman F4F Wildcat , the Grumman F6F Hellcat
Grumman F6F Hellcat
, the Chance Vought F4U Corsair
Vought F4U Corsair
, the Douglas SBD Dauntless , and the Grumman TBF Avenger
Grumman TBF Avenger
. Navy
Navy
aircraft also played a significant role in conflicts during the following Cold War
Cold War
years, with the F-4 Phantom II and the F-14 Tomcat becoming military icons of the era. The navy's current primary fighter and attack airplanes are the multi-mission F/A-18C/D Hornet and its newer cousin, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet . The F-35 Lightning II is presently under development and was scheduled to replace the C and D versions of the Hornet beginning in 2012. Initial operational capability of the F-35C is now expected to be February 2019. The Navy
Navy
is also looking to eventually replace its F/A-18E/F Super Hornets with the F/A-XX program.

The Aircraft
Aircraft
Investment Plan sees naval aviation growing from 30 percent of current aviation forces to half of all procurement funding over the next three decades.

WEAPONS

Main article: List of United States
United States
Navy
Navy
weapons

Current U.S. Navy
Navy
shipboard weapons systems are almost entirely focused on missiles, both as a weapon and as a threat. In an offensive role, missiles are intended to strike targets at long distances with accuracy and precision. Because they are unmanned weapons, missiles allow for attacks on heavily defended targets without risk to human pilots. Land strikes are the domain of the BGM-109 Tomahawk , which was first deployed in the 1980s and is continually being updated to increase its capabilities. For anti-ship strikes, the navy's dedicated missile is the Harpoon Missile . To defend against enemy missile attack, the navy operates a number of systems that are all coordinated by the Aegis combat system. Medium-long range defense is provided by the Standard Missile 2 , which has been deployed since the 1980s. The Standard missile doubles as the primary shipboard anti-aircraft weapon and is undergoing development for use in theater ballistic missile defense. Short range defense against missiles is provided by the Phalanx CIWS and the more recently developed RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile . In addition to missiles, the navy employs Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes and various types of naval mines. Aviation Ordnancemen loading GBU-12 bombs in 2005.

Naval fixed-wing aircraft employ much of the same weapons as the United States
United States
Air Force for both air-to-air and air-to-surface combat. Air engagements are handled by the heat-seeking Sidewinder and the radar guided AMRAAM missiles along with the M61 Vulcan cannon for close range dogfighting. For surface strikes, navy aircraft utilize a combination of missiles, smart bombs, and dumb bombs. On the list of available missiles are the Maverick , SLAM-ER and JSOW . Smart bombs include the GPS-guided JDAM and the laser-guided Paveway series. Unguided munitions such as dumb bombs and cluster bombs make up the rest of the weapons deployed by fixed-wing aircraft.

Rotary aircraft weapons are focused on anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and light to medium surface engagements. To combat submarines, helicopters use Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes. Against small watercraft, they utilize Hellfire and Penguin air to surface missiles. Helicopters also employ various types of mounted anti-personnel machine guns, including the M60 , M240 , GAU-16/A , and GAU-17/A .

Nuclear weapons in the U.S. Navy
Navy
arsenal are deployed through ballistic missile submarines and aircraft. The _Ohio_-class submarine carries the latest iteration of the Trident missile , a three-stage, submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) with MIRV capability; the current Trident II (D5) version is expected to be in service past 2020. The navy's other nuclear weapon is the air-deployed B61 nuclear bomb . The B61 is a thermonuclear device that can be dropped by strike aircraft such as the F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet at high speed from a large range of altitudes. It can be released through free-fall or parachute and can be set to detonate in the air or on the ground.

NAVAL JACK

U.S. Naval Jack Former U.S. Naval Jack

The current naval jack of the United States
United States
is the First Navy
Navy
Jack , traditionally regarded as having been used during the American Revolutionary War. On 31 May 2002, Secretary of the Navy
Navy
Gordon R. England directed all U.S. naval ships to fly the First Navy
Navy
Jack for the duration of the " War on Terror ". Many ships chose to shift colors later that year on the first anniversary of the September 11, 2001 attacks . The previous naval jack was a blue field with 50 white stars, identical to the canton of the ensign (the flag of the United States ) both in appearance and size, and remains in use with vessels of the U.S. Coast Guard and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . A jack of similar design was used in 1794, though with 13 stars arranged in a 3–2–3–2–3 pattern. When a ship is moored or anchored, the jack is flown from the bow of the ship while the ensign is flown from the stern . When underway, the ensign is raised on the mainmast. The First Naval Jack, however, has always been flown on the oldest ship in the active American fleet, which is currently USS _Blue Ridge_ (LCC-19) .

NOTABLE SAILORS

Main article: List of United States
United States
Navy
Navy
people

Many past and present United States
United States
historical figures have served in the navy. Notable officers include John Paul Jones , John Barry (Continental Navy
Navy
officer and first flag officer of the United States Navy), Edward Preble , James Lawrence (whose last words "don't give up the ship" are memorialized in Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy ), Stephen Decatur, Jr. , David Farragut , David Dixon Porter , Oliver Hazard Perry , Commodore Matthew Perry (whose Black Ships forced the opening of Japan ), George Dewey (the only person in the history of the United States
United States
to have attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy), and the officers who attained the rank of Fleet Admiral during World War II: William D. Leahy , Ernest J. King , Chester W. Nimitz , and William F. Halsey, Jr. .

The first American president who served in the navy was John F. Kennedy (who commanded the famous _PT-109 _). Others included Lyndon B. Johnson , Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
, Gerald Ford , Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
, and George H. W. Bush . Both Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
and Franklin D. Roosevelt were the assistant secretary of the navy prior to their presidencies. Many members of Congress served in the navy, notably U.S. Senators Bob Kerrey , John McCain
John McCain
, and John Kerry
John Kerry
. Other notable former members of the U.S. Navy
Navy
include astronauts, entertainers, authors and professional athletes.

SEE ALSO

* Military of the United States portal * United States
United States
Navy
Navy
portal

* Disestablished commands of the United States
United States
Navy
Navy
* Ohio Replacement Submarine
Submarine
* Spearhead-class expeditionary fast transport * Bibliography of early American naval history
Bibliography of early American naval history
* Modern United States
United States
Navy
Navy
carrier air operations * Naval militia * Women in the United States
United States
Navy
Navy

REFERENCES

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