The UNITED STATES INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY (IC) is a federation of 16
Among their varied responsibilities, the members of the Community
collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to
military planning , and perform espionage . The IC was established by
Executive Order 12333
* 1 Etymology * 2 History
* 3 Organization
* 3.1 Members * 3.2 Programs * 3.3 Organizational structure and leadership * 3.4 Interagency cooperation * 3.5 Budget * 3.6 Oversight
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
The term "Intelligence Community" was first used during Lt. Gen. Walter Bedell Smith 's tenure as Director of Central Intelligence (1950–1953).
Intelligence is information that agencies collect, analyze, and distribute in response to government leaders' questions and requirements. Intelligence is a broad term that entails:
Collection, analysis, and production of sensitive information to support national security leaders, including policymakers, military commanders, and Members of Congress. Safeguarding these processes and this information through counterintelligence activities. Execution of covert operations approved by the President. The IC strives to provide valuable insight on important issues by gathering raw intelligence, analyzing that data in context, and producing timely and relevant products for customers at all levels of national security—from the war-fighter on the ground to the President in Washington.
Executive Order 12333
* Collection of information needed by the President, the National
Security Council , the Secretary of State , the Secretary of Defense ,
and other executive branch officials for the performance of their
duties and responsibilities;
* Production and dissemination of intelligence;
* Collection of information concerning, and the conduct of
activities to protect against, intelligence activities directed
against the U.S., international terrorist and/or narcotics activities,
and other hostile activities directed against the U.S. by foreign
powers, organizations, persons and their agents;
The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), whose statutory leadership is exercised through the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). The 16 members of the IC are: The official seals of U.S. Intelligence Community members.
AGENCY PARENT AGENCY FEDERAL DEPARTMENT DATE EST.
Intelligence and Security Command
United States Army
Central Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency none Defense 1961
Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence none Energy 1977
Office of Intelligence and Analysis none Homeland Security 2007
Bureau of Intelligence and Research none State 1945
Intelligence Branch Federal Bureau of Investigation Justice 2005
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency none Defense 1996
National Reconnaissance Office none Defense 1961
The IC performs under two separate programs:
* The NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROGRAM (NIP), formerly known as the
NATIONAL FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE PROGRAM as defined by the National
Security Act of 1947 (as amended), "refers to all programs, projects,
and activities of the intelligence community, as well as any other
programs of the intelligence community designated jointly by the
Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and the head of a United
States department or agency or by the President. Such term does not
include programs, projects, or activities of the military departments
to acquire intelligence solely for the planning and conduct of
tactical military operations by
Since the definitions of the NIP and MIP overlap when they address military intelligence , assignment of intelligence activities to the NIP and MIP sometimes proves problematic.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND LEADERSHIP
The overall organization of the IC is primarily governed by the
National Security Act of 1947
Though the IC characterizes itself as a federation of its member elements, its overall structure is better characterized as a confederation due to its lack of a well-defined, unified leadership and governance structure. Prior to 2004, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was the head of the IC, in addition to being the director of the CIA. A major criticism of this arrangement was that the DCI had little or no actual authority over the budgetary authorities of the other IC agencies and therefore had limited influence over their operations.
Following the passage of IRTPA in 2004, the head of the IC is the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The DNI exerts leadership of the IC primarily through statutory authorities under which he or she:
* controls the "National Intelligence Program" budget; * establishes objectives, priorities, and guidance for the IC; and * manages and directs the tasking of, collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of national intelligence by elements of the IC.
However, the DNI has no authority to direct and control any element
of the IC except his own staff—the Office of the DNI—neither does
the DNI have the authority to hire or fire personnel in the IC except
those on his own staff. The member elements in the executive branch
are directed and controlled by their respective department heads, all
cabinet-level officials reporting to the President. By law, only the
Director of the
Central Intelligence Agency
In light of major intelligence failures in recent years that called
into question how well Intelligence Community ensures U.S. national
security, particularly those identified by the 9/11 Commission
(National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States), and
the "WMD Commission " (Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of
Previously, interagency cooperation and the flow of information among
the member agencies was hindered by policies that sought to limit the
pooling of information out of privacy and security concerns. Attempts
to modernize and facilitate interagency cooperation within the IC
include technological, structural, procedural, and cultural
dimensions. Examples include the
Data visualization of U.S. intelligence black budget (2013)
The U.S. intelligence budget (excluding the Military Intelligence Program) in fiscal year 2013 was appropriated as $52.7 billion, and reduced by the amount sequestered to $49.0 billion. In fiscal year 2012 it peaked at $53.9 billion, according to a disclosure required under a recent law implementing recommendations of the 9/11 Commission . The 2012 figure was up from $53.1 billion in 2010, $49.8 billion in 2009, $47.5 billion in 2008, $43.5 billion in 2007, and $40.9 billion in 2006.
About 70 percent of the intelligence budget went to contractors for the procurement of technology and services (including analysis), according to the May 2007 chart from the ODNI. Intelligence spending has increased by a third over ten years ago, in inflation -adjusted dollars, according to the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments .
In a statement on the release of new declassified figures, DNI Mike McConnell said there would be no additional disclosures of classified budget information beyond the overall spending figure because "such disclosures could harm national security". How the money is divided among the 16 intelligence agencies and what it is spent on is classified. It includes salaries for about 100,000 people, multibillion-dollar satellite programs , aircraft , weapons , electronic sensors, intelligence analysis , spies , computers , and software .
On August 29, 2013 the
Intelligence Community Oversight duties are distributed to both the
Executive and Legislative branches. Primary Executive oversight is
performed by the President\'s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board ,
the Joint Intelligence Community Council , the Office of the Inspector
General , and the
Office of Management and Budget . Primary
congressional oversight jurisdiction over the IC is assigned to two
committees : the
Australian Intelligence Community
* ^ Agrawal, Nina. "There\'s more than the CIA and FBI: The 17 agencies that make up the U.S. intelligence community". latimes.com. Retrieved 2017-01-30. * ^ "Executive Order 12333". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2013-01-23. * ^ Dana Priest & William M Arkin (19 July 2010). "A hidden world, growing beyond control". The Washington Post. * ^ Priest, Dana (2011). Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State. Little, Brown and Company. p. 320. ISBN 0-316-18221-4 . * ^ Michael Warner; Kenneth McDonald. "US Intelligence Community Reform Studies Since 1947" (PDF). CIA. p. 4. Retrieved 28 June 2013. * ^ Rosenbach, Eric ">(PDF). Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
Executive Order 12333