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The United States Department of the Interior
United States Department of the Interior
(DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service.[3] The Department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, who is a member of the Cabinet of the President. The current Secretary is Ryan Zinke. The Inspector General position is currently vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General.[4][5] Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the interior ministries of other nations, which are usually responsible for police matters and internal security. In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security primarily and the Department of Justice secondarily. The Department of the Interior has often been humorously called "The Department of Everything Else" because of its broad range of responsibilities.[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Formation of the department 1.2 Early and later years of the department

2 American Indians 3 Operating units 4 Controversy 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] Formation of the department[edit] A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress
United States Congress
in 1789, but those duties were placed in the Department of State. The idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison
James Madison
to James Polk. The 1846–48 Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
gave the proposal new steam as the responsibilities of the federal government grew. Polk's Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a vocal champion of creating the new department.[citation needed] In 1849, Walker stated in his annual report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do. He noted that the General Land Office
General Land Office
had little to do with the Treasury and also highlighted the Indian Affairs office, part of the Department of War, and the Patent Office, part of the Department of State. Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be brought together in a new Department of the Interior.[citation needed] A bill authorizing its creation of the Department passed the House of Representatives on February 15, 1849, and spent just over two weeks in the Senate. The Department was established on March 3, 1849 (9 Stat. 395), the eve of President Zachary Taylor's inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the Department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill. The first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Early and later years of the department[edit] Many of the domestic concerns the Department originally dealt with were gradually transferred to other Departments. Other agencies became separate Departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, which later became the Department of Agriculture. However, land and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, and territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.[citation needed] As of mid-2004, the Department managed 507 million acres (2,050,000 km²) of surface land, or about one-fifth of the land in the United States. It manages 476 dams and 348 reservoirs through the Bureau of Reclamation, 410 national parks, monuments, seashore sites, etc. through the National Park Service, and 544 national wildlife refuges through the Fish and Wildlife Service. Energy projects on federally managed lands and offshore areas supply about 28% of the nation's energy production.[citation needed] American Indians[edit] Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
handles some federal relations with Native Americans, while others are handled by the Office of Special
Special
Trustee. The current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin. The Department has been the subject of disputes over proper accounting for Native American Trusts set up to track the income and distribution of monies that are generated by the Trust and specific Native American lands, which the government leases for fees to companies that extract oil, timber, minerals, and other resources. Several cases have sought an accounting of such funds from departments within the Interior and Treasury (such as the Minerals Management Service), in what has been a 15-year-old lawsuit. Some Native American nations have also sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US. In 2010 Congress passed the Claims Settlement Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-291), which provided $3.4 billion for the settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class-action trust case and four Native American water rights cases.[7]

The $3.4 billion will be placed in a still-to-be-selected bank and $1.4 billion will go to individuals, mostly in the form of checks ranging from $500 to $1,500. A small group, such as members of the Osage tribe who benefit from huge Oklahoma oil revenues, will get far more, based on a formula incorporating their 10 highest years of income between 1985 and 2009. As important, $2 billion will be used to buy trust land from Native American owners at fair market prices, with the government finally returning the land to tribes. Nobody can be forced to sell.[8]

Operating units[edit]

The hierarchy of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Assistant Secretary for Policy, Management, and Budget

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs

Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance Office of International Affairs Office of Native Hawaiian Relations Office of Restoration and Damage Assessment Office of Policy Analysis

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget, Finance, Performance and Acquisition

Office of Budget Office of Financial Management Office of Planning and Performance Management FBMS Program Management Office Office of Acquisition and Property Management Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Capital & Diversity

Office of Human Resources Office of Occupational Safety and Health Office of Strategic Employee and Organizational Development Office of Youth, Partnerships and Service Office of Civil Rights

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology, Information and Business Services

Office of Collaborative Action and Dispute Resolution Office of Valuation Services Interior Business Center Office of Hearings and Appeals Office of Facilities and Administrative Services Office of the Chief Information Officer

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Safety, Resource Protection and Emergency Services (DAS-PRE)

Office of Emergency Management (OEM) Office of Law Enforcement and Security (OLES) Office of Wildland Fire Office of Aviation Services (OAS) Interagency Borderland Coordinator

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources Revenue Management

Office of Natural Resources Revenue

Assistant Secretary for Fish, Wildlife, and Parks

National Park Service United States Fish and Wildlife Service

Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Management

Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) Office of Human Capital Management (OHCM) Office of Planning and Policy Analysis (OPPA) Office of Facilities, Environmental and Cultural Resources (OFECR)

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and Economic Development

Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) Office of Indian Gaming (OIG) Office of Self-Governance (OSG)

Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA)

Office of Indian Services (OIS) Office of Field Operations (OFO) Office of Justice Services (OJS) Office of Trust Services (OTS)

Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) Office of External Affairs

Office of Congressional and Legislative Affairs (OCLA) Office of Public Affairs (OPA)

Office of Federal Acknowledgment (OFA) Office of Regulatory Management (ORM)

Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management

Bureau of Land Management Office of Surface Mining Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement

Assistant Secretary for Water and Science

United States Geological Survey Bureau of Reclamation

Assistant Secretary for Insular Areas

Office of Insular Affairs

Solicitor

Office of the Solicitor (SOL)

Office of the Inspector General (OIG)

Office of General Counsel Assistant Inspector General for Investigations

Office of Investigations

Assistant Inspector General for Audits, Inspections, and Evaluations

Office of Audits, Inspections, and Evaluations

Assistant Inspector General for Management

Office of Management

Associate Inspector General for External Affairs Associate Inspector General for Whistleblower Protection Strategy Management Office Associate Inspector General for Communications

Chief Information Officer Special
Special
Trustee for American Indians Federal Executive Boards Interior Museum National Indian Gaming Commission
National Indian Gaming Commission
(NIGC)

Controversy[edit] Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall
Albert B. Fall
was implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal of 1921. He was convicted of bribery in 1929, and served one year in prison, for his part in the controversy. A major factor in the scandal was a transfer of certain oil leases from the jurisdiction of the Department of the Navy to that of the Department of the Interior, at Fall's behest. Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt—already facing criticism related to his alleged hostility to environmentalism and his support of the development and use of federal lands by foresting, ranching, and other commercial interests, and for banning The Beach Boys
The Beach Boys
from playing a 1983 Independence Day concert on the National Mall
National Mall
out of concerns of attracting "an undesirable element"—resigned abruptly after a September 21, 1983, speech in which he said about his staff: "I have a black, a woman, two Jews and a cripple. And we have talent."[9] Within weeks of making this statement, Watt submitted his resignation letter.[9][10] Under the Administration of President George W. Bush, the Interior Department's maintenance backlog climbed from $5 billion to $8.7 billion, despite Bush's campaign pledges to eliminate it completely. Of the agency under Bush's leadership, Interior Department Inspector General Earl Devaney has cited a "culture of fear" and of "ethical failure." Devaney has also said, "Simply stated, short of a crime, anything goes at the highest levels of the Department of Interior."[11] See also[edit]

Government of the United States portal

Environmental policy of the United States America's Great Outdoors Initiative Texas General Land Office

References[edit]

^ FY 2014 Interior Budget in Brief - Appendix O ^ FY 2014 Interior Budget in Brief - Appendix A ^ GAO, "Federal Land Management: Observations on a Possible Move of the Forest Service into the Department of the Interior", February 11, 2009 ^ "About the Inspector General". U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 16 July 2015.  ^ "Oversight: The Office of the Inspector General for the Department of the Interior". Committee on Natural Resources. Retrieved 16 July 2015.  ^ "History", National Park Service
National Park Service
web page. Retrieved 2010-05-20. ^ Curtis, Mary C., "Obama Hails Passage of Settlement for Native Americans, Black Farmers", The Huffington Post, 30 November 2010. Accessed 1 December 2011. ^ Warren, James, "A Victory for Native Americans?", The Atlantic, 7 June 2010. ^ a b 556. James G Watt, US Secretary of the Interior., "Simpson’s Contemporary Quotations" (1988) via bartleby.com and Wayback Machine. ^ RMOA - Document ^ "Bush legacy leaves uphill climb for U.S. parks", Los Angeles Times, January 25, 2009.

Further reading[edit]

Crimes Against Nature by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.
Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.
(2004) Utley, Robert M. and Barry Mackintosh; The Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History; Dept. of the Interior, Washington, D.C.; 1989

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Department of the Interior.

Official website Department of the Interior in the Federal Register The Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History Sex, Drug Use and Graft cited in Interior Department New York Times, September 10, 2008

v t e

Agencies under the United States Department of the Interior

Headquarters: Main Interior Building

Ryan Zinke, Secretary of the Interior David L. Bernhardt, Deputy Secretary of the Interior

Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement General Land Office Bureau of Reclamation Fish and Wildlife Service Geological Survey Office of Surface Mining Interior Business Center National Park Service Office of Insular Affairs

v t e

United States government agencies involved in environmental science

Environmental Protection Agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Change Research Program Smithsonian Institution National Science Foundation

Department of the Interior

National Park Service United States Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Bureau of Reclamation Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation, and Enforcement United States Geological Survey Office of Insular Affairs

Department of Commerce

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service National Ocean Service National Geodetic Survey National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research

Department of Energy

Office of Science Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy National Laboratories Office of Environmental Management

Department of Agriculture

Farm Service Agency Foreign Agricultural Service United States Forest Service Natural Resources Conservation Service National Water and Climate Center Rural Utilities Service Food and Nutrition Service Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Agricultural Research Service Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service

Department of Homeland Security

United States Coast Guard Directorate for Science and Technology

Department of Health and Human Services

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Department of Defense

Office of Naval Research Air Force Research Laboratory United States Army Research, Development and Engineering Command

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Federal executive departments of the United States of America

Executive Departments

Agriculture Commerce Defense Education Energy Health and Human Services Homeland Security Housing and Urban Development Interior Justice Labor State Transportation Treasury Veterans Affairs

Former

Air Force Army Commerce and Labor Health, Education, and Welfare Na

.