The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:

It also has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts:

Headquartered in San Francisco, California, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships. The court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, and Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals.

Panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, and cases from northern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel.

History and background

Ninth Circuit Court House in 1905
Year Jurisdiction Total population Pop. as % of nat'l pop. Number of active judgeships
1891 California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington 2,087,000 3.3% 2
1900 Territory of Hawaii added 2,798,000 3.7% 3
1912 Arizona added 7,415,000 6.7% 3
1940 11,881,000 9.0% 7
1960 Alaska and Guam added 22,607,000 12.6% 9
1980 Northern Mariana Islands added 37,170,000 16.4% 23
2000 54,575,000 19.3% 28
2007 60,400,000 19.9% 28
2009 61,403,307 19.72% 29

The large size of the current court is due to the fact that both the population of the western states and the geographic jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit have increased dramatically since the U.S. Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 1891.[1] The court was originally granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. As new states and territories were added to the federal judicial hierarchy in the twentieth century, many of those in the West were placed in the Ninth Circuit: the newly acquired Territory of Hawaii in 1900, Arizona upon its admission to the Union in 1912, the Territory of Alaska in 1948, Guam in 1951, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1977.

The Ninth Circuit also had jurisdiction over certain American interests in China, in that it had jurisdiction over appeals from the United States Court for China during the existence of that court from 1906 through 1943.[2][fn 1]

However, the Philippines were never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States.[3]

In 1979, the Ninth Circuit became the first federal judicial circuit to set up a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel as authorized by the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978.

The Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals, Pasadena, California

The cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. In a dissenting opinion in a rights of publicity case involving the Wheel of Fortune star Vanna White, Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski sardonically noted that "[f]or better or worse, we are the Court of Appeals for the Hollywood Circuit."[4] Judges from more remote parts of the circuit note the contrast between legal issues confronted by populous states such as California and those confronted by rural states such as Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.

Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld, who maintains his judicial chambers in Fairbanks, Alaska, wrote in a letter in 1998: "Much federal law is not national in scope....It is easy to make a mistake construing these laws when unfamiliar with them, as we often are, or not interpreting them regularly, as we never do."[5]


Allegations of liberalism

According to the most current count, the Ninth Circuit has among the highest percentage of sitting judges appointed by Democratic presidents. Republicans argue the court is biased because of its relatively high proportion of Democratic appointees.[6]

Rate of overturned decisions

From 1999 to 2008, of the 0.151% of Ninth Circuit Court rulings that were reviewed by the Supreme Court, 20% were affirmed, 19% were vacated, and 61% were reversed; the median reversal rate for all federal appellate courts was 68.29% for the same period.[7] From 2010 to 2015, of the cases it accepted to review, the Supreme Court reversed around 79 percent of the cases from the Ninth Circuit, ranking its reversal rate third among the circuits; the median reversal rate for all federal circuits for the same time period was around 70 percent.[8]

Some argue the court's high percentage of reversals is illusory, resulting from the circuit hearing more cases than the other circuits. This results in the Supreme Court reviewing a smaller proportion of its cases, letting stand the vast majority of its cases.[9][10]

Size of the court

Former Chief Judges Mary M. Schroeder and Procter Ralph Hug Jr.

Critics of the Ninth Circuit claim there are several adverse consequences of its large size.[11]

Chief among these is the Ninth Circuit's unique rules concerning the composition of an en banc court. In other circuits, en banc courts are composed of all active circuit judges, plus (depending on the rules of the particular court) any senior judges who took part in the original panel decision. By contrast, in the Ninth Circuit it is impractical for 29 or more judges to take part in a single oral argument and deliberate on a decision en masse. The court thus provides for a limited en banc review of a randomly selected 11 judge panel. This means that en banc reviews may not actually reflect the views of the majority of the court and indeed may not include any of the three judges involved in the decision being reviewed in the first place. The result, according to detractors, is a high risk of intracircuit conflicts of law where different groupings of judges end up delivering contradictory opinions. That is said to cause uncertainty in the district courts and within the bar. However, en banc review is a relatively rare occurrence in all circuits and Ninth Circuit rules provide for full en banc review in limited circumstances.[12]

All recently proposed splits would leave at least one circuit with 21 judges, only two fewer than the 23 that the Ninth Circuit had when the limited en banc procedure was first adopted. In other words, after a split at least one of the circuits would still be using limited en banc courts.[13]

In March 2007, Associate Justices Anthony Kennedy and Clarence Thomas testified before a House Appropriations subcommittee that the consensus among the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States was that the Ninth Circuit was too large and unwieldy and should be split.[14]

Congressional officials, legislative commissions, and interest groups have all submitted proposals to divide the Ninth Circuit such as:

  • Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Reorganization Act of 1993, H.R. 3654[15]
  • Final Report of the Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals[16]
  • Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals of Reorganization Act of 2003, S. 562
  • Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2003, H.R. 2723
  • Ninth Circuit Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2004, S. 878 (reintroduced as the Ninth Circuit Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2005, H.R. 211, and co-sponsored by House Majority Leader Tom DeLay)
  • Circuit Court of Appeals Restructuring and Modernization Act of 2005, S. 1845[17]
  • Circuit Court of Appeals Restructuring and Modernization Act of 2007, S. 525[18]

Current composition of the court

As of March 29, 2018, the judges on the court are:

# Title Judge Duty station Born Term of service Appointed by
Active Chief Senior
74 Chief Judge Sidney Runyan Thomas Billings, MT 1953 1996–present 2014–present Clinton
76 Circuit Judge Susan P. Graber Portland, OR 1949 1998–present Clinton
77 Circuit Judge M. Margaret McKeown San Diego, CA 1951 1998–present Clinton
78 Circuit Judge Kim McLane Wardlaw Pasadena, CA 1954 1998–present Clinton
79 Circuit Judge William A. Fletcher San Francisco, CA 1945 1998–present Clinton
81 Circuit Judge Ronald M. Gould Seattle, WA 1946 1999–present Clinton
82 Circuit Judge Richard A. Paez Pasadena, CA 1947 2000–present Clinton
83 Circuit Judge Marsha S. Berzon San Francisco, CA 1945 2000–present Clinton
85 Circuit Judge Johnnie B. Rawlinson Las Vegas, NV 1952 2000–present Clinton
87 Circuit Judge Jay Bybee Las Vegas, NV 1953 2003–present G.W. Bush
88 Circuit Judge Consuelo María Callahan Sacramento, CA 1950 2003–present G.W. Bush
89 Circuit Judge Carlos Bea San Francisco, CA 1934 2003–present G.W. Bush
90 Circuit Judge Milan Smith El Segundo, CA 1942 2006–present G.W. Bush
91 Circuit Judge Sandra Segal Ikuta Pasadena, CA 1954 2006–present G.W. Bush
92 Circuit Judge N. Randy Smith Pocatello, ID 1949 2007–present G.W. Bush
93 Circuit Judge Mary H. Murguia Phoenix, AZ 1960 2011–present Obama
94 Circuit Judge Morgan Christen Anchorage, AK 1961 2012–present Obama
95 Circuit Judge Jacqueline Nguyen Pasadena, CA 1965 2012–present Obama
96 Circuit Judge Paul J. Watford Pasadena, CA 1967 2012–present Obama
97 Circuit Judge Andrew D. Hurwitz Phoenix, AZ 1947 2012–present Obama
98 Circuit Judge John B. Owens San Diego, CA 1971 2014–present Obama
99 Circuit Judge Michelle Friedland San Jose, CA 1972 2014–present Obama
100 Circuit Judge vacant
101 Circuit Judge vacant
102 Circuit Judge vacant
103 Circuit Judge vacant
104 Circuit Judge vacant
105 Circuit Judge vacant
106 Circuit Judge vacant
38 Senior Circuit Judge Alfred Goodwin Pasadena, CA 1923 1971–1991 1988–1991 1991–present Nixon
39 Senior Circuit Judge J. Clifford Wallace San Diego, CA 1928 1972–1996 1991–1996 1996–present Nixon
46 Senior Circuit Judge Mary M. Schroeder Phoenix, AZ 1940 1979–2012 2000–2007 2012–present Carter
48 Senior Circuit Judge Joseph Jerome Farris Seattle, WA 1930 1979–1995 1995–present Carter
53 Senior Circuit Judge Dorothy Wright Nelson Pasadena, CA 1928 1979–1995 1995–present Carter
54 Senior Circuit Judge William Canby Phoenix, AZ 1931 1980–1996 1996–present Carter
65 Senior Circuit Judge Diarmuid O'Scannlain Portland, OR 1937 1986–2016 2016–present Reagan
66 Senior Circuit Judge Edward Leavy Portland, OR 1929 1987–1997 1997–present Reagan
67 Senior Circuit Judge Stephen S. Trott Boise, ID 1939 1988–2004 2005–present Reagan
68 Senior Circuit Judge Ferdinand Francis Fernandez Pasadena, CA 1937 1989–2002 2002–present G.H.W. Bush
71 Senior Circuit Judge Andrew Jay Kleinfeld Fairbanks, AK 1945 1991–2010 2010–present G.H.W. Bush
72 Senior Circuit Judge Michael Daly Hawkins Phoenix, AZ 1945 1994–2010 2010–present Clinton
73 Senior Circuit Judge A. Wallace Tashima Pasadena, CA 1934 1996–2004 2004–present Clinton
75 Senior Circuit Judge Barry G. Silverman Phoenix, AZ 1951 1998–2016 2016–present Clinton
80 Senior Circuit Judge Raymond C. Fisher Pasadena, CA 1939 1999–2013 2013–present Clinton
84 Senior Circuit Judge Richard C. Tallman Seattle, WA 1953 2000–2018 2018–present Clinton
86 Senior Circuit Judge Richard R. Clifton Honolulu, HI 1950 2002–2016 2016–present G.W. Bush

Vacancies and pending nominations

Seat Prior Judge's Duty Station Seat last held by Vacancy reason Date of vacancy Nominee Date of nomination
19 Woodland Hills, CA Harry Pregerson Senior Status December 11, 2015
13 Phoenix, AZ Barry G. Silverman October 11, 2016
10 Portland, OR Diarmuid O'Scannlain December 31, 2016 Ryan Bounds January 8, 2018
24 Honolulu, HI Richard R. Clifton Mark J. Bennett February 15, 2018
26 Pasadena, CA Alex Kozinski Retirement December 18, 2017
14 Seattle, WA Richard C. Tallman Senior Status March 3, 2018
23 Los Angeles, CA Stephen Reinhardt Death March 29, 2018
3 Pocatello, ID N. Randy Smith Senior Status August 11, 2018[19]

List of former judges

# Judge State Born–died Active service Chief Judge Senior status Appointed by Reason for
1 Sawyer, LorenzoLorenzo Sawyer CA 1820–1891 1891–1891 Grant, Grant[20] death
2 McKenna, JosephJoseph McKenna CA 1843–1926 1892–1897 Harrison, B.B. Harrison resignation
3 Gilbert, William BallWilliam Ball Gilbert OR 1847–1931 1892–1931 Harrison, B.B. Harrison death
4 Ross, Erskine MayoErskine Mayo Ross CA 1845–1928 1895–1925 1925–1928 Cleveland, Cleveland death
5 Morrow, William W.William W. Morrow CA 1843–1929 1897–1923 McKinley, McKinley resignation
Hunt, William HenryWilliam Henry Hunt MT 1857–1949 1911–1928 1928–1928 [21] resignation
6 Rudkin, Frank H.Frank H. Rudkin WA 1864–1931 1923–1931 Harding, Harding death
7 McCamant, WallaceWallace McCamant OR 1867–1944 1925[22]–1926 Coolidge, Coolidge recess appointment not confirmed by the United States Senate
8 Dietrich, Frank SigelFrank Sigel Dietrich ID 1863–1930 1927–1930 Coolidge, Coolidge death
9 Wilbur, Curtis D.Curtis D. Wilbur CA 1867–1954 1929–1945 1945–1954 Hoover, Hoover[23] death
10 Sawtelle, William HenryWilliam Henry Sawtelle AZ 1868–1934 1931–1934 Hoover, Hoover death
11 Garrecht, Francis ArthurFrancis Arthur Garrecht WA 1870–1948 1933–1948 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
12 Denman, WilliamWilliam Denman CA 1872–1959 1935–1957 1948–1957 1957–1959 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
13 Mathews, CliftonClifton Mathews AZ 1880–1962 1935–1953 1953–1962 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
14 Haney, Bert E.Bert E. Haney OR 1879–1943 1935–1943 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
15 Stephens Sr., Albert LeeAlbert Lee Stephens Sr. CA 1874–1965 1937–1961 1957–1959 1961–1965 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
16 Healy, WilliamWilliam Healy ID 1881–1962 1937–1958 1958–1962 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
17 Bone, HomerHomer Bone WA 1883–1970 1944–1956 1956–1970 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
18 Orr, William EdwinWilliam Edwin Orr NV 1881–1965 1945–1956 1956–1965 Truman, Truman death
19 Pope, Walter LyndonWalter Lyndon Pope MT 1889–1969 1949–1961 1959 1961–1969 Truman, Truman death
20 Lemmon, Dal MillingtonDal Millington Lemmon CA 1887–1958 1954–1958 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
21 Chambers, Richard HarveyRichard Harvey Chambers AZ 1906–1994 1954–1976 1959–1976 1976–1994 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
22 Fee, James AlgerJames Alger Fee OR 1888–1959 1954–1959 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
23 Barnes, StanleyStanley Barnes CA 1900–1990 1956–1970 1970–1990 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
24 Hamley, Frederick GeorgeFrederick George Hamley WA 1903–1975 1956–1971 1971–1975 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
25 Hamlin Jr., Oliver DevetaOliver Deveta Hamlin Jr. CA 1892–1973 1958–1963 1963–1973 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
26 Jertberg, Gilbert H.Gilbert H. Jertberg CA 1897–1973 1958–1967 1967–1973 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
27 Merrill, Charles MertonCharles Merton Merrill NV 1907–1996 1959–1974 1974–1996 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
28 Koelsch, Montgomery OliverMontgomery Oliver Koelsch ID 1912–1992 1959–1976 1976–1992 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
29 Browning, James R.James R. Browning CA 1918–2012 1961–2000 1976–1988 2000–2012 Kennedy, Kennedy death
30 Duniway, Benjamin C.Benjamin C. Duniway CA 1907–1986 1961–1976 1976–1986 Kennedy, Kennedy death
31 Ely Jr., Walter RaleighWalter Raleigh Ely Jr. CA 1913–1984 1964–1979 1979–1984 Johnson, L.L. Johnson death
32 Carter, James MarshallJames Marshall Carter CA 1904–1979 1967–1971 1971–1979 Johnson, L.L. Johnson death
33 Hufstedler, ShirleyShirley Hufstedler CA 1925–2016 1968–1979 Johnson, L.L. Johnson resignation
34 Wright, Eugene AllenEugene Allen Wright WA 1913–2002 1969–1983 1983–2002 Nixon, Nixon death
35 Kilkenny, JohnJohn Kilkenny OR 1901–1995 1969–1971 1971–1995 Nixon, Nixon death
36 Trask, Ozell MillerOzell Miller Trask AZ 1909–1984 1971–1984 Nixon, Nixon death
37 Choy, HerbertHerbert Choy HI 1916–2004 1971–1984 1984–2004 Nixon, Nixon death
40 Sneed III, Joseph TyreeJoseph Tyree Sneed III CA 1920–2008 1973–1987 1987–2008 Nixon, Nixon death
41 Kennedy, AnthonyAnthony Kennedy CA 1936–present 1975–1988 Ford, Ford elevated to Supreme Court
42 Anderson, J. BlaineJ. Blaine Anderson ID 1922–1988 1976–1988 Ford, Ford death
43 Hug Jr., Procter RalphProcter Ralph Hug Jr. NV 1931–present 1977–2002 1996–2000 2002–2017 Carter, Carter retirement
44 Tang, ThomasThomas Tang AZ 1922–1995 1977–1993 1993–1995 Carter, Carter death
45 Betty Binns Fletcher WA 1923–2012 1979–1998 1998–2012 Carter, Carter death
47 Otto Richard Skopil Jr. OR 1919–2012 1979–1986 1986–2012 Carter, Carter death
49 Arthur Lawrence Alarcon CA 1925–2015 1979–1992 1992–2015 Carter, Carter death
50 Harry Pregerson CA 1923–2017 1979–2015 2015–2017 Carter, Carter death
51 Warren J. Ferguson CA 1920–2008 1979–1986 1986–2008 Carter, Carter death
52 Poole, Cecil F.Cecil F. Poole CA 1914–1997 1979–1996 1996–1997 Carter, Carter death
55 Boochever, RobertRobert Boochever AK 1917–2011 1980–1986 1986–2011 Carter, Carter death
56 Norris, William AlbertWilliam Albert Norris CA 1927–2017 1980–1994 1994–1997 Carter, Carter retirement
57 Reinhardt, StephenStephen Reinhardt CA 1931–2018 1980–2018 Carter, Carter death
58 Beezer, Robert R.Robert R. Beezer WA 1928–2012 1984-1996 1996–2012 Reagan, Reagan death
59 Cynthia Holcomb Hall CA 1929–2011 1984–1997 1997–2011 Reagan, Reagan death
60 Wiggins, Charles E.Charles E. Wiggins CA 1927–2000 1984–1996 1996–2000 Reagan, Reagan death
61 Brunetti, Melvin T.Melvin T. Brunetti NV 1933–2009 1985–1999 1999–2009 Reagan, Reagan death
62 Kozinski, AlexAlex Kozinski CA 1950–present 1985–2017 2007–2014 Reagan, Reagan retirement
63 Noonan Jr., John T.John T. Noonan Jr. CA 1926–2017 1985–1996 1996–2017 Reagan, Reagan death
64 Thompson, David R.David R. Thompson CA 1930–2011 1985–1998 1998–2011 Reagan, Reagan death
69 Rymer, Pamela AnnPamela Ann Rymer CA 1941–2011 1989–2011 Bush, G.H.W.G.H.W. Bush death
70 Nelson, Thomas G.Thomas G. Nelson ID 1936–2011 1990–2003 2003–2011 Bush, G.H.W.G.H.W. Bush death

Chief judges

Chief Judge
Denman 1948–1957
Stephens, Sr. 1957–1959
Pope 1959–1959
Chambers 1959–1976
Browning 1976–1988
Goodwin 1988–1991
Wallace 1991–1996
Hug, Jr. 1996–2000
Schroeder 2000–2007
Kozinski 2007–2014
Thomas 2014–present

Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.

When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.

Succession of seats

The court has 29 seats for active judges, numbered in the order in which they were filled. Judges who retire into senior status remain on the bench but leave their seat vacant. That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president.

See also


  1. ^ The population of China is not included in the above chart for 1920 or 1940, since the Court for China lacked plenary jurisdiction over China's domestic population, then numbering about 430 million people; the court exercised only extraterritorial jurisdiction over the relatively small number of American citizens in China.


  1. ^ Frederick, David C. (1994). Rugged justice: the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and the American West, 1891-1941. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520083813. 
  2. ^ See, e.g., Republic of China v. Merchants' Fire Ass'n of N.Y., 49 F.2d 862 (9th Cir. 1931). As the court noted, this bizarre insurance claim dispute arose directly from the "perplexing" civil war during China's warlord era, in which various groups of military officers claimed to be the representatives of the Republic's legitimate government.
  3. ^ Kepner v. United States, 195 U.S. 100 (1904).
  4. ^ White v. Samsung Elec. Am., Inc., 989 F.2d 1512, 1521 (9th Cir. 1993) (Kozinski, J., dissenting).
  5. ^ Kleinfeld, Andrew J. (1998-05-22). Memo to the Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals. URL Retrieved June 21, 2005.
  6. ^ Bagley, Constance E.; Savage, Diane (2009). Managers and the Legal Environment: Strategies for the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. p. 64. ISBN 9780324582048. Retrieved August 4, 2012. 
  7. ^ Landslide, Volume 2, Number 3, January/February 2010 by the American Bar Association.
  8. ^ Carroll, Lauren (February 10, 2017). "No, the 9th Circuit isn't the 'most overturned court in the country,' as Hannity says". PolitiFact. 
  9. ^ Jerome Farris, The Ninth Circuit—Most Maligned Circuit in the Country Fact or Fiction? 58 Ohio St. L.J. 1465 (1997) (noting that, in 1996, the Supreme Court let stand 99.7 percent of the Ninth Circuit's cases).
  10. ^ Carol J. Williams (July 18, 2011). "U.S. Supreme Court again rejects most decisions by the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012. 
  11. ^ O'Scannlain, Diarmuid (October 2005). "Ten Reasons Why the Ninth Circuit Should Be Split" (PDF). Engage. 6 (2): 58–64. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2006. 
  12. ^ "Statement of Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski to the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts". U.S. House of Representatives. October 21, 2003. Archived from the original on September 26, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012. 
  13. ^ Schroeder, Mary M.; et al. (April 2006). "A Court United: A Statement of a Number of Ninth Circuit Judges" (PDF). Engage. 7 (1): 63–66. Retrieved June 6, 2006. 
  14. ^ "America and the Courts," 48:28. C-SPAN, March 17, 2007.
  15. ^ Gribbin, Eric J. "47 Duke L.J. 351" (PDF). law.duke.edu. 
  16. ^ Final Report, Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals, Dec. 18, 1998
  17. ^ Testimony of Circuit Judge Richard Tallman: U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, United States Senate: Committee on the Judiciary, October 26, 2005; retrieved November 19, 2007.
  18. ^ Govtrack.us S. 525--110th Congress (2007): Circuit Court of Appeals Restructuring and Modernization Act of 2007 (database of federal legislation): govtrack.us; retrieved February 18, 2008.
  19. ^ Future Judicial Vacancies
  20. ^ Sawyer was appointed as a circuit judge for the Ninth Circuit in 1869 by Ulysses S. Grant. The Judiciary Act of 1891 reassigned his seat to what is now the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
  21. ^ Hunt did not have a permanent seat on this court. Instead, he was appointed to the ill-fated United States Commerce Court in 1911 by William Howard Taft. Aside from their duties on the Commerce Court, the judges of the Commerce Court also acted as at-large appellate judges, able to be assigned by the Chief Justice of the United States to whichever circuit most needed help. Hunt was assigned to the Ninth Circuit upon his commission.
  22. ^ Recess appointment.
  23. ^ President Coolidge first nominated Wilbur for the judgeship in the final days of his presidency, but the Senate failed to act on it before the 70tb Congress ended on March 3, 1929. "Wilbur Nominated for Judge Post," Woodland Daily Democrat, 1929-03-01 at p. 1 (noting, as the Coolidge Administration ended, that Coolidge nominated Wilbur for the new judgeship); "Sentence Cut Out by Hoover," Oakland Tribune, 1929-03-04, Section D, p. 1 (noting that the Wilbur nomination was not acted upon before the 70th Congress ended). Hoover then resubmitted the nomination to the Senate in the 71st Congress, which approved it.
  24. ^ Court Security Improvement Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110-177 § 509(a)(2), 121 Stat. 2534, 2543, January 7, 2008

External links