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v t e

The United States
United States
courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States
United States
federal court system.[1] A court of appeals decides appeals from the district courts within its federal judicial circuit, and in some instances from other designated federal courts and administrative agencies. The United States
United States
courts of appeals are considered among the most powerful and influential courts in the United States. Because of their ability to set legal precedent in regions that cover millions of Americans, the United States
United States
courts of appeals have strong policy influence on U.S. law. Moreover, because the U.S. Supreme Court chooses to review fewer than 2% of the more than 7,000 to 8,000 cases filed with it annually,[2] the U.S. courts of appeals serve as the final arbiter on most federal cases. The Ninth Circuit in particular is very influential, covering 20% of the American population. There are currently 179 judgeships on the U.S. courts of appeals authorized by Congress in 28 U.S.C. § 43 pursuant to Article III of the U.S. Constitution. These judges are nominated by the President of the United States
President of the United States
and confirmed by the United States Senate. They have lifetime tenure, earning (as of 2016) an annual salary of $215,400.[3] There are thirteen U.S. courts of appeals, although there are other tribunals that have "Court of Appeals" in their titles, such as the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, which hears appeals in court-martial cases, and the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims, which reviews final decisions by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in the Department of Veterans Affairs. The eleven numbered circuits and the D.C. Circuit are geographically defined. The thirteenth court of appeals is the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which has nationwide jurisdiction over certain appeals based on their subject matter. All of the courts of appeals also hear appeals from some administrative agency decisions and rulemaking, with by far the largest share of these cases heard by the D.C. Circuit. The Federal Circuit hears appeals from specialized trial courts, primarily the United States Court of International Trade
United States Court of International Trade
and the United States
United States
Court of Federal Claims, as well as appeals from the district courts in patent cases and certain other specialized matters. Decisions of the U.S. courts of appeals have been published by the private company West Publishing in the Federal Reporter series since the courts were established. Only decisions that the courts designate for publication are included. The "unpublished" opinions (of all but the Fifth and Eleventh Circuits) are published separately in West's Federal Appendix, and they are also available in on-line databases like LexisNexis
LexisNexis
or Westlaw. More recently, court decisions have also been made available electronically on official court websites. However, there are also a few federal court decisions that are classified for national security reasons. The circuit with the smallest number of appellate judges is the First Circuit, and the one with the largest number of appellate judges is the geographically large and populous Ninth Circuit in the Far West. The number of judges that the U.S. Congress has authorized for each circuit is set forth by law in 28 U.S.C. § 44, while the places where those judges must regularly sit to hear appeals are prescribed in 28 U.S.C. § 48. Although the courts of appeals are frequently called "circuit courts", they should not be confused with the former United States
United States
circuit courts, which were active from 1789 to 1911, during the time when long-distance transportation was much less available, and which were primarily first-level federal trial courts that moved periodically from place to place in "circuits" in order to serve the dispersed population in towns and the smaller cities that existed then. The current "courts of appeals" system was established in the Judiciary Act of 1891, also known as the Evarts Act.[4]

Contents

1 Procedure 2 Attorneys 3 Nomenclature 4 Judicial councils 5 Circuit composition 6 Circuit population 7 History 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Procedure[edit] Because the courts of appeals possess only appellate jurisdiction, they do not hold trials. Only courts with original jurisdiction hold trials and thus determine punishments (in criminal cases) and remedies (in civil cases). Instead, appeals courts review decisions of trial courts for errors of law. Accordingly, an appeals court considers only the record (that is, the papers the parties filed and the transcripts and any exhibits from any trial) from the trial court, and the legal arguments of the parties. These arguments, which are presented in written form and can range in length from dozens to hundreds of pages, are known as briefs. Sometimes lawyers are permitted to add to their written briefs with oral arguments before the appeals judges. At such hearings, only the parties' lawyers speak to the court. The rules that govern the procedure in the courts of appeals are the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure. In a court of appeals, an appeal is almost always heard by a "panel" of three judges who are randomly selected from the available judges (including senior judges and judges temporarily assigned to the circuit). Some cases, however, receive an en banc hearing. Except in the Ninth Circuit Courts, the en banc court consists of all of the circuit judges who are on active status, but it does not include the senior or assigned judges (except that under some circumstances, a senior judge may participate in an en banc hearing when he or she participated at an earlier stage of the same case). Many decades ago[when?], certain classes of federal court cases held the right of an automatic appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States. That is, one of the parties in the case could appeal a decision of a court of appeals to the Supreme Court, and it had to accept the case. The right of automatic appeal for most types of decisions of a court of appeals was ended by an Act of Congress, the Judiciary Act of 1925. This law was urged by Chief Justice William Howard Taft, and it also reorganized many other things in the federal court system. The current procedure is that a party in a case may apply to the Supreme Court to review a ruling of the circuit court. This is called petitioning for a writ of certiorari, and the Supreme Court may choose, in its sole discretion, to review any lower court ruling. In extremely rare cases, the Supreme Court may grant the writ of certiorari before the judgment is rendered by the court of appeals, thereby reviewing the lower court's ruling directly. Certiorari before judgment was granted in the Watergate scandal-related case, United States v. Nixon,[5] and in the 2005 decision involving the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, United States
United States
v. Booker.[6] A court of appeals may also pose questions to the Supreme Court for a ruling in the midst of reviewing a case. This procedure was formerly used somewhat commonly, but now it is quite rare[quantify]. The Second Circuit, sitting en banc, attempted to use this procedure in the case United States
United States
v. Penaranda, as a result of the Supreme Court's decision in Blakely v. Washington,[7] but the Supreme Court dismissed the question after resolving the same issue in another case[which?], which had come before the Court through the standard procedure. The last instance of the Supreme Court accepting a set of questions and answering them was in a case[which?] in 1982. A court of appeals may convene a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel
Bankruptcy Appellate Panel
to hear appeals in bankruptcy cases directly from the bankruptcy court of its circuit. As of 2008[update], only the First, Sixth, Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Circuits have established a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel. Those circuits that do not have a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel
Bankruptcy Appellate Panel
have their bankruptcy appeals heard by the District Court.[citation needed] Courts of appeals decisions, unlike those of the lower federal courts, establish binding precedents. Other federal courts in that circuit must, from that point forward, follow the appeals court's guidance in similar cases, regardless of whether the trial judge thinks that the case should be decided differently. Federal and state laws can and do change from time to time, depending on the actions of Congress and the state legislatures. Therefore, the law that exists at the time of the appeal might be different from the law that existed at the time of the events that are in controversy under civil or criminal law in the case at hand. A court of appeals applies the law as it exists at the time of the appeal; otherwise, it would be handing down decisions that would be instantly obsolete, and this would be a waste of time and resources, since such decisions could not be cited as precedent. "[A] court is to apply the law in effect at the time it renders its decision, unless doing so would result in manifest injustice, or there is statutory direction or some legislative history to the contrary."[8] However, the above rule cannot apply in criminal cases if the effect of applying the newer law would be to create an ex post facto law to the detriment of the defendant. Attorneys[edit] In order to serve as counsel in a case appealed to a circuit court the attorney must be admitted to the bar of that circuit. Admission to the bar of a circuit court is granted as a matter of course to any attorney who is admitted to practice law in any state of the United States. The attorney submits an application, pays a fee, and takes the oath of admission. Local practice varies as to whether the oath is given in writing or in open court before a judge of the circuit, and most courts of appeals allow the applicant attorney to choose which method he or she prefers. Nomenclature[edit] When the courts of appeals were created in 1891, one was created for each of the nine circuits then existing, and each court was named the " United States
United States
Circuit Court of Appeals for the _____ Circuit". When a court of appeals was created for the District of Columbia in 1893, it was named the "Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia", and it was renamed to the " United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia" in 1934. In 1948, Congress renamed all of the courts of appeals then existing to their current formal names: the court of appeals for each numbered circuit was named the " United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the _____ Circuit", and the " United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia" became the " United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit". The Tenth Circuit was created in 1929 by subdividing the existing Eighth Circuit, and the Eleventh Circuit was created in 1981 by subdividing the existing Fifth Circuit. The Federal Circuit was created in 1982 by the merger of the United States
United States
Court of Customs and Patent
Patent
Appeals and the appellate division of the United States
United States
Court of Claims. Judicial councils[edit] Main article: Judicial council (United States) Judicial councils are panels in each circuit that are charged with making "necessary and appropriate orders for the effective and expeditious administration of justice" within their circuits.[9][10] Among their responsibilities is judicial discipline, the formulation of circuit policy, the implementation of policy directives received from the Judicial Conference of the United States, and the annual submission of a report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts on the number and nature of orders entered during the year that relate to judicial misconduct.[9][11] Judicial councils consist of the chief judge of the circuit and an equal number of circuit judges and district judges of the circuit.[9][12] Circuit composition[edit]

Map of the boundaries of the United States
United States
Courts of Appeals and United States
United States
District Courts

District of Columbia Circuit (Washington)

District of Columbia

First Circuit (Boston)

District of Maine District of Massachusetts District of New Hampshire District of Puerto Rico District of Rhode Island

Second Circuit (New York City)

District of Connecticut Eastern District of New York Northern District of New York Southern District of New York Western District of New York District of Vermont

Third Circuit (Philadelphia)

District of Delaware District of New Jersey Eastern District of Pennsylvania Middle District of Pennsylvania Western District of Pennsylvania District of the Virgin Islands[A]

Fourth Circuit (Richmond)

District of Maryland Eastern District of North Carolina Middle District of North Carolina Western District of North Carolina District of South Carolina Eastern District of Virginia Western District of Virginia Northern District of West Virginia Southern District of West Virginia

Fifth Circuit (New Orleans)

Eastern District of Louisiana Middle District of Louisiana Western District of Louisiana Northern District of Mississippi Southern District of Mississippi Eastern District of Texas Northern District of Texas Southern District of Texas Western District of Texas

Sixth Circuit (Cincinnati)

Eastern District of Kentucky Western District of Kentucky Eastern District of Michigan Western District of Michigan Northern District of Ohio Southern District of Ohio Eastern District of Tennessee Middle District of Tennessee Western District of Tennessee

Seventh Circuit (Chicago)

Central District of Illinois Northern District of Illinois Southern District of Illinois Northern District of Indiana Southern District of Indiana Eastern District of Wisconsin Western District of Wisconsin

Eighth Circuit (St. Louis)

Eastern District of Arkansas Western District of Arkansas Northern District of Iowa Southern District of Iowa District of Minnesota Eastern District of Missouri Western District of Missouri District of Nebraska District of North Dakota District of South Dakota

Ninth Circuit (San Francisco)

District of Alaska District of Arizona Central District of California Eastern District of California Northern District of California Southern District of California District of Guam[A] District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of Nevada District of the Northern Mariana Islands[A] District of Oregon Eastern District of Washington Western District of Washington

Tenth Circuit (Denver)

District of Colorado District of Kansas District of New Mexico Eastern District of Oklahoma Northern District of Oklahoma Western District of Oklahoma District of Utah District of Wyoming

Eleventh Circuit (Atlanta)

Middle District of Alabama Northern District of Alabama Southern District of Alabama Middle District of Florida Northern District of Florida Southern District of Florida Middle District of Georgia Northern District of Georgia Southern District of Georgia

Federal Circuit (Washington)

Courts[B]

Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims[C] Court of Federal Claims[C] Court of International Trade

Administrative agencies

Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals[D] Patent
Patent
Trial
Trial
and Appeal
Appeal
Board[D] Bureau of Justice Assistance[D] Civilian Board of Contract Appeals[D] International Trade Commission[D] Merit Systems Protection Board[D] Office of Compliance[E] Personnel Appeals Board[D] Trademark Trial
Trial
and Appeal
Appeal
Board[D]

^ a b c These are article IV territorial courts and are therefore not part of the federal judiciary. ^ The Federal Circuit also has appellate jurisdiction over certain claims filed in any district court. ^ a b These are article I tribunals and are therefore not part of the federal judiciary. ^ a b c d e f g h These are administrative bodies within the executive branch and are therefore not part of the federal judiciary. ^ This is an administrative body within the legislative branch are therefore not part of the federal judiciary.

Circuit population[edit] Based on 2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
figures, the population residing in each circuit is as follows.

Circuit Authorized judges Population Percentage of US population Population per authorized judge

D.C. Circuit 7001110000000000000♠11 7005601723000000000♠601,723 6997190000000000000♠0.19% 7004547020000000000♠54,702

1st Circuit 7000600000000000000♠6 7007139708160000000♠13,970,816 6998446999999999999♠4.47% 7006232846900000000♠2,328,469

2nd Circuit 7001130000000000000♠13 7007235779400000000♠23,577,940 6998754000000000000♠7.54% 7006181368800000000♠1,813,688

3rd Circuit 7001140000000000000♠14 7007224986120000000♠22,498,612 6998719000000000000♠7.19% 7006160704400000000♠1,607,044

4th Circuit 7001150000000000000♠15 7007297884170000000♠29,788,417 6998951999999999999♠9.52% 7006198589400000000♠1,985,894

5th Circuit 7001170000000000000♠17 7007326462300000000♠32,646,230 6999104400000000000♠10.44% 7006192036600000000♠1,920,366

6th Circuit 7001160000000000000♠16 7007321056160000000♠32,105,616 6999102600000000000♠10.26% 7006200660100000000♠2,006,601

7th Circuit 7001110000000000000♠11 7007250014200000000♠25,001,420 6998799000000000000♠7.99% 7006227285600000000♠2,272,856

8th Circuit 7001110000000000000♠11 7007205682370000000♠20,568,237 6998658000000000000♠6.58% 7006186984000000000♠1,869,840

9th Circuit 7001290000000000000♠29 7007617429080000000♠61,742,908 6999197400000000000♠19.74% 7006212906600000000♠2,129,066

10th Circuit 7001120000000000000♠12 7007170203550000000♠17,020,355 6998544000000000000♠5.44% 7006141836300000000♠1,418,363

11th Circuit 7001120000000000000♠12 7007332686990000000♠33,268,699 6999106400000000000♠10.64% 7006277239200000000♠2,772,392

Federal Circuit[Note 1] 7001120000000000000♠12 N/A N/A N/A

Total 7002179000000000000♠179 7008312790973000000♠312,790,973 7000100000000000000♠100% 7006174743600000000♠1,747,436

History[edit] The Judiciary Act of 1789
Judiciary Act of 1789
established three circuits, which were groups of judicial districts in which United States
United States
circuit courts were established. Each circuit court consisted of two Supreme Court justices and the local district judge; the three circuits existed solely for the purpose of assigning the justices to a group of circuit courts. Some districts (generally the ones most difficult for an itinerant justice to reach) did not have a circuit court; in these districts the district court exercised the original jurisdiction of a circuit court. As new states were admitted to the Union, Congress often did not create circuit courts for them for a number of years. The Midnight Judges Act
Midnight Judges Act
reorganized the districts into six circuits, and created circuit judgeships so that Supreme Court justices would no longer have to ride circuit. This Act, however, was repealed in March 1802, and Congress provided that the former circuit courts would be revived as of July 1 of that year. But it then passed the new Judiciary Act of 1802
Judiciary Act of 1802
in April, so that the revival of the old courts never took effect. The 1802 Act restored circuit riding, but with only one justice to a circuit; it therefore created six new circuits, but with slightly different compositions than the 1801 Act. These six circuits later were augmented by others. Until 1866, each new circuit (except the short-lived California
California
Circuit) was accompanied by a newly created Supreme Court seat.

State Judicial District(s) created Circuit assignment(s)

New Hampshire 1789 Eastern, 1789–1801 1st, 1801–

Massachusetts 1789 Eastern, 1789–1801 1st, 1801–

Maine 1789[Note 2] Eastern, 1789–1801 1st, 1801–1820 1st, 1820–

Rhode Island 1790 Eastern, 1790–1801 1st, 1801–

Connecticut 1789 Eastern, 1789–1801 2nd, 1801–

New York 1789 Eastern, 1789–1801 2nd, 1801–

New Jersey 1789 Middle, 1789–1801 3rd, 1801–

Pennsylvania 1789 Middle, 1789–1801 3rd, 1801–

Delaware 1789 Middle, 1789–1801 3rd, 1801–1802 4th, 1802–1866 3rd, 1866–

Maryland 1789 Middle, 1789–1801 4th, 1801–

Virginia 1789 Middle, 1789–1801 4th, 1801–1802 5th, 1802–1842 4th, 1842–

Kentucky 1789[Note 3] 6th, 1801–1802 7th, 1807–1837 8th, 1837–1863 6th, 1863–

North Carolina 1790 Southern, 1790–1801 5th, 1801–1842 6th, 1842–1863 4th, 1863–

South Carolina 1789 Southern, 1789–1801 5th, 1801–1802 6th, 1802–1863 5th, 1863–1866 4th, 1866–

Georgia 1789 Southern, 1789–1801 5th, 1801–1802 6th, 1802–1863 5th, 1863–1981 11th, 1981–

Vermont 1791 Eastern, 1791–1801 2nd, 1801–

Tennessee 1796 6th, 1801–1802 7th, 1807–1837 8th, 1837–1863 6th, 1863–

Ohio 1801 (abolished 1802)[Note 4] 6th, 1801–1802

Ohio 1803 7th, 1807–1866 6th, 1866–

Louisiana 1812 9th, 1837–1842 (Eastern District) 5th, 1842–1863 6th, 1863–1866 5th, 1866–

Indiana 1816 7th, 1837–

Mississippi 1817 9th, 1837–1863 5th, 1863–

Illinois 1818 7th, 1837–1863 8th, 1863–1866 7th, 1866–

Alabama 1819 9th, 1837–1842 5th, 1842–1981 11th, 1981–

Missouri 1821 8th, 1837–1863 9th, 1863–1866 8th, 1866–

Arkansas 1836 9th, 1837–1851 9th, 1851–1863 (Eastern District) 6th, 1863–1866 (Eastern District) 8th, 1866–

Michigan 1837 7th, 1837–1863 8th, 1863–1866 6th, 1866–

Florida 1845 5th, 1863–1981 11th, 1981–

Texas 1845 6th, 1863–1866 5th, 1866–

Iowa 1846 9th, 1863–1866 8th, 1866–

Wisconsin 1848 8th, 1863–1866 7th, 1866–

California 1850 California
California
Circuit, 1855–1863 10th, 1863–1866 9th, 1866–

Minnesota 1858 9th, 1863–1866 8th, 1866–

Oregon 1859 10th, 1863–1866 9th, 1866–

Kansas 1861 9th, 1863–1866 8th, 1866–1929 10th, 1929–

West Virginia 1863 4th, 1863–

Nevada 1864 9th, 1866–

Nebraska 1867 8th, 1867–

Colorado 1876 8th, 1876–1929 10th, 1929–

North Dakota 1889 8th, 1889–

South Dakota 1889 8th, 1889–

Montana 1889 9th, 1889–

Washington 1889 9th, 1889–

Idaho 1890 9th, 1890–

Wyoming 1890 8th, 1890–1929 10th, 1929–

Utah 1896 8th, 1896–1929 10th, 1929–

Oklahoma 1907 8th, 1907–1929 10th, 1929–

New Mexico 1912 8th, 1912–1929 10th, 1929–

Arizona 1912 9th, 1912–

District of Columbia 1948[Note 5] District of Columbia Circuit, 1948–

Alaska 1959 9th, 1959–

Hawaii 1959 9th, 1959–

Puerto Rico 1966[Note 6] 1st, 1966–

Guam

Virgin Islands

Philippines 1898[Note 7]

Panama
Panama
Canal Zone[Note 8]

See also[edit]

List of United States
United States
courts of appeals cases State supreme court Judicial appointment history for United States
United States
federal courts United States
United States
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review

Notes[edit]

^ The Federal Circuit's jurisdiction is not based on geography; rather, the Federal Circuit has jurisdiction over the entire United States, for certain classes of cases. ^ The Judiciary Act of 1789
Judiciary Act of 1789
divided Massachusetts
Massachusetts
into the Maine District, comprising what is now the State of Maine, and the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
District, comprising the remainder of the state. ^ The Judiciary Act of 1789
Judiciary Act of 1789
divided Virginia
Virginia
into the Kentucky District, comprising what is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and the Virginia
Virginia
District, comprising the remainder of the state. ^ The first District of Ohio
Ohio
encompassed the Northwest and Indiana Territories. ^ The pre-existing courts of the District of Columbia were elevated to United States district court
United States district court
and court of appeals status in 1948. The courts of the District had been incorporated into the Federal Court System by the Judiciary Act of 1925. ^ The pre-existing territorial district court of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
was elevated to United States district court
United States district court
status. Appellate jurisdiction from the Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
courts was assigned to the 1st Circuit in 1915. ^ There were U.S. Federal Courts in the Philippines
Philippines
following the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
of 1898 up through the granting of independence to the Philippines
Philippines
on July 4, 1946—with the exception of the Philippine occupation by the Japanese Army in 1942–45. ^ There were formerly U.S. Federal Courts in the Panama
Panama
Canal Zone, until that Zone was returned to Panama
Panama
by treaty on December 31, 1999.

References[edit]

^ 28 U.S.C. § 43 provides that "There shall be in each circuit a court of appeals, which shall be a court of record, known as the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the circuit". ^ U.S. Supreme Court FAQ Retrieved 7 September 2016. ^ Judicial Compensation U.S. Courts. Retrieved 7 September 2016. ^ The U.S. Courts of Appeals and the Federal Judiciary, History of the Federal Judiciary, Federal Judicial Center
Federal Judicial Center
(last visited March 5, 2014). ^ United States
United States
v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974) ^ United States
United States
v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005) ^ Blakely v. Washington, 542 U.S. 296 (2004) ^ Bradley v. Richmond Sch. Bd., 416 U.S. 696, 711-12 (1974) ^ a b c Barbour, Emily C. (April 7, 2011), Judicial Discipline Process: An Overview (PDF), Congressional Research Service  ^ 28 U.S.C. § 332 ^ 28 U.S.C. § 332(g) ^ 28 U.S.C. § 332(1)(a)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States
United States
courts of appeals.

Info about U.S. courts History of the Federal Judiciary (Federal Judicial Center) Official site of the United States
United States
Courts United States
United States
Appeals Courts @ OpenJurist Federal Court Concepts, Georgia Tech

v t e

Current judges of the United States
United States
courts of appeals

1st Circuit

Active

Howard Torruella Lynch Thompson Kayatta Barron

Senior

Campbell Selya Boudin Stahl Lipez

2nd Circuit

Active

Katzmann Jacobs Cabranes Pooler Raggi Hall Livingston Chin Lohier Carney Droney 2 seats vacant

Senior

Newman Kearse Winter Walker Leval Calabresi Straub Sack Parker Wesley Lynch

3rd Circuit

Active

D. Smith McKee Ambro Chagares Jordan Hardiman Greenaway Vanaskie Shwartz Krause Restrepo Bibas 2 seats vacant

Senior

Sloviter Stapleton Greenberg Scirica Cowen Nygaard Roth Rendell Barry Fuentes Fisher

4th Circuit

Active

Gregory Wilkinson Niemeyer Motz Traxler King Duncan Agee Keenan Wynn Diaz Floyd Thacker Harris 1 seat vacant

Senior

Chapman Hamilton Shedd

5th Circuit

Active

Stewart Jones Smith Dennis Clement Owen Elrod Southwick Haynes Graves Higginson Costa Willett Ho 3 seats vacant

Senior

King Reavley Higginbotham Jolly Davis Duhé Barksdale Wiener Benavides

6th Circuit

Active

Cole Batchelder Moore Clay Gibbons Rogers Sutton Cook Griffin Kethledge White Stranch Donald Thapar Bush Larsen

Senior

Keith Merritt Wellford Guy Ryan Boggs Norris Suhrheinrich Siler Daughtrey Gilman McKeague

7th Circuit

Active

Wood Flaum Easterbrook Kanne Rovner Sykes Hamilton Barrett 3 seats vacant

Senior

Bauer Ripple Manion

8th Circuit

Active

L. Smith Wollman Loken Colloton Gruender Benton Shepherd Kelly Erickson Grasz Stras

Senior

Bowman Beam Hansen Arnold Murphy Riley Melloy

9th Circuit

Active

Thomas Graber McKeown Wardlaw Fletcher Gould Paez Berzon Rawlinson Bybee Callahan Bea M. Smith Ikuta N. Smith Murguia Christen Nguyen Watford Hurwitz Owens Friedland 7 seats vacant

Senior

Goodwin Wallace Schroeder Farris Nelson Canby O'Scannlain Leavy Trott Fernandez Kleinfeld Hawkins Tashima Fisher Silverman Tallman Clifton

10th Circuit

Active

Tymkovich Briscoe Lucero Hartz Holmes Matheson Bacharach Phillips McHugh Moritz Eid 1 seat vacant

Senior

McKay Seymour Porfilio Anderson Baldock Brorby Ebel Kelly Murphy O'Brien

11th Circuit

Active

E. Carnes Tjoflat Marcus Wilson W. Pryor Martin Jordan Rosenbaum J. Carnes J. Pryor Newsom Branch

Senior

Fay Anderson Edmondson Cox Dubina Black Hull

D.C. Circuit

Active

Garland Henderson Rogers Tatel Griffith Kavanaugh Srinivasan Millett Pillard Wilkins Katsas

Senior

Edwards Silberman Buckley Williams Ginsburg Sentelle Randolph

Federal Circuit

Active

Prost Newman Lourie Dyk Moore O'Malley Reyna Wallach Taranto Chen Hughes Stoll

Senior

Mayer Plager Clevenger Schall Bryson Linn

v t e

Current senior judges of the United States
United States
courts of appeals

1st Circuit

Campbell Selya Boudin Stahl Lipez

2nd Circuit

Newman Kearse Winter Walker Leval Calabresi Straub Sack Parker Wesley Lynch

3rd Circuit

Sloviter Stapleton Greenberg Scirica Cowen Nygaard Roth Rendell Barry Fuentes Fisher

4th Circuit

Chapman Hamilton Shedd

5th Circuit

King Reavley Higginbotham Jolly Davis Duhé Jr. Barksdale Wiener Benavides

6th Circuit

Keith Merritt Wellford Guy Ryan Boggs Norris Suhrheinrich Siler Daughtrey Gilman McKeague

7th Circuit

Bauer Ripple Manion

8th Circuit

Bowman Beam Hansen Arnold Murphy Riley Melloy

9th Circuit

Goodwin Wallace Schroeder Farris Nelson Canby O'Scannlain Leavy Trott Fernandez Kleinfeld Hawkins Tashima Silverman Fisher Tallman Clifton

10th Circuit

McKay Seymour Porfilio Anderson Baldock Brorby Ebel Kelly Murphy O'Brien

11th Circuit

Fay Anderson Edmondson Cox Dubina Black Hull

D.C. Circuit

Edwards Silberman Buckley Williams Ginsburg Sentelle Randolph

Federal Circuit

Mayer Plager Clevenger Schall Bryson Linn

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Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains

peaks ranges Appalachian Rocky

National Park Service

National Parks

Regions

East Coast West Coast Great Plains Gulf Mid-Atlantic Midwestern New England Pacific Central Eastern Northern Northeastern Northwestern Southern Southeastern Southwestern Western

Rivers

Colorado Columbia Mississippi Missouri Ohio Rio Grande Yukon

Time Water supply and sanitation

Politics

Federal

Executive

Cabinet Civil service Executive departments Executive Office Independent agencies Law enforcement President of the United States Public policy

Legislative

House of Representatives

current members Speaker

Senate

current members President pro tempore Vice President

Judicial

Courts of appeals District courts Supreme Court

Law

Bill of Rights

civil liberties

Code of Federal Regulations Constitution

federalism preemption separation of powers

Federal Reporter United States
United States
Code United States
United States
Reports

Intelligence

Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Office of the Director of National Intelligence

Uniformed

Armed Forces

Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard

National Guard NOAA Corps Public Health Service Corps

51st state

political status of Puerto Rico District of Columbia statehood movement

Elections

Electoral College

Foreign relations

Foreign policy

Hawaiian sovereignty movement Ideologies

anti-Americanism exceptionalism nationalism

Local government Parties

Democratic Republican Third parties

Red states and blue states

Purple America

Scandals State government

governor state legislature state court

Uncle Sam

Economy

By sector

Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation

Companies

by state

Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street

Society

Culture

Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages

American English Indigenous languages ASL

Black American Sign Language

HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish

Literature Media

Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television

Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art

Social class

Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth

Issues

Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime

incarceration

Criticism of government Discrimination

affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage

Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care

abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking

Human rights Immigration

illegal

International rankings National security

Mass surveillance Terrorism

Separation of church and state

Outline Index

Bo

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