HOME
The Info List - United Russia


--- Advertisement ---



United Russia
Russia
(Russian: Еди́ная Росси́я, tr. Yedinaya Rossiya, IPA: [(j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə]) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation. United Russia
Russia
is the largest party in Russia
Russia
and as of 2017[update] it holds 340 (or 75.56%) of the 450 seats in the State Duma. The United Russia
Russia
party formed in December 2001 through a merger of the Unity and the Fatherland – All Russia parties. As of 2017[update], the United Russia
Russia
party supports the policies of the presidential administration. The party's association with President and former Prime Minister Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(a former leader of the party) has been the key to its success.[citation needed] There is also evidence that the electorate credits the party for improvements to the economy.[citation needed] Although the United Russia
Russia
party's popularity declined from its peak of 64.4% in the 2007 Duma elections to 49.32% in the 2011 elections, it remained the most popular party in the country, ahead of the second-placed Communist Party at 19.19%. In the 2016 elections, it received 54.2% while the second-place Communist Party received 13.3%. The party has no coherent ideology, but it embraces specific politicians and officials[17] with a variety of political views who support the administration.[18] The party appeals mainly to non-ideological voters,[19] therefore United Russia
Russia
is often classified by political scientists as a "catch-all party"[20][21][22] or as a "party of power".[23][24] In 2009, it proclaimed Russian conservatism as its official ideology.[25][26]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 1999 State Duma
State Duma
election 1.3 Creation of United Russia 1.4 2003 State Duma
State Duma
elections 1.5 2007 State Duma
State Duma
elections 1.6 Medvedev/Putin: 2008–2012 1.7 Putin/Medvedev: 2012–present

2 Electoral results

2.1 President 2.2 State Duma

3 Current status

3.1 Federal Assembly 3.2 Party membership

4 Party platform

4.1 Electorate 4.2 Foreign opinions

4.2.1 International alliances

5 Structure

5.1 Internal groupings 5.2 Chairmen of United Russia

6 Allegations of crime and corruption 7 Notable members 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] United Russia's predecessor was the Unity bloc, which was created three months before the December 1999 Duma elections to counter the advance of the Fatherland – All Russia (OVR) party led by Yuri Luzhkov. The creation of the party was heavily supported by Kremlin insiders, who were wary of what looked like a certain OVR victory. They did not expect Unity to have much chance of success since President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was very unpopular and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's ratings were still minuscule. The new party attempted to mimic OVR's formula of success, placing an emphasis on competence and pragmatism. Charismatic Minister of Emergency Situations Sergei Shoigu was appointed as the party leader.[27] In 1999, Prime Minister Putin's popularity soared to double digit figures after he decisively sent troops to the rebellious Chechnya republic as a retaliation for terrorist bombings in Moscow
Moscow
and other cities and in response for the Chechen invasion of Dagestan. Putin's war effort was hugely popular and portrayed positively by the Boris Berezovsky-owned Channel One Russia
Russia
as well as by state-controlled RTR.[28] 1999 State Duma
State Duma
election[edit] Contrary to its creators' expectations, Unity's election campaign was a huge success and the party received 23.3% of the votes, considerably more than OVR's 13.3% and within one percentage point of the Communist Party's 24.3%.[27][28] The popularity of the prime minister proved decisive for Unity's victory.[28] The election results also made clear that Putin was going to win the 2000 presidential election, which resulted in competitors Luzhkov and Yevgeni Primakov
Yevgeni Primakov
dropping out. Yeltsin also gave Putin a boost by resigning as President on 31 December 1999.[27] Creation of United Russia[edit] While Unity had initially had only one narrow purpose, limited only to the 1999 Duma elections, after the victory state officials began to transform the party into a permanent one. A large number of independent deputies who had been elected to the Duma were invited to join the party's delegation. Many OVR deputies also joined, including its leader Luzhkov.[27] In April 2001, OVR and Unity leaders issued a joint declaration that they had started the process of unification. In July 2001, the unified party, called Union of Unity and Fatherland, held its founding congress and in December 2001 it became All-Russian Party of Unity and Fatherland, or more commonly, United Russia. In the second party congress in March 2003, Sergei Shoygu
Sergei Shoygu
stood down and Boris Gryzlov
Boris Gryzlov
was elected as the new party leader.[29] Instead of the "communism versus capitalism" dichotomy that had dominated the political discourse in the 1990s, in the 1999–2000 electoral cycle Putin started to emphasize another reason to vote for his party: stability, which was yearned for by Russian citizens after a decade of chaotic revolutionary change. With the exception of the continued fighting in the Northern Caucasus, Putin delivered it.[28] On 13 January 2003, United Russia
Russia
had 257,000 members—behind Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
Russia
(600,000) and the Communists (500,000).[29] 2003 State Duma
State Duma
elections[edit] Throughout Putin's first years as President, the country's economy improved considerably, growing more each year than in all of the previous decade and Putin's approval ratings hovered well above 70%. Russia's economic recovery was helped by high prices for its primary exports such as oil, gas and raw materials.[28] The passage rate of law proposals increased considerably after United Russia
Russia
became the dominant party in the Duma. In 1996–1999, only 76% of the legislation that passed the third reading was signed by the President while in 1999–2003 the ratio was 93%. While Yeltsin had often relied on his decree powers to enact major decisions, Putin almost never had to. United Russia's dominance in the Duma enabled Putin to push through a wide range of fundamental reforms,[30] including a flat income tax of 13%, a reduced profits tax, an overhaul of the labour market, breakups of national monopolies and new land and legal codes.[30][31][32] United Russia
Russia
characterised itself as wholly supportive of Putin's agenda, which proved a recipe for success and resulted in the party scoring a major victory in the 2003 Duma elections, receiving more than a third of the popular vote.[28] Throughout its history, United Russia
Russia
has been successful in using administrative resources to weaken its opponents. For example, state-controlled news media portrayed the Communist Party as hypocritical for accepting money from several "dollar millionaries" during the 2003 Duma election campaign.[27] United Russia
Russia
also introduced tougher party, candidate and voter registration requirements and increased the election threshold from 5% to 7% for the 2007 elections.[28] Opposition parties also made several strategic mistakes. For example, Yabloko
Yabloko
and the Union of Right Forces
Union of Right Forces
seemed to spend more effort attacking each other than Putin, which made it easier for United Russia
Russia
to win over liberal voters on the strength of market reforms under Putin.[27] The opposition parties faltered in the 2003 elections, with the Communists gaining just 52 seats, a drop from 113 in 1999. Liberal opponents fared even worse, with Yabloko
Yabloko
and Union of the Right Forces failing to cross the 5 percent threshold.[28] 2007 State Duma
State Duma
elections[edit]

United Russia
Russia
campaigners in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
during the 2007 election

As the economy continued improving and Putin executed several popular moves, such as reining in the unpopular oligarchs, Putin's approval ratings stayed high and he won the 2004 presidential election with over 71% of the votes. The 2007 Duma elections proved a stunning victory for United Russia, which won 64.3% of the votes. The Communist Party became a distant second with 11.57% of the votes. Putin was the only name on United Russia's national list and his popularity helped the party to ensure victory.[28] During the December 2007 election, the party was accused by voters and election monitoring group Golos of numerous election law violations banned in the Russian Constitution.[33] The legislative agenda shifted somewhat after the 2007 elections. Anti-terrorism legislation, large increases in social spending and the creation of new state corporations became the dominant issues while less energy was devoted to economic reform.[30] Medvedev/Putin: 2008–2012[edit]

Then party leader Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with Yury Luzhkov, Dmitry Medvedev, Sergey Shoygu
Sergey Shoygu
and Boris Gryzlov
Boris Gryzlov
in 2009 at the 11th United Russia Party Congress

For the 2008 presidential election, United Russia
Russia
nominated Dmitry Medvedev to succeed Putin. Medvedev received Putin's blessing and scored a clear victory, receiving 71% of the votes. As President, Medvedev nominated Putin as his Prime Minister. On 15 April of the same year, Putin accepted a nomination to become the party's leader, but declared that this did not mean he would become a member. Medvedev has also refused to become a member.[27] During regional elections of 11 October 2009, United Russia
Russia
won a majority of seats in almost every Russian municipality. Opposition candidates claim they were hindered from campaigning for the elections and some were denied places on the ballot.[34][35] There are also accusations of widespread ballot stuffing and voter intimidation as well as statistical analysis results supporting these accusations.[34] Support for United Russia
Russia
was 53% in a poll held in October 2009.[36] In 2010–2011 and following the economic crisis, support for United Russia
Russia
went up and down, but declined overall. The share of the population ready to vote for the party reached its lowest point in January 2011 (35%) before recovering to 41% in March 2011.[37] The Agrarian Party supported the candidacy of Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
in the 2008 presidential election and it merged into United Russia.[38] Putin/Medvedev: 2012–present[edit]

Medvedev and Putin in the XII Congress of the party in September 2011

At the party's XII Congress held on 24 September 2011, Medvedev supported the candidacy of Prime Minister Putin in the presidential election of 2012—a move that effectively assured Putin would return to the presidency, given the party's near-total dominance of Russian politics. Medvedev accepted the invitation of Prime Minister Putin to head the party in the State Duma
State Duma
elections and said that in his opinion Putin should run for President in 2012.[39] Delegates applauded this statement standing and they unanimously supported his candidacy for President.[40] Medvedev responded immediately, saying that applause is proof of Putin's popularity among the people. Medvedev's speech listened to about ten thousand participants of the meeting. Total congress was attended by about 12,000 participants, guests and journalists.[41][42] At the same congress it was also approved by the election list of candidates from the party in the December elections to the State Duma. The list includes 416 party members and 183 non-partisan, 363 of them for the first time participate in the elections. On 29 September, the list was handed over to the Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation. The party list was led by President Medvedev. 582 delegates of the Congress voted in support of the list—against one.[43][44] Election program of United Russia
Russia
was announced during speeches of Medvedev and Putin. Medvedev has identified seven strategic priorities of government policy and Putin offered to cancel the erroneous tax debts of 36 million Russians in the amount of 30 billion rubles and increase from 10 October salaries of public sector employees by 6.5%. Putin also said that taxes for the wealthy citizens should be higher than for the middle class and offered to raise utility tariffs only excess baggage. Among other priorities, Putin called a complete re army and navy in 5–10 years, doubling the pace of road construction for 10 years, the creation or update of 25 million jobs in 20 years in and out of Russia
Russia
in the five largest economies in the world.[45] At the party's XIII Congress held on 26 May 2012, Medvedev was elected chairman of United Russia.[46] United Russia
Russia
decided not use his portraits of President Medvedev and President Putin during the fall election campaign.[47] In March 2013, about 50 members of the United Russia
Russia
from Abansky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Krasnoyarsk Krai
announced their withdrawal from the party. They sent an open letter (it is said that under it signed 60 people) to the party chairman Medvedev, which criticized the activities of the party which according to them has ceased to fulfill its political function.[48] Electoral results[edit] President[edit]

Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round

No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of overall votes % of overall vote

2004 Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(Putin refused to be nominated by United Russia
Russia
and ran as an independent) 49,565,238 71.3 (won)

2008 Dmitry Medvedev 52,530,712 71.2 (won)

2012 Vladimir Putin 46,602,075 63.6 (won)

2018 Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(Putin refused to be nominated by United Russia
Russia
and ran as an independent) 56,430,712 76.7 (won)

State Duma[edit]

Year Party leader Performance Status

Votes Percentage Seats

2003 Boris Gryzlov 22,779,279 37.6%

223 / 450

1st Majority (government)

2007 Vladimir Putin 44,714,241 64.3%

315 / 450

1st Supermajority (government)

2011[49] Dmitry Medvedev 32,448,000 49.3%

238 / 450

1st Majority (government)

2016 Dmitry Medvedev 28,271,600 54.2%

343 / 450

1st Supermajority (government)

Current status[edit] Federal Assembly[edit] United Russia
Russia
currently holds 340 of the 450 seats in the State Duma.[28] It heads all five[50] of the Duma's commissions and holds 14[51] of the 26 committee chairmanships and 10[52] of the 16 seats in the Council of Duma, the Duma's steering committee. The speaker of the Duma is United Russia's Vyacheslav Volodin.[53][54] The party has only informal influence in the upper house, the Federation Council, as the Council has rejected the use of political factions in decision making.[30] Party membership[edit] In 2013, United Russia
Russia
claimed it had 2 million members.[3] According to a study conducted by Timothy J. Colton, Henry E. Hale and Michael McFaul after the March 2008 presidential elections, 30% of the Russian population are loyalists of the party.[27] Party platform[edit] According to the party's 2003 political manifesto, The Path of National Success, the party's goal is to unite the responsible political forces of the country, aiming to minimize the differences between rich and poor, young and old, state, business and society. The economy should combine state regulation and market freedoms, with the benefits of further growth distributed for the most part to the less fortunate. The party rejects left-wing and right-wing ideologies in favour of "political centrism" that could unite all sections of society.[29] In addition, the official party platform emphasizes pragmatism and anti-radicalism. The party regards itself to be one of the heirs to Russia's tradition of statehood, both tsarist and communist.[55] United Russia's long-time moniker is "the party of real deeds".[56] United Russia
Russia
has always characterised itself as wholly supportive of the agenda of the popular current President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and this has proved key to its success. Since 2006, when Vladislav Surkov
Vladislav Surkov
introduced the term sovereign democracy, many figureheads of the party have taken usage of the term. Former President and current Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
has criticised the term. United Russia
Russia
voted against the Council of Europe resolution 1481 (Need for international condemnation of crimes of totalitarian communist regimes).[57][58] The party has promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural and political matters, both at home and abroad. Putin has attacked globalism and economic liberalism as well as scientific and technological progress.[59][60] Putin has promoted new think tanks that bring together like-minded intellectuals and writers. For example, the Izborsky Club, founded in 2012 by Aleksandr Prokhanov, stresses Russian nationalism, the restoration of Russia's historical greatness and systematic opposition to liberal ideas and policies.[61] Vladislav Surkov, a senior government official, has been one of the key ideologists during Putin's presidency.[62] In cultural and social affairs, United Russia
Russia
has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Mark Woods provides specific examples of how the Church under Patriarch Kirill of Moscow
Moscow
has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine.[63] More broadly, The New York Times reports in September 2016 how that Church's policy prescriptions support the Kremlin's appeal to social conservatives:

A fervent foe of homosexuality and any attempt to put individual rights above those of family, community or nation, the Russian Orthodox Church helps project Russia
Russia
as the natural ally of all those who pine for a more secure, illiberal world free from the tradition-crushing rush of globalization, multiculturalism and women’s and gay rights.[64]

Electorate[edit] According to studies, United Russia
Russia
voters in 2007 were younger and more market-oriented than the average voter. The party's electorate includes a substantial share of state employees, pensioners and military personnel who are dependent on the state for their livelihood.[56] Sixty-four percent of United Russia
Russia
supporters are female. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia
Russia
was growing among young people.[65] Foreign opinions[edit] Foreign media and observers describe United Russia
Russia
as a pure "presidential party", with the main goal of securing the power of the Russian President in the Russian parliament. The vast majority of officeholders in Russia
Russia
are members of the party, hence it is sometimes described as a "public official party" or "administration party". Due to this, it is also often labelled the "Party of Power".[66][67] International alliances[edit] United Russia
Russia
has signed cooperation agreements with the far-right Freedom Party of Austria[68] and Lega Nord
Lega Nord
of Italy.[69] It has a tentative cooperation agreement with the populist Five Star Movement in Italy as well.[70] Its youth wing, the Young Guard of United Russia, has an alliance with the youth wing of the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany, Young Alternative for Germany.[2] Structure[edit]

Putin (standing) at the 9th United Russia
Russia
Party Congress on 15 April 2008

In April 2008, United Russia
Russia
amended Section 7 of its charter, changing its heading from Party Chairman to Chairman of the Party and Chairman of the Party's Supreme Council. Under the amendments, United Russia
Russia
may introduce a supreme elective post in the party, the post of the party's chairman, at the suggestion of Supreme Council and its chairman. The Supreme Council, led by the Supreme Council chairman, defines the strategy for the development of the party. The General Council has 152 members, is the foremost party platform in between party congresses and issues statements on important social or political questions. The Presidium of the General Council is led by a secretary, consists of 23 members and leads the political activity of the party, for instance election campaigns or other programmatic publications. United Russia
Russia
introduced a local chapter system that mimicked the Japanese Liberal Democratic Party's (LDP) organization as a strong foundation for the one-party dominant system in the early 2000s. United Russia
Russia
eagerly interviewed the LDP mission and studied their party structure. The number of party members was steadily increased by the introduction of the system.[71] United Russia
Russia
runs local and regional offices in all parts of the Russian Federation, and also operates a foreign liaison office in Israel through a deal with the Kadima
Kadima
party.[72] As of 20 September 2005, the party has a total of 2,600 local and 29,856 primary offices. Internal groupings[edit] United Russia
Russia
is a large and diverse party and has several internal subdivisions. The party has 4 internal groupings, organized around common policy interests. In addition, the party makes use of four internal political clubs to debate policy: liberal conservative 4 November Club, social conservative Centre for Social Conservative Politics, conservative liberal State Patriotic Club and liberal Liberal Club.[30] Based on this division, the party considered entering the 2007 Duma elections as three separate "columns" (liberal, conservative and social), but the idea was subsequently abandoned. Chairmen of United Russia[edit]

№ Chairmen Portrait Took Office Left Office

— Collective leadership

Sergey Shoygu Yury Luzhkov Mintimer Shaimiev

1 December 2001 15 April 2005

1 Boris Gryzlov

15 April 2005 31 December 2007

2 Vladimir Putin[73][74]

31 December 2007 30 May 2012

3 Dmitry Medvedev[75]

30 May 2012 Incumbent

Allegations of crime and corruption[edit]

Russians protest against Putin's re-election in 2012

United Russia
Russia
has come in for criticism that it is "the party of crooks and thieves" (партия жуликов и воров, a term coined by activist Alexey Navalny)[76] due to the continuing prevalence of corruption in Russia.[77] In October 2011, Novaya Gazeta published an article describing how members of the public were writing the slogan on banknotes in protest.[78] In December 2011, Putin rejected the accusation of corruption, saying that it was a general problem that was not restricted to one particular party: "They say that the ruling party is associated with theft, with corruption, but it's a cliché related not to a certain political force, it's a cliché related to power [...] What's important, however, is how the ruling government is fighting these negative things".[77] A poll made in November 2011 found that more than one-third of Russians agreed with the characterisation of United Russia
Russia
as "the party of crooks and thieves".[79] After the 2011 legislative elections, a few leaders within United Russia
Russia
called for investigations of fraud and reform of the party.[80] In August 2016, opposition leader Ilya Yashin
Ilya Yashin
released a report titled "The Criminal Russia
Russia
Party", which stated that United Russia
Russia
had essentially become a tool of political legitimisation for organised crime. Notable members[edit]

Vladimir Putin, President of Russia
Russia
and former leader of the party Boris Gryzlov, former Interior Minister and Chairman of the Supreme Council of the United Russia
Russia
and former leader of the party Vyacheslav Volodin, current Chairman of the State Duma Sergey Shoygu, current Defence Minister, former Emergency Minister, former leader of Unity party and former leader of the party Mintimer Shaymiev, President of Tatarstan
President of Tatarstan
until 2010 Vladislav Surkov, First Deputy Chief of Staff of the President Alexander Zhukov, First Vice Chairman of the State Duma
State Duma
and former Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, chairman of the party, Prime Minister of Russia, former President of Russia
Russia
and the leader of the party's Federal list to the Duma (since 24 September 2011)

See also[edit]

Conservatism portal Russia
Russia
portal Politics portal

Belaya Rus For United Ukraine, a political alliance created two weeks later in Ukraine and led by the Party of Regions Russian Unity Serbian Progressive Party Unity Party (South Ossetia)

References[edit]

^ "Единая Россия официальный сайт Партии / Пресс-служба / Контакты". er.ru.  ^ a b "Rechtspopulisten - AfD-Jugend und Putin-Jugend verbünden sich" [Right-wing populists - AfD youth and Putin youth join forces]. Spiegel Online (in German). 23 April 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2017.  ^ a b ИНФОРМАЦИЯ о численности членов Всероссийской политической партии "ЕДИНАЯ РОССИЯ" в каждом из ее региональных отделений (по состоянию на 1 января 2011 года) [Information on the number of members of the political party "UNITED RUSSIA" in each of its regional offices (as at 1 January 2011)] (in Russian). minjust.ru. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original (DOC) on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ Chen, Cheng (2016). The Return of Ideology: The Search for Regime Identities in Postcommunist Russia
Russia
and China. University of Michigan Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-472-11993-6. Retrieved 30 October 2017. . ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 2016-08-03.  ^ Chaisty, Paul; Whitefield, Stephen (20 April 2015). Putin’s Nationalism Problem. E-International Relations. . ^ "Is 'National Conservatism' the New Ideology of the Russian People?". Diena. 5 December 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2018.  ^ "The History Of The Party". United Russia. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ "In the Kremlin
Kremlin
told about the right shift of "United Russia"". RBK Group. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ Laruelle, Marlène (2009). "Nationalism as Conservative Centrism: United Russia". In the Name of the Nation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 119–152. doi:10.1057/9780230101234_5. ISBN 978-1-349-38117-3.  ^ Sakwa, Richard (2013). Power and Policy in Putin's Russia. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-317-98994-3. Retrieved 14 October 2017.  ^ de Vogel, Sasha (25 October 2012). "New Russian "Patriots"". The Institute of Modern Russia. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ Finn, Peter (26 October 2007). "Kremlin-Backed Opposition Party Foundering as Elections Loom". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018. 'As of today, we are truly an opposition party,' Mironov told reporters the day after Putin informed a United Russia
Russia
congress that he would lead the party at the polls. 'And the president's support consists only of this: He agrees that Russia
Russia
needs not only the right-wing United Russia
Russia
but also a powerful socialist or social democratic party. And we don't need any more from him. The rest we'll do ourselves, relying on the support of our voters.'  ^ Borisov, Sergey (23 November 2009). "United Russia
Russia
'determined itself as a right-wing party'". RT. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2018. Having called themselves "conservatives," the members of United Russia
Russia
"have simply determined their place" as a right-wing party, political scientist Dmitry Travin said. That means that they are "politicians who defend values of the market economy based on national traditions," Rosbalt news agency quoted him as saying.  ^ Paulo Vicente Alves (2014). Emerging Markets Report (1st ed.). AVEC Editora. ISBN 9788567901053. Retrieved 27 March 2018. Here are the two main parties, the "Right-Wing" United Russia
Russia
and the "Statist" CPRF (Communist Party). United Russia
Russia
was created in 2001 from the union of the Unity and Fatherland parties. Their "Right-Wing" position in the frontier of "Leftist" groups shows how hard it is to define United Russia
Russia
but it is definitely trying to move Russia
Russia
toward capitalism with stability.  ^ "Единая Россия официальный сайт Партии / Кто есть кто / Члены Совета Федерации РФ - члены партии «Единая Россия»". er.ru.  ^ Roberts, S. P. (2012). Putin's United Russia
Russia
Party. Routledge Series on Russian and East European Studies. Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 9781136588334.  ^ Way, Lucan (2010), "Resistance to Contagion: Sources of Authoritarian Stability in the Former Soviet Union", Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World, Cambridge University Press, pp. 246–247  ^ Hutcheson, Derek S. (2010). Political marketing techniques in Russia. Global Political Marketing. Routledge. p. 225.  ^ Sakwa, Richard (2011). The Crisis of Russian Democracy: The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession. Cambridge University Press. pp. 217–218.  ^ Bodrunova, Svetlana S.; Litvinenko, Anna A. (2013). New media and political protest: The formation of a public counter-sphere in Russia, 2008–12. Russia's Changing Economic and Political Regimes: The Putin years and afterwards. Routledge. pp. 29–65, at p. 35.  ^ Rose, Richard (2009). Understanding Post-Communist Transformation: A bottom up approach. Routledge. p. 131.  ^ Compare: Remington, Thomas (2013). Patronage and the Party of Power: President—Parliament Relations under Vladimir Putin. Power and Policy in Putin's Russia. Routledge. p. 106. Retrieved 22 August 2016. The party of power in Russia
Russia
has not achieved [..] single-minded mastery of the power and wealth associated with the control of patronage. The party is united only in its support for and dependence on the Kremlin; it is divided when its principal clients take opposing sides. [...] United Russia
Russia
is not a programmatic party, but a mechanism for extracting rents and distributing patronage. [...] In Russia, the party is the creature of the presidency. [...] [T]he construction of a lasting party of power such as united Russia requires a sustained commitment on the part of the authorities, one which president Putin has been willing to undertake. [...] [T]he concerted effort by President Putin's administration to build up a lasting party of power is a significant development in post-1993 Russian politics [...].  ^ Moraski, Bryon J. (2013). The Duma's electoral system: Lessons in endogeneity. Routledge Handbook of Russian Politics and Society. Routledge. p. 109. Retrieved 22 August 2016. With the March 2000 election of President Vladimir Putin, [...] the suspicion was that [...] institutional changes 'could resurrect a system dominated by a single "party of power"' (McFaul 2000, 30). [...] Still, Russia's electoral system remained largely unchanged for the 2003 Duma election, although the results certainly fuelled speculation that a dominant-party-state had begun to emerge. [...] With the union of Fatherland-All Russia
Russia
and Unity, Russia's party of power had changed once again, this time emerging as United Russia. The 2003 Duma election provided some evidence that the electoral system was working in the party of power's favour.  ^ Mezhuev, Boris V. (2013). Democracy in Russia: Problems of Legitimacy. Power and Legitimacy—Challenges from Russia. Routledge. p. 115.  ^ White, Stephen (2011). Understanding Russian Politics. Cambridge University Press. p. 362.  ^ a b c d e f g h Hale, Henry E. (2010). "Russia's political parties and their substitutes". In White, Stephen. Developments in Russian Politics 7. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-22449-0.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j McFaul, Michael; Stoner-Weiss, Kathryn (2010). "Elections and Voters". In White, Stephen. Developments in Russian Politics 7. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-22449-0.  ^ a b c White, Stephen (2005). "The Political Parties". In White, Gitelman, Sakwa. Developments in Russian Politics. 6. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3522-0. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ a b c d e Remington, Thomas F. (2010). "Parliamentary Politics in Russia". In White, Stephen. Developments in Russian Politics 7. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-22449-0.  ^ "The Putin Paradox". Americanprogress.org. 24 June 2004. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ Sharlet, Robert (2005). "In Search of the Rule of Law". In White, Gitelman, Sakwa. Developments in Russian Politics. 6. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3522-0. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ "Russians complain of being pressured to vote". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 2 December 2007. Archived from the original on 8 February 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.  ^ a b "Medvedev hails, opponents decry Kremlin
Kremlin
party win" (12 October 2009). Reuters. ^ "Pro- Kremlin
Kremlin
party sweeps Moscow
Moscow
elections" (12 October 2009). Associated Press. ^ "Poll ratings of Russia's Putin, Medvedev tumble". Kyiv Post. Reuters. 2 November 2009. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010.  ^ "Voting Behaviour – Duma". Levada. ^ "Russia's Agrarian Party to merge with United Russia". Xinhuanet. China View. Retrieved 19 December 2014.  ^ Путин уверен в победе 'Единой России' [Putin is confident of victory for 'United Russia']. inotv.rt.com (in Russian). 24 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.  ^ "Medvedev vozglavit spisok Edinoj-Rossii". Archived 27 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Медведев рекомендовал Путина в президенты" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 29 September 2013.  ^ "Народ к возврату готов" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ "Единая Россия официальный сайт партии / Новости / "Единая Россия" подала в ЦИК РФ список народных кандидатов в Госдуму" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ "Д. Медведев единолично возглавил федеральный список "ЕР"". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ "Речи Медведева и Путина стали предвыборной программой "Единой России"" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ Дмитрий Медведев избран председателем «Единой России», 26 May 2012, Vesti.ru ^ ""Единая Россия" откажется от портретов Путина и Медведева" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ "Полсотни красноярских единоросов вышли из партии" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ "United Russia
Russia
to have 238 seats at new State Duma" (6 December 2011). itar-tass.com. ^ "Комитеты и комиссии Государственной Думы". duma.gov.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 21 December 2017.  ^ "Комитеты и комиссии Государственной Думы". duma.gov.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 21 December 2017.  ^ "Состав Совета Государственной Думы". duma.gov.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 21 December 2017.  ^ "Russian Justice Ministry Warns RFE/RL As Duma Passes New Media Restrictions". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2017-12-21.  ^ "Володин Вячеслав Викторович". duma.gov.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 21 December 2017.  ^ Morozov, Oleg (15 April 2006). Центризм – это антирадикализм [ Centrism
Centrism
– is anti-radicalism]. United Russia
Russia
Official Site (in Russian). Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ a b Reuter, Ora John (26 November 2011). "United Russia
Russia
and the 2011 Elections" (PDF). Russia
Russia
Analytical Digest. Research Centre for East European Studies at the University of Bremen (102): 2–6. ISSN 1863-0421. Retrieved 1 April 2006.  ^ The information from the Encyclopedia of communism (English translation). ^ The Council of Europe resolution 1481
Council of Europe resolution 1481
(official text). ^ Goble, Paul A. (January 20, 2015). "Alfred Koch: Putin's rejection of science and fear of the educated destroying Russia's future". Euromaidan Press. Retrieved 13 June 2017.  ^ Sergei Prozorov. "Russian conservatism in the Putin presidency: The dispersion of a hegemonic discourse". Journal of Political Ideologies 10.2 (2005): 121–143. ^ Marlene Laruelle. "The Izborsky Club, or the New Conservative Avant‐Garde in Russia". Russian Review 75.4 (2016): 626–644. ^ Sirke Mäkinen. "Surkovian narrative on the future of Russia: making Russia
Russia
a world leader". Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 27#2 (2011): 143–165. ^ Mark Woods. "How the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
is backing Vladimir Putin's new world order" (3 March 2016). Christian Today. ^ Andrew Higgins. "In Expanding Russian Influence, Faith Combines With Firepower" (13 September 2016). The New York Times. ^ Yevgeny Utkin. "Seven parties, one virtually certain outcome" (23 November 2011). Russia
Russia
Beyond the Headlines. ^ "Putin's 'Party of Power' and the Declining Power of Parties in Russia" (April 2005). The Foreign Policy Centre. ^ "What is Russian party of power?" (14 June 2005). RIA Novosti. ^ Smale, Alison. "Austria's Far Right Signs a Cooperation Pact With Putin's Party". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2017.  ^ "ЕР заключила договор о взаимодействии с итальянской партией "Лига Севера"" (in Russian). RIA. Retrieved 6 March 2017.  ^ Rettman, Andrew (7 March 2017). " Moscow
Moscow
'ready' to sign pact with Italy's Grillo". Brussels: Euobserver.com. Retrieved 29 October 2017.  ^ "武部幹事長が「統一ロシア」の訪日団と会談]」" (in Japanese). 1 November 2004.  ^ "Russian PM Putin to open official party branch in Israel". Haaretz. Israel. Retrieved 13 April 2010.  ^ "Putin to lead United Russia
Russia
party" (15 April 2008). BBC News. Retrieved on 6 December 2011. ^ "Putin Named Party Chairman". Archived 22 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. The Moscow
Moscow
News (17 April 2008). Retrieved on 6 December 2011. ^ " Russia
Russia
PM Medvedev set to be elected United Russia
Russia
leader" (26 May 2012). BBC. Retrieved on 1 June 2012. ^ "Medvedev 'tweet' sends the Russian blogosphere into a frenzy". The Guardian. 7 December 2011.  ^ a b "Police and protesters clash in Moscow
Moscow
after election protests". The Daily Telegraph. 6 December 2011.  ^ "«Жулики и воры» пошли по рукам" (12 October 2011). Novaya Gazeta. ^ "Putin Faces Push to Regain Support After Election". The Wall Street Journal. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2011.  ^ Schwirtz, Michael (28 December 2011). "An Insider Takes a Public Stand Against Putin's Party". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

Hale, Henry E. (2004). "The Origins of United Russia
Russia
and the Putin Presidency: The Role of Contingency in Party-System Development" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya. 12 (2): 169–194.  Jeffries, Ian (2011). Political Developments in Contemporary Russia. Routledge.  Laruelle, Marlène (2009). "Nationalism as Conservative Centrism: United Russia". In the Name of the Nation: Nationalism and Politics in Contemporary Russia. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 119–152.  White, Stephen (2013). Russia's Client Party System. Politics In Russia: A Reader. CQ Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199289653.001.0001. ISBN 9780199289653. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to United Russia.

Official website of United Russia
Russia
(in Russian) Official website of the Duma fraction (in Russian) Youth wing of the party (in Russian)

v t e

United Russia

Chairmen

Sergey Shoygu/Yuri Luzhkov/ Mintimer Shaimiev
Mintimer Shaimiev
(2001–2005) Boris Gryzlov
Boris Gryzlov
(2005–2007) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007–2012) Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
(2012–)

Presidents

Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
(2008–2012) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2012–)

Prime Ministers

Viktor Zubkov
Viktor Zubkov
(2007–2008) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2008–2012) Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
(2012–)

Federation Council Chairmen

Aleksander Torshin[1] (2011) Valentina Matviyenko
Valentina Matviyenko
(2011–)

State Duma
State Duma
Chairmen

Boris Gryzlov
Boris Gryzlov
(2003–2011) Sergey Naryshkin
Sergey Naryshkin
(2011–2016) Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Volodin
(2016–)

Parliamentary Leaders

Boris Gryzlov
Boris Gryzlov
(2003–2011) Andrey Vorobyov (2011–2012) Vladimir Vasilyev (2012–2017) Sergey Neverov
Sergey Neverov
(2017–)

Presidential candidates

Vladimir Putin[2] (2004) Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
(2008) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2012) Vladimir Putin[2] (2018)

Notes

^ Acting Chairman ^ a b Supported by the party, but was nominated as an independent candidate

v t e

Registered political parties in Russia

Represented in State Duma

United Russia
Russia
(339) Communist Party (42) Liberal Democratic Party (40) A Just Russia
Russia
(23) Rodina (1) Civic Platform (1)

Only in regional parliaments

Patriots of Russia Communist Party of Social Justice Communists of Russia Green Alliance Russian Party of Pensioners for Social Justice Yabloko Party of Growth People's Freedom Party

Other registered (in the Justice Ministry's order)

Democratic Party of Russia People's Party for the Women of Russia Union Towns People People's Party of Russia Social Democratic Party of Russia Cities of Russia Young Russia New Russia Party of Free Citizens Russian Ecological Party "The Greens" Agrarian Party of Russia Russian All-People's Union Party for Justice Civilian Power Clever Russia Monarchist Party Home Country Party of Peace and Unity Democratic Choice Will Against All Russian United Labour Front Party Action Civil Position Party of Russia's Rebirth

Official list of parties registered by the Ministry of Justice Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of Russia Russian political movements and non-registered parties

v t e

Vladimir Putin

2nd and 4th President of Russia
Russia
(2000–2008, 2012–present) 33rd Prime Minister of Russia
Russia
(1999–2000, 2008–2012)

Political activities

Electoral history 2000 presidential election 2004 presidential election 2012 presidential election 2018 presidential election (Campaign) First Cabinet Second Cabinet United Russia All- Russia
Russia
People's Front

Presidency

First inauguration Second inauguration Third inauguration Fourth inauguration K-141 Kursk Mikhail Khodorkovsky Yukos Alexander Litvinenko Political groups Russian taxes reforms Russian administrative reform 2006 Russian municipal reform Russian educational reform National Priority Projects National champions Russian housing reform 2002 Russian pension reform Monetization of benefits in Russia Putin's Plan Russian compatriots return program Stabilization Fund of the Russian Federation Speeches

Munich speech Crimean speech Valdai speech

Critics

Putin Must Go Putinism Putin. Corruption Sovereign democracy Putin's Palace Putin. War

Foreign policy

International presidential trips Increasing role in the European energy sector Nord Stream Russia–Ukraine gas disputes Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty Russian military intervention in Ukraine Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War

military intervention

Internal policy

Federal districts of Russia Legislation and programs Great Recession in Russia Russian financial crisis (2014–2017)

Family

Vladimir S. Putin† (father) Maria Putina† (mother) Viktor Putin† (brother) Albert Putin† (brother) Lyudmila Putina
Lyudmila Putina
(former wife) Katerina Tikhonova
Katerina Tikhonova
(daughter) Maria Putina (daughter) Pets of Vladimir Putin

Konni (family dog)

Public image

Chapel of Russia's Resurrection Happy Birthday, Mr. Putin! Nashi movement Places named after Putin

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Peak Putin Prospect (Grozny)

Poyushchie vmeste Putinland PutinTeam Putin's rynda Walking Together

← Boris Yeltsin Category:Vladimir Putin Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev

v t e

Dmitry Medvedev

Born 14 September 1965 3rd President of Russia
Russia
(2008–2012) 39th Prime Minister of Russia
Russia
(2012–present)

Political activities

2008 presidential election Inauguration Presidency Premiership Leadership of United Russia

Internal policy

Medvedev modernisation programme Amendments to the Constitution Skolkovo Innovation Center Police reform Military reform Anti-corruption campaign

Foreign policy

Russo-Georgian War List of international trips New START

Family

Svetlana Medvedeva
Svetlana Medvedeva
(spouse) Ilya Medvedev (son) Dorofei
Dorofei
(family cat)

See also

He Is Not Dimon to You 2017–2018 Russian protests

← Vladimir Putin Category:Dmitry Medvedev Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin

v t e

Russian nationalism

History

Russification Slavophilia Pochvennichestvo Western Ukrainian Russophiles White
White
movement Smenovekhovtsy Soviet socialist patriotism Russian March

2006

2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine

Concepts

All-Russian nation Collector of Russian lands Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality Russia
Russia
for Russians Russophilia Soviet nostalgia Third Rome

Variants

Eurasianism National Bolshevism Nashism Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Pan-Slavism Putinism Radical nationalism

Organizations

Black Hundreds CPRF Derzhava Donetsk Republic DPNI ESM Essence of Time Eurasia Party FNS Format18 Great Russia KRO LDPR LDPSU Mladorossi Nashi (1991) Nashi (2005) NBF NBP NDPR New Russia
Russia
Party NNP Nochnoy Dozor NSO NSPR NTS ONF The Other Russia Pamyat Patriots of Russia PDV Peace for Lugansk Region People's Union Primorsky Partisans Republican Party of Crimea RFO RFP RGFD RMU RNE RNS Rodina RONDD RONS ROS ROVS Russian Assembly Russian Bloc
Russian Bloc
(2001) Russian Bloc
Russian Bloc
(2002) Russian Goal Russian National Party Russian Unity The Saviour SFM Slavic Party Slavic Union Spiritual Heritage Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (Boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (Girls) Young Guard of United Russia VFO WWN

Literature

Fashist Foundations of Geopolitics The Last Will of a Russian Fascist Nash Put' Sankya

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 204108037 LCCN: nr200400431

.