United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973
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Resolution 1973 was adopted by the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, secu ...

United Nations Security Council
on 17 March 2011 in response to the
First Libyan Civil War The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes define ...
. The Security Council resolution was proposed by
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
,
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is located between Syria to Lebanon–Syria border, the north and east and Israel to Blue Line ...

Lebanon
, and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. Ten
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the Organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international security, international peace and security, recommending the admission ...

Security Council
members voted in the affirmative (
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
,
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conve ...

Colombia
,
Gabon Gabon (; ), officially the Gabonese Republic (french: République gabonaise), is a country on the west coast of . Located on the , Gabon is bordered by to the northwest, to the north, the on the east and south, and the to the west. It has ...

Gabon
,
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is located between Syria to Lebanon–Syria border, the north and east and Israel to Blue Line ...

Lebanon
,
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, C ...

Nigeria
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, ...

Portugal
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...

South Africa
, and permanent members
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
). Five (
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both and . At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the ...

Brazil
,
Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north, and the to the south; it covers an area of ...

Germany
, and
India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the southeast, it shares land borders wit ...

India
, and permanent members
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
) abstained, with none opposed. The resolution formed the legal basis for
military intervention An invasion is a military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ''gê'' "earth, land" and πολιτική ''politikḗ'' "politics") is the study of the effects of Earth's geography ...
in the
Libyan Civil War Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Lib ...
, demanding "an immediate
ceasefire A ceasefire (or truce), also spelled cease fire (the antonym of 'open fire'), is a temporary stoppage of a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governi ...
" and authorizing the international community to establish a
no-fly zone A no-fly zone, also known as a no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone (AEZ), is a territory or area established by a military power over which certain aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support f ...
and to use all means necessary short of foreign occupation to protect civilians.


Resolution


Key points

The resolution, adopted under
Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter Chapter VII of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co ...
: * demands the immediate establishment of a ceasefire and a complete end to violence and all attacks against, and abuses of, civilians; * imposes a no-fly zone over Libya; * authorizes "all necessary measures ..to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Gaddafi at the 12th African Union conference in 2009 Muammar Gaddafi became the ''de facto'' leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against Idris of Libya, King Idris I in a 1969 Libyan cou ...

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
, including
Benghazi () , ; it, Bengasi; tr, Bingazi; ber, Bernîk, script=Latn; also: ''Bengasi'', ''Benghasi'', ''Banghāzī'', ''Binghāzī'', ''Bengazi''; grc, Βερενίκη (') and '., group=note (''lit. Son of he'') is a city in . Located on the in t ...
, while excluding a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory"; * strengthens the
arms embargoAn arms embargo is a restriction or a set of sanctions that applies either solely to weaponry or also to " dual-use technology." An arms embargo may serve one or more purposes: * to signal disapproval of the behavior of a certain actor * to maintain ...
and particularly action against
mercenaries A mercenary, sometimes known as a soldier of fortune, is a private individual, particularly a soldier, who takes part in military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and ...
, by allowing for forcible inspections of ships and planes; * imposes a ban on all Libyan-designated flights; * imposes an asset freeze on assets owned by the Libyan authorities, and reaffirms that such assets should be used for the benefit of the Libyan people; * extends the travel ban and assets freeze of
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be ...
to a number of additional individuals and Libyan entities; * establishes a panel of experts to monitor and promote sanctions implementation.


Arming anti-Gaddafi forces

In a few weeks of crisis, Gaddafi's forces had killed more than 1,000 people. The arms embargo imposed by paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 would have prevented arms being supplied to anyone in Libya. However, the resolution modified resolution 1970 with the wording "all necessary measures, notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970" if doing so would protect civilians.
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the from 2009 to 2013, as a from from 2001 to 2009, and as from 1993 to 2001 as the wife ...

Hillary Clinton
argued that, though arming anti-Gaddafi forces was not being proposed at the time, it would be legal to do so.


Voting

* Permanent members of the Security Council are in bold. Permanent members China and Russia had reservations about the no-fly zone, including the practicalities of enforcing such a zone and concerns about the use of force when other means had not been exhausted, but had noted requests by the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
and the "special situation" in Libya and therefore
abstained
abstained
. African members of the Security Council condemned the actions of the Libyan regime and supported the text. The following day, Chancellor
Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel (; ; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician and scientist who served as the chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the federal chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanz ...

Angela Merkel
said that Germany would not take part in the military operation, but added: "We unreservedly share the aims of this resolution. Our abstention should not be confused with neutrality." However, her foreign minister
Guido Westerwelle Guido Westerwelle (; 27 December 1961 – 18 March 2016) was a German politician who served as Foreign Minister A foreign affairs minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly minister for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet mini ...

Guido Westerwelle
had publicly stated his opposition to the resolution. India
abstained
abstained
because it perceived the resolution as being based on uncertain information (lack of "credible information on the situation on the ground in Libya") and as being too open-ended (lacking "clarity about details of enforcement measures, including who and with what assets will participate and how these measures will be exactly carried out"). Brazil too
abstained
abstained
noting the fundamental contradiction in using force to achieve an "immediate end to violence and the protection of civilians". They believed that the use of force "may have the unintended effect of exacerbating tensions on the ground and causing more harm than good to the very same civilians we are committed to protecting". The Brazilian Ambassador Mrs. Viotti further observed that "...an important aspect of the popular movement in North Africa and the Middle East is their spontaneous, homegrown nature. We are also concerned about the possibility that the use of military force, as called for in paragraph 4 of today's resolution, could change that narrative in ways that may have serious repercussions for the situation in Libya and beyond."


Libyan response

On 18 March,
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Ling ...
's government announced that they would comply with the resolution and implement a ceasefire. However, it quickly became clear that no ceasefire had in fact been implemented. Libyan opposition forces in
Benghazi () , ; it, Bengasi; tr, Bingazi; ber, Bernîk, script=Latn; also: ''Bengasi'', ''Benghasi'', ''Banghāzī'', ''Binghāzī'', ''Bengazi''; grc, Βερενίκη (') and '., group=note (''lit. Son of he'') is a city in . Located on the in t ...
cheered and fired guns and fireworks into the air as the resolution was adopted. A few hours before issuing the resolution, Gaddafi warned the opposition with a speech saying, "We are coming tonight, and there will be no mercy".


Implementation

Military intervention in Libya began on 19 March, as fighter jets of the
French Air Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air force, air and space force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the , a service arm of the French Army, and then made an independent milita ...
destroyed several pro-Gaddafi vehicles advancing on rebel stronghold
Benghazi () , ; it, Bengasi; tr, Bingazi; ber, Bernîk, script=Latn; also: ''Bengasi'', ''Benghasi'', ''Banghāzī'', ''Binghāzī'', ''Bengazi''; grc, Βερενίκη (') and '., group=note (''lit. Son of he'') is a city in . Located on the in t ...
.
U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...

U.S.
and
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
submarines then fired over 110
Tomahawk Image:Tomakawk-rmj.JPG, Pipe tomahawk A tomahawk is a type of single-handed axe native to the many Native Americans in the United States, Indigenous peoples and nations of North America, traditionally resembling a hatchet with a straight shaft. T ...
cruise missile A cruise missile is a Missile, guided missile used against terrestrial targets, that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead ...
s at targets throughout Libya, severely disabling the regime's
air defense Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is the battlespace Battle-space is a term used to signify a unified military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals ...
capability and allowing a wider enforcement of the no-fly zone to begin. A coalition of 10 states from
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
and the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
initially participated in the intervention, later expanding to 17. On 31 March,
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. Th ...
assumed command of the operation. The intervention succeeded in preventing pro-Gaddafi forces from capturing Benghazi. On 24 August, it was acknowledged for the first time that
special forces Special forces and special operations forces (SOF) are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained, and equipped forces ...

special forces
troops from Britain, Italy, France, Jordan,
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar, قطر, Qaṭar ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar,) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares its ...

Qatar
,Hunt is on for safe houses where dictator can lie low , News
Evening Standard The ''Evening Standard'', formerly ''The Standard'' (1827–1904), also known as the ''London Evening Standard'', is a local free daily newspaper in London, England, published Monday to Friday in Tabloid (newspaper format), tabloid format. ...
and the
UAE The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoff ...

UAE
had intervened on the ground in Libyan territory, stepping up operations in Tripoli and other cities. This has been questioned as a possible violation of Resolution 1973George Gran
''Special Forces in Libya: A Breach of UNSCR 1973?''
25 August 2011
although the use of special forces is not prohibited by the resolution.


See also

*
Foreign relations of Libya The foreign relations of Libya were largely reset at the end of the Libyan Civil War Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other as ...
* List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1901 to 2000 (2009–2011) *
United Nations Security Council Resolution 678 United Nations Security Council Resolution 678, adopted on 29 November 1990, after reaffirming resolutions United Nations Security Council Resolution 660, 660, United Nations Security Council Resolution 661, 661, United Nations Security Council ...
*
Responsibility to protect The Responsibility to Protect (R2P or RtoP) is a global political commitment which was endorsed by all member states of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace ...


References


External links

*
Text of the Resolution at undocs.orgUN Security Council Resolution 1973 (2011) on Libya – full text
– ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ' and ', ''The Guardian'' is part of the , owned by the . The trust was created ...

The Guardian
''
UN Security Council's Press Release on Resolution 1973 (2011)
(accessed 2011-03-19).
Analysis of resolution
BBC News BBC News is an operational business division of the United Kingdom’s state affiliated media British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting Hou ...

BBC News
{{2011 Libyan civil war 1973 First Libyan Civil War 2011 in Libya United Nations Security Council resolutions concerning Libya, 1973 International reactions to the Arab Spring March 2011 events