Amr Abdellatif Aboulatta
The UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC) is one of the six
principal organs of the
United Nations , charged with the maintenance
of international peace and security as well as accepting new members
United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations
Charter . Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping
operations, the establishment of international sanctions , and the
authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions
; it is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding
resolutions to member states. The Security Council held its first
session on 17 January 1946.
Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following
War II to address the failings of a previous international
League of Nations
League of Nations , in maintaining world peace. In
its early decades, the body was largely paralyzed by the Cold War
division between the US and USSR and their respective allies, though
it authorized interventions in the Korean
War and the
Congo Crisis and
peacekeeping missions in the
Suez Crisis ,
Cyprus , and West New
Guinea . With the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping
efforts increased dramatically in scale, and the Security Council
authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait ,
Namibia , Cambodia , Bosnia , Rwanda , Somalia , Sudan , and the
Democratic Republic of Congo .
The Security Council consists of fifteen members . The great powers
that were the victors of World
War II —the
Soviet Union (now
Russia ), the
United Kingdom ,
France , Republic of
China (now represented by the People\'s Republic of
China ), and the
United States —serve as the body's five permanent members. These
permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council
resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or
candidates for Secretary-General. The Security Council also has 10
non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year
terms. The body's presidency rotates monthly among its members.
Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by UN
peacekeepers , military forces voluntarily provided by member states
and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016 , 103,510
peacekeepers and 16,471 civilians were deployed on sixteen
peacekeeping operations and one special political mission.
Permanent members: 5 seats (China, France, Russia, UK, US) Temporary
members: 10 seats
* 1 History
* 1.1 Background and creation
* 1.2 Cold
* 1.3 Post-Cold
* 2 Role
* 3 Members
* 3.1 Permanent members
* 3.1.1 Veto power
* 3.2 Non-permanent members
* 3.3 President
* 4 Meeting locations
* 4.1 Consultation room
* 5 Subsidiary organs/bodies
United Nations peacekeepers
* 7 Criticism and evaluations
* 8 Membership reform
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 11.1 Citations
* 11.2 Sources
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
BACKGROUND AND CREATION
In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international
treaty organizations and conferences had been formed to regulate
conflicts between nations, such as the International Committee of the
Red Cross and the
Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 . Following the
catastrophic loss of life in World
War I , the Paris Peace Conference
League of Nations
League of Nations to maintain harmony between the
nations. This organization successfully resolved some territorial
disputes and created international structures for areas such as postal
mail, aviation, and opium control, some of which would later be
absorbed into the UN. However, the League lacked representation for
colonial peoples (then half the world's population) and significant
participation from several major powers, including the US, USSR,
Germany, and Japan; it failed to act against the 1931 Japanese
invasion of Manchuria , the Second Italo-Ethiopian
War in 1935, the
1937 Japanese occupation of
China , and Nazi expansions under Adolf
Hitler that escalated into World
War II . British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill , US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt , and Soviet
Joseph Stalin at the
Yalta Conference , February
The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under
the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. Roosevelt first coined
the term _United Nations_ to describe the Allied countries ."On New
Year’s Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill,
Maxim Litvinov , of the USSR, and
T. V. Soong , of China, signed a
short document which later came to be known as the United Nations
Declaration and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other
nations added their signatures." The term _United Nations_ was first
officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. By 1
March 1945, 21 additional states had signed. "
Four Policemen " was
coined to refer to the four major Allied countries: the United States,
the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China, which was emerged in
United Nations and became the foundation of an
executive branch of the United Nations, the Security Council.
In mid-1944, the delegations from the Allied "Big Four ", the Soviet
Union , the UK , the US and
China , met for the Dumbarton Oaks
Conference in Washington, D.C. to negotiate the UN's structure, and
the composition of the UN Security Council quickly became the dominant
issue. France, the Republic of
China , the Soviet Union, the UK, and
US were selected as permanent members of the Security Council; the US
attempted to add
Brazil as a sixth member, but was opposed by the
heads of the Soviet and British delegations. The most contentious
issue at Dumbarton and in successive talks proved to be the veto
rights of permanent members. The Soviet delegation argued that each
nation should have an absolute veto that could block matters from even
being discussed, while the British argued that nations should not be
able to veto resolutions on disputes to which they were a party. At
Yalta Conference of February 1945, the American, British, and
Russian delegations agreed that each of the "Big Five" could veto any
action by the council, but not procedural resolutions, meaning that
the permanent members could not prevent debate on a resolution.
On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization
began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of
non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations
Charter . At the conference,
H. V. Evatt
H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation
pushed to further restrict the veto power of Security Council
permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto
would cause the conference's failure, his proposal was defeated twenty
votes to ten.
The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon
ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the
Security Council and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. On 17
January 1946, the Security Council met for the first time at Church
House, Westminster , in London, United Kingdom. Church House in
London where the first Security Council Meeting took place on 17
The Security Council was largely paralysed in its early decades by
War between the US and USSR and their allies, and the Council
generally was only able to intervene in unrelated conflicts. (A
notable exception was the 1950 Security Council resolution authorizing
a US-led coalition to repel the North Korean invasion of South Korea ,
passed in the absence of the USSR.) In 1956, the first UN
peacekeeping force was established to end the
Suez Crisis ; however,
the UN was unable to intervene against the USSR's simultaneous
invasion of Hungary following that country\'s revolution . Cold War
divisions also paralysed the Security Council's Military Staff
Committee , which had been formed by Articles 45–47 of the UN
Charter to oversee UN forces and create UN military bases. The
committee continued to exist on paper but largely abandoned its work
in the mid-1950s.
In 1960, the UN deployed the
United Nations Operation in the Congo
(UNOC), the largest military force of its early decades, to restore
order to the breakaway
State of Katanga , restoring it to the control
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo by 1964. However, the
Security Council found itself bypassed in favour of direct
negotiations between the superpowers in some of the decade's larger
conflicts, such as the
Cuban missile crisis or the Vietnam
Focusing instead on smaller conflicts without an immediate Cold War
connection, the Security Council deployed the
United Nations Temporary
Executive Authority in
West New Guinea in 1962 and the United Nations
Peacekeeping Force in
Cyprus in 1964, the latter of which would become
one of the UN's longest-running peacekeeping missions.
On 25 October 1971, over US opposition but with the support of many
Third World nations, the mainland, communist People\'s Republic of
China was given the Chinese seat on the Security Council in place of
Taiwan ; the vote was widely seen as a sign of waning US influence in
the organization. With an increasing
Third World presence and the
failure of UN mediation in conflicts in the Middle East , Vietnam ,
and Kashmir , the UN increasingly shifted its attention to its
ostensibly secondary goals of economic development and cultural
exchange. By the 1970s, the UN budget for social and economic
development was far greater than its budget for peacekeeping.
US Secretary of State
Colin Powell holds a model vial of anthrax
while giving a presentation to the Security Council in February 2003.
After the Cold War, the UN saw a radical expansion in its
peacekeeping duties, taking on more missions in ten years' time than
it had in its previous four decades. Between 1988 and 2000, the
number of adopted Security Council resolutions more than doubled, and
the peacekeeping budget increased more than tenfold. The UN
negotiated an end to the Salvadoran Civil
War , launched a successful
peacekeeping mission in Namibia , and oversaw democratic elections in
post-apartheid South Africa and post-
Khmer Rouge Cambodia. In 1991,
the Security Council demonstrated its renewed vigor by condemning the
Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on the same day of the attack, and later
authorizing a US-led coalition that successfully repulsed the Iraqis.
Brian Urquhart later described the hopes raised
by these successes as a "false renaissance" for the organization,
given the more troubled missions that followed.
Though the UN Charter had been written primarily to prevent
aggression by one nation against another, in the early 1990s, the UN
faced a number of simultaneous, serious crises within nations such as
Somalia, Haiti, Mozambique, and the former Yugoslavia. The UN mission
in Somalia was widely viewed as a failure after the US withdrawal
following casualties in the Battle of Mogadishu , and the UN mission
to Bosnia faced "worldwide ridicule" for its indecisive and confused
mission in the face of ethnic cleansing. In 1994, the United Nations
Assistance Mission for Rwanda failed to intervene in the Rwandan
Genocide in the face of Security Council indecision.
In the late 1990s, UN-authorised international interventions took a
wider variety of forms. The UN mission in the 1991–2002 Sierra Leone
War was supplemented by British
Royal Marines , and the
UN-authorised 2001 invasion of Afghanistan was overseen by
NATO . In
2003, the US invaded Iraq despite failing to pass a UN Security
Council resolution for authorization, prompting a new round of
questioning of the organization's effectiveness. In the same decade,
the Security Council intervened with peacekeepers in crises including
Darfur in Sudan and the
Kivu conflict in the Democratic
Republic of Congo. In 2013, an internal review of UN actions in the
final battles of the Sri Lankan Civil
War in 2009 concluded that the
organization had suffered "systemic failure". In November/December
Egypt presented a motion proposing an expansion of the NPT
(non-Proliferation Treaty ), to include
Iran ; this
proposal was due to increasing hostilities and destruction in the
Middle-East connected to the Syrian Conflict as well as others. All
members of the Security Council are signatory to the NPT.
UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS
UN Security Council · UNBISnet ·
1 to 100 (1946–1953)
101 to 200 (1953–1965)
201 to 300 (1965–1971)
301 to 400 (1971–1976)
401 to 500 (1976–1982)
501 to 600 (1982–1987)
601 to 700 (1987–1991)
701 to 800 (1991–1993)
801 to 900 (1993–1994)
901 to 1000 (1994–1995)
1001 to 1100 (1995–1997)
1101 to 1200 (1997–1998)
1201 to 1300 (1998–2000)
1301 to 1400 (2000–2002)
1401 to 1500 (2002–2003)
1501 to 1600 (2003–2005)
1601 to 1700 (2005–2006)
1701 to 1800 (2006–2008)
1801 to 1900 (2008–2009)
1901 to 2000 (2009–2011)
2001 to 2100 (2011–2013)
2101 to 2200 (2013–2015)
2201 to 2300 (2015–2016)
2301 to 2400 (2016–_present_)
Wikisource has original text related to this article: PORTAL:UNITED
NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS
The UN's role in international collective security is defined by the
UN Charter, which authorizes the Security Council to investigate any
situation threatening international peace; recommend procedures for
peaceful resolution of a dispute; call upon other member nations to
completely or partially interrupt economic relations as well as sea,
air, postal, and radio communications, or to sever diplomatic
relations; and enforce its decisions militarily, or by any means
necessary. The Security Council also recommends the new
Secretary-General to the General Assembly and recommends new states
for admission as member states of the
United Nations . The Security
Council has traditionally interpreted its mandate as covering only
military security, though US Ambassador Richard Holbrooke
controversially persuaded the body to pass a resolution on HIV/AIDS in
Africa in 2000.
Under Chapter VI of the Charter, "Pacific Settlement of Disputes",
the Security Council "may investigate any dispute, or any situation
which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute".
The Council may "recommend appropriate procedures or methods of
adjustment" if it determines that the situation might endanger
international peace and security. These recommendations are generally
considered to not be binding, as they lack an enforcement mechanism.
A minority of scholars, such as
Stephen Zunes , have argued that
resolutions made under Chapter VI are "still directives by the
Security Council and differ only in that they do not have the same
stringent enforcement options, such as the use of military force".
Under Chapter VII , the Council has broader power to decide what
measures are to be taken in situations involving "threats to the
peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression". In such
situations, the Council is not limited to recommendations but may take
action, including the use of armed force "to maintain or restore
international peace and security". This was the legal basis for UN
armed action in Korea in 1950 during the Korean
War and the use of
coalition forces in Iraq and Kuwait in 1991 and Libya in 2011.
Decisions taken under Chapter VII, such as economic sanctions , are
binding on UN members; the Security Council is the only UN body with
the authority to issue binding resolutions.
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court recognizes that
the Security Council has authority to refer cases to the Court in
which the Court could not otherwise exercise jurisdiction. The
Council exercised this power for the first time in March 2005, when it
referred to the Court "the situation prevailing in
Darfur since 1 July
2002"; since Sudan is not a party to the Rome Statute, the Court could
not otherwise have exercised jurisdiction. The Security Council made
its second such referral in February 2011 when it asked the ICC to
investigate the Libyan government's violent response to the Libyan
Security Council Resolution 1674 , adopted on 28 April 2006,
"reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World
Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect
populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes
against humanity". The Security Council reaffirmed this
responsibility to protect in Resolution 1706 on 31 August of that
year. These resolutions commit the Security Council to take action to
protect civilians in an armed conflict, including taking action
against genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against
Main article: Permanent members of the
United Nations Security
Council See also:
China and the
United Nations ,
France and the
United Nations ,
Russia and the
United Nations ,
Soviet Union and the
United Nations ,
United Kingdom and the
United Nations , and United
States and the
The Security Council's five permanent members, below, have the power
to veto any substantive resolution; this allows a permanent member to
block adoption of a resolution, but not to prevent or end debate.
CURRENT STATE REPRESENTATION
FORMER STATE REPRESENTATION
People\'s Republic of
China (since 1971)
China (1946–49) (on the Mainland )
China (1949–71) (on
French Fifth Republic (since 1958)
Provisional Government of the French Republic (1945–46)
French Fourth Republic (1946–58)
Russian Federation (since 1992)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1946–91)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United States of America (since 1946)
At the UN's founding in 1945, the five permanent members of the
Security Council were the Republic of
China , the French Republic ,
Soviet Union , the
United Kingdom , and the
United States . There
have been two major seat changes since then. China\'s seat was
originally held by
Chiang Kai-shek 's
Nationalist Government , the
Republic of China. However, the Nationalists were forced to retreat to
the island of
Taiwan in 1949, during the Chinese Civil
War . The
Communist government assumed control of mainland
China , henceforth
known as the People's Republic of China. In 1971, General Assembly
Resolution 2758 recognized the People's Republic as the rightful
China in the UN and gave it the seat on the Security
Council that had been held by the Republic of China, which was
expelled from the UN altogether with no opportunity of membership as a
separate nation. After the dissolution of the
Soviet Union in 1991,
the Russian Federation was recognized as the legal successor state of
Soviet Union and maintained the latter's position on the Security
France reformed its government into the French
Fifth Republic in 1958, under the leadership of
Charles de Gaulle .
France maintained its seat as there was no change in its international
status or recognition, although many of its overseas possessions
eventually became independent.
The five permanent members of the Security Council were the
victorious powers in World
War II and have maintained the world's
most powerful military forces ever since. They annually topped the
list of countries with the highest military expenditures . In 2013,
they spent over US$1 trillion combined on defence, accounting for over
55% of global military expenditures (the US alone accounting for over
35%). They are also among the world's largest arms exporters and
are the only nations officially recognized as "nuclear-weapon states "
under the Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), though there are
other states known or believed to be in possession of nuclear weapons.
Number of resolutions vetoed by each of the five permanent
members of the Security Council between 1946 and 2017 Current
permanent and other members of UNSC Main article: United Nations
Security Council veto power
Under Article 27 of the UN Charter, Security Council decisions on all
substantive matters require the affirmative votes of nine members. A
negative vote or "veto" by a permanent member prevents adoption of a
proposal, even if it has received the required votes. Abstention is
not regarded as a veto in most cases, though all five permanent
members must actively concur to amend the UN Charter or to recommend
the admission of a new UN member state. Procedural matters are not
subject to a veto, so the veto cannot be used to avoid discussion of
an issue. The same holds for certain decisions that directly regard
permanent members. A majority of vetoes are used not in critical
international security situations, but for purposes such as blocking a
candidate for Secretary-General or the admission of a member state.
In the negotiations building up to the creation of the UN, the veto
power was resented by many small countries, and in fact was forced on
them by the veto nations – US, UK, China,
France and the Soviet
Union – through a threat that without the veto there will be no UN.
Here is a description by Francis O. Wilcox, an adviser to US
delegation to the 1945 conference: "At San Francisco, the issue was
made crystal clear by the leaders of the Big Five: it was either the
Charter with the veto or no Charter at all. Senator Connally
dramatically tore up a copy of the Charter during one of his speeches
and reminded the small states that they would be guilty of that same
act if they opposed the unanimity principle. "You may, if you wish,"
he said, "go home from this Conference and say that you have defeated
the veto. But what will be your answer when you are asked: 'Where is
As of 2012, 269 vetoes had been cast since the Security Council's
inception. In this period,
China (ROC/PRC) used the veto 9 times,
France 18, USSR/
Russia 128, the UK 32, and the US 89. Roughly
two-thirds of Soviet/Russian vetoes were in the first ten years of the
Security Council's existence. Between 1996 and 2012,
China vetoed 5
Russia 7, and the US 13, while
France and the UK did not
use the veto.
An early veto by Soviet Commissar
Andrei Vishinsky blocked a
resolution on the withdrawal of French forces from the then-colonies
Syria and Lebanon in February 1946; this veto established the
precedent that permanent members could use the veto on matters outside
of immediate concerns of war and peace. The USSR went on to veto
matters including the admission of Austria, Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland,
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Laos, Libya, Portugal, South Vietnam, and
Transjordan as UN member states, delaying their joining by several
years. Britain and
France used the veto to avoid Security Council
condemnation of their actions in the 1956 Suez Crisis. The first veto
by the US came in 1970, blocking General Assembly action in Southern
Rhodesia . From 1985–90, the US vetoed 27 resolutions, primarily to
block resolutions it perceived as anti-
Israel but also to protect its
interests in Panama and Korea. The USSR, US, and
China have all vetoed
candidates for Secretary-General, with the US using the veto to block
the re-election of
Boutros Boutros-Ghali in 1996. A chart
representing the Security Council seats held by each of the United
Nations Regional Groups . The United States, a WEOG observer, is
treated as if it were a full member. This is not how the seats are
arranged in actual meetings of the Council. African Group
Eastern European Group Group of Latin American
and Caribbean States (GRULAC) Western European and Others Group
See also: List of members of the
United Nations Security Council ;
United Nations Security Council election, 2015 ; and United Nations
Security Council election, 2017
Along with the five permanent members, the Security Council has
temporary members that hold their seats on a rotating basis by
geographic region. Non-permanent members may be involved in global
security briefings. In its first two decades, the Security Council
had six non-permanent members, the first of which were Australia,
Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Poland. In 1965, the
number of non-permanent members was expanded to ten.
These ten non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly
for two-year terms starting on 1 January, with five replaced each
year. To be approved, a candidate must receive at least two-thirds of
all votes cast for that seat, which can result in deadlock if there
are two roughly evenly matched candidates. In 1979, a standoff between
Cuba and Colombia only ended after three months and a record 154
rounds of voting; both eventually withdrew in favour of Mexico as a
compromise candidate. A retiring member is not eligible for immediate
The African Group is represented by three members; the Latin America
and the Caribbean , Asia-Pacific, and Western European and Others
groups by two apiece; and the
Eastern European Group by one.
Traditionally, one of the seats assigned to either the Asia-Pacific
Group or the African Group is filled by a nation from the
Arab world .
Currently, elections for terms beginning in even-numbered years
select two African members, and one each within Eastern Europe,
Asia-Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Terms beginning in
odd-numbered years consist of two Western European and Other members,
and one each from Asia-Pacific, Africa, and Latin America and the
The current elected members, with the regions they were elected to
represent, are as follows:
and Caribbean Western Europe
and Other EASTERN EUROPE
The 2017–18 term will be the first time in over five decades that
two members have agreed to split a term; intractable deadlocks have
instead usually been resolved by the candidate countries withdrawing
in favour of a third member state.
President of the United Nations Security Council
The role of president of the Security Council involves setting the
agenda, presiding at its meetings and overseeing any crisis. The
president is authorized to issue both presidential statements (subject
to consensus among Council members) and notes, which are used to
make declarations of intent that the full Security Council can then
pursue. The presidency of the Council is held by each of the members
in turn for one month, following the English alphabetical order of the
Member States names.
The list of nations that will hold the Presidency in 2017 is as
Security Council Presidency in 2017
Barack Obama chairs a
United Nations Security
Unlike the General Assembly, the Security Council meets year-round.
Each Security Council member must have a representative available at
UN Headquarters at all times in case an emergency meeting becomes
The Security Council generally meets in a designated chamber in the
United Nations Conference Building in New York City, U.S. The chamber
was designed by the Norwegian architect
Arnstein Arneberg and was a
gift from Norway. The mural painted by the Norwegian artist Per Krohg
depicts a phoenix rising from its ashes, symbolic of the world's
rebirth after World
The Security Council has also held meetings in cities including Addis
Ababa , Ethiopia;
Panama City , Panama; and
Geneva , Switzerland. In
March 2010, the Security Council moved into a temporary facility in
the General Assembly Building as its chamber underwent renovations as
part of the UN Capital Master Plan. The renovations were funded by
Norway, the chamber's original donor, for a total cost of US$5
million. The chamber reopened on 16 April 2013.
Because meetings in the Security Council Chamber are covered by the
international press, proceedings are highly theatrical in nature.
Delegates deliver speeches to claim their points and justify their
positions and attack their opponents, playing to the cameras and the
audience at home. Delegations also stage walkouts to express their
disagreement with actions of the Security Council. All of the real
work of the Security Council is done behind closed doors in "informal
consultations." No formal record is kept of the informal
In 1978, the West German government funded the construction of a
conference room next to the Security Council Chamber. Only members of
the Security Council are permitted in the conference room for
consultations. The press is not admitted, and other members of the
United Nations cannot be invited into the consultations. As a result,
the delegations can negotiate with each other in secret, striking
deals and compromises without having their every word transcribed into
the permanent record. The privacy of the conference room also makes it
possible for the delegates to deal with each other in a friendly
manner. In one early consultation, a new delegate from a Communist
nation began a propaganda attack on the United States, only to be told
by the Soviet delegate, "We don't talk that way in here."
By the time a resolution reaches the Security Council Chamber, it has
already been discussed, debated, and amended in the consultations. The
open meeting of the Security Council has become a public ratification
of a decision that has already been reached in private. A permanent
member can cast a "pocket veto" during the informal consultation by
declaring its opposition to a measure. Since a veto would prevent the
resolution from being passed, the sponsor will usually refrain from
putting the resolution to a vote. Resolutions are only vetoed if the
sponsor feels so strongly about a measure that it wishes to force the
permanent member to cast a formal veto.
The Security Council holds far more consultations than public
meetings. In 2012, the Security Council held 160 consultations, 16
private meetings, and 9 public meetings. In times of crisis, the
Security Council still meets primarily in consultations, but it also
holds more public meetings. After the outbreak of the
in 2013, the Security Council returned to the patterns of the Cold
Russia and the Western countries engaged in verbal duels in
front of the television cameras. In 2016, the Security Council held
150 consultations, 19 private meetings, and 68 public meetings.
Article 29 of the Charter provides that the Security Council can
establish subsidiary bodies in order to perform its functions. This
authority is also reflected in Rule 28 of the Provisional Rules of
Procedure. The subsidiary bodies established by the Security Council
are extremely heterogenous. On the one hand, they include bodies such
as the Security Council Committee on Admission of New Members. On the
other hand, both the International Criminal Tribunal for the former
Yugoslavia and the
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda were
also created as subsidiary bodies of the Security Council. The by now
numerous Sanctions Committees (see Category:
United Nations Security
Council sanctions regimes ) established in order to oversee
implementation of the various sanctions regimes are also subsidiary
bodies of the Council.
UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPERS
United Nations peacekeeping and List of United Nations
After approval by the Security Council, the UN may send peacekeepers
to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to
enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants
from resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own
military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member
states. These soldiers are sometimes nicknamed "Blue Helmets" for
their distinctive gear. The peacekeeping force as a whole received
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize in 1988. Bolivian "Blue Helmet " at an
exercise in Chile
In September 2013, the UN had 116,837 peacekeeping soldiers and other
personnel deployed on 15 missions. The largest was the United Nations
Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the
Congo (MONUSCO), which included 20,688 uniformed personnel. The
United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
(UNMOGIP), included 42 uniformed personnel responsible for monitoring
the ceasefire in
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir . Peacekeepers with the United
Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) have been stationed in
the Middle East since 1948, the longest-running active peacekeeping
UN peacekeepers have also drawn criticism in several postings.
Peacekeepers have been accused of child rape, soliciting prostitutes,
or sexual abuse during various peacekeeping missions in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Liberia, Sudan and what is now South
Sudan, Burundi and Ivory Coast. Scientists cited UN peacekeepers
from Nepal as the likely source of the 2010–13 Haiti cholera
outbreak , which killed more than 8,000 Haitians following the 2010
Haiti earthquake .
The budget for peacekeeping is assessed separately from the main UN
organisational budget; in the 2013–2014 fiscal year, peacekeeping
expenditures totalled $7.54 billion. UN peace operations are funded
by assessments, using a formula derived from the regular funding
scale, but including a weighted surcharge for the five permanent
Security Council members. This surcharge serves to offset discounted
peacekeeping assessment rates for less developed countries. In 2013,
the top 10 providers of assessed financial contributions to United
Nations peacekeeping operations were the US (28.38%),
France (7.22%), Germany (7.14%), the
United Kingdom (6.68%), China
Italy (4.45%), Russian Federation (3.15%), Canada (2.98%),
and Spain (2.97%).
CRITICISM AND EVALUATIONS
Main article: Criticism of the
In examining the first sixty years of the Security Council's
existence, British historian
Paul Kennedy concludes that "glaring
failures had not only accompanied the UN's many achievements, they
overshadowed them", identifying the lack of will to prevent ethnic
massacres in Bosnia and Rwanda as particular failures. Kennedy
attributes the failures to the UN's lack of reliable military
resources, writing that "above all, one can conclude that the practice
of announcing (through a Security Council resolution) a new
peacekeeping mission without ensuring that sufficient armed forces
will be available has usually proven to be a recipe for humiliation
A 2005 RAND Corporation study found the UN to be successful in two
out of three peacekeeping efforts. It compared UN nation-building
efforts to those of the United States, and found that seven out of
eight UN cases are at peace. Also in 2005, the Human Security Report
documented a decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights
abuses since the end of the Cold War, and presented evidence, albeit
circumstantial, that international activism—mostly spearheaded by
the UN—has been the main cause of the decline in armed conflict
since the end of the Cold War.
Scholar Sudhir Chella Rajan argued in 2006 that the five permanent
members of the
United Nations Security Council, who are all nuclear
powers, have created an exclusive nuclear club that predominately
addresses the strategic interests and political motives of the
permanent members—for example, protecting the oil-rich Kuwaitis in
1991 but poorly protecting resource-poor Rwandans in 1994. Since
three of the five permanent members are also European, and three or
four are predominantly white Western nations, the Security Council has
been described as a pillar of global apartheid by Titus Alexander ,
former Chair of Westminster
United Nations Association.
The Security Council's effectiveness and relevance is questioned by
some because, in most high-profile cases, there are essentially no
consequences for violating a Security Council resolution. During the
Darfur crisis ,
Janjaweed militias, allowed by elements of the
Sudanese government, committed violence against an indigenous
population, killing thousands of civilians. In the
, Serbian troops committed genocide against
Bosniaks , although
Srebrenica had been declared a UN safe area , protected by 400 armed
The UN Charter gives all three powers of the legislative , executive,
and judiciary branches to the Security Council.
In his inaugural speech at the 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned
Movement in August 2012,
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei criticized the United
Nations Security Council as having an "illogical, unjust and
completely undemocratic structure and mechanism" and called for a
complete reform of the body.
The Security Council has been criticized for failure in resolving
many conflicts, including Cyprus, Sri Lanka, Syria, Kosovo and the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict , reflecting the wider short-comings of
the UN. For example; At the 68th Session of the UN General Assembly,
New Zealand Prime Minister
John Key heavily criticized the UN's
Syria , more than two years after the Syrian civil war
Main article: Reform of the
United Nations Security Council The
G4 nations : Brazil, Germany, India, Japan. Uniting for
Consensus core members Countries that explicitly and openly
support India for UNSC permanent seat. India Support by UN Members
Proposals to reform the Security Council began with the conference
that wrote the UN Charter and have continued to the present day. As
Paul Kennedy writes, "Everyone agrees that the
present structure is flawed. But consensus on how to fix it remains
out of reach."
There has been discussion of increasing the number of permanent
members. The countries who have made the strongest demands for
permanent seats are Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan.
Germany, the main defeated powers in WWII, are now the UN's second-
and third-largest funders respectively, while
Brazil and India are two
of the largest contributors of troops to UN-mandated peace-keeping
Italy, the third main defeated power in WWII and now the UN's
sixth-largest funder, leads a movement known as the Uniting for
Consensus in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats.
Core members of the group include Canada, South Korea, Spain,
Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey, Argentina and Colombia. Their
proposal is to create a new category of seats, still non-permanent,
but elected for an extended duration (semi-permanent seats). As far as
traditional categories of seats are concerned, the UfC proposal does
not imply any change, but only the introduction of small and medium
size states among groups eligible for regular seats. This proposal
includes even the question of veto, giving a range of options that
goes from abolition to limitation of the application of the veto only
to Chapter VII matters.
Former UN Secretary-General
Kofi Annan asked a team of advisers to
come up with recommendations for reforming the
United Nations by the
end of 2004. One proposed measure is to increase the number of
permanent members by five, which, in most proposals, would include
Brazil, Germany, India,
Japan (known as the
G4 nations ), one seat
from Africa (most likely between Egypt, Nigeria or South Africa)
and/or one seat from the
Arab League . On 21 September 2004, the G4
nations issued a joint statement mutually backing each other's claim
to permanent status, together with two African countries. Currently
the proposal has to be accepted by two-thirds of the General Assembly
The permanent members, each holding the right of veto, announced
their positions on Security Council reform reluctantly. The United
States has unequivocally supported the permanent membership of Japan
and lent its support to India and a small number of additional
non-permanent members. The
United Kingdom and
supported the G4 position, with the expansion of permanent and
non-permanent members and the accession of Germany, Brazil, India and
Japan to permanent member status, as well as an increase in the
presence by African countries on the Council.
China has supported the
stronger representation of developing countries and firmly opposed
In 2017, it was reported that the
G4 nations were willing to
temporarily forgo veto power if granted permanent UNSC seat . .
United Nations portal
* Reform of the
United Nations Department of Political Affairs , provides
secretarial support to the Security Council
United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee , a
standing committee of the Security Council
* ^ This figure and the figures that follow exclude vetoes cast to
block candidates for Secretary-General, as these occur in closed
session; 43 such vetoes have occurred.
* ^ "
Peacekeeping Fact Sheet". United Nations. 30 April 2016.
Retrieved 20 June 2016.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , p. 5.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , p. 8.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , p. 10.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , p. 13–24.
* ^ Hoopes & Brinkley 2000 , pp. 1–55.
* ^ "Declaration by United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 1
* ^ Osmańczyk 2004 , p. 2445.
* ^ Urquhart, Brian . _Looking for the Sheriff_. New York Review of
Books, July 16, 1998. access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Gaddis 2000 .
* ^ _Video: Allies Study Post-
War Security Etc. (1944)_. Universal
Newsreel . 1944. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , p. 9.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , pp. 10–13.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Milestones in
United Nations History".
Department of Public Information, United Nations. Retrieved 22
* ^ Schlesinger 2003 , p. 196.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , pp. 18–19.
* ^ "What is the Security Council?". United Nations. Retrieved 24
* ^ Meisler 1995 , p. 35.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , pp. 58–59.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , p. 114.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , pp. 38, 55–56.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Charter of the United Nations: Chapter VII: Action
with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts
of Aggression". United Nations. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , pp. 115–134.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , pp. 61–62.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , pp. 156–157.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , p. 59.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meisler 1995 , pp. 195–197.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , pp. 167–168, 224–225.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , p. 286.
* ^ Fasulo 2004 , p. 43; Meisler 1995 , p. 334.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , pp. 252–256.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , pp. 264–277.
* ^ Meisler 1995 , p. 334.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , pp. 66–67.
* ^ For quotation "worldwide ridicule", see Meisler 1995 , p. 293;
for description of UN missions in Somalia and Bosnia, see Meisler 1995
, pp. 312–329.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , p. 104.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , pp. 110–111.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , p. 111.
* ^ "UN failed during final days of Lankan ethnic war: Ban
Ki-moon". _FirstPost_. Press Trust of India. 25 September 2013.
Retrieved 5 November 2013.
* ^ "UNODA - Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)". _un.org_.
* ^ "Charter of the United Nations: Chapter II: Membership". United
Nations. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ "Charter of the United Nations: Chapter V: The Security
Council". United Nations. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
* ^ Fasulo 2004 , p. 46.
* ^ "Charter of the United Nations: Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement
of Disputes". United Nations. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ See Fomerand 2009 , p. 287; Hillier 1998 , p. 568; Köchler
2001 , p. 21; Matthews 1993 , p. 130; Neuhold 2001 , p. 66. For lack
of enforcement mechanism, see Magliveras 1999 , p. 113.
* ^ Zunes 2004 , p. 291.
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , pp. 56–57.
* ^ "Security Council Approves \'No-Fly Zone\' Over Libya,
Authorizing \'All Necessary Measures\' to Protect Civilians, by Vote
of 10 in Favour with 5 Abasentions". United Nations. 17 March 2011.
Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Fomerand 2009 , p. 287.
* ^ Fasulo 2004 , p. 39.
* ^ Article 13 of the Rome Statute. United Nations. Retrieved 26
* ^ "Security Council Refers Situation in Darfur, Sudan, To
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Nations Security Council. 31 March 2006. Retrieved 14 March 2007.
* ^ Wadhams, Nick (2 April 2005). "Bush relents to allow UN vote on
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* ^ Gray-Block, Aaron and Greg Roumeliotis (27 February 2011).
"Q+A: How will the world\'s war crimes court act on Libya?". Reuters.
Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ "Resolution 1674 (2006)". UN Security Council via Refworld.
Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ Mikulaschek 2010 , p. 20.
* ^ Mikulaschek 2010 , p. 49.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Fasulo 2004 , pp. 40–41.
* ^ Blum 1992 .
* ^ Permanent members of the
United Nations Security Council
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , p. 70.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm
International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ Nichols, Michelle (27 July 2012). "
United Nations fails to
agree landmark arms-trade treaty". Reuters. Retrieved 26 November
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Testing and Negotiation of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty". Global
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the Veto in the Security Council". Retrieved 25 August 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Changing Patterns in the Use of the Veto in The
Security Council" (PDF). Global Policy Forum. Retrieved 26 November
* ^ Wilcox 1945 .
* ^ Kennedy 2006 , pp. 52–54.
* ^ U.N. Security Council Briefing On The U.S. Air Strike In Syria
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* ^ _A_ _B_ "Current Members". United Nations. Retrieved 4 January
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* ^ "Charter of the United Nations: Chapter V: The Security
Council". United Nations. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ Malone, David (25 October 2003). "Reforming the Security
Council: Where Are the Arabs?". _The Daily Star _. Beirut. Retrieved 3
* ^ "General Assembly Elects 4 New Non-permanent Members to
Security Council, as Western and Others Group Fails to Fill Final
Vacancy". _United Nations_. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
* ^ "Elected to Security Council in Single Round of General
Italy Says It Will Cede Non-Permanent Seat to
Netherlands after 1 Year". _United Nations_. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
* ^ "Notes by the president of the Security Council". United
Nations. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "UN Security Council: Presidential Statements 2008".
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* ^ "Security Council Presidency in 2011 – United Nations
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* ^ "Security Council Presidency in 2017". _
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* ^ _A_ _B_ "What is the Security Council?". United Nations.
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* ^ "The Security Council". _
United Nations Cyberschoolbus_. United
Nations. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
* ^ "UN Capital Master Plan Timeline". United Nations. Retrieved 29
* ^ "An unrecognizable Security Council Chamber". Norway Mission to
the UN. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
* ^ "Secretary-General, at inauguaration of renovated Security
Council Chamber, says room speaks \'language of dignity and
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UNSC was a turning point: Natwar". _The Hindu_. According to Mr.
Singh, posted at India’s permanent mission at the U.N. then, 1965
was a “turning point” for the U.N. on Kashmir, and a well-planned
“walkout” from the U.N. Security Council by the Indian delegation
as a protest against Pakistani Foreign Minister (and later PM)
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s speech ensured Kashmir was dropped from the
UNSC agenda for all practical purposes.
* ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". _
United Nations Security
Council_. Both open and closed meetings are formal meetings of the
Security Council. Closed meetings are not open to the public and no
verbatim record of statements is kept, instead the Security Council
issues a Communiqué in line with Rule 55 of its Provisional Rules of
Procedure. Consultations are informal meetings of the Security Council
members and are not covered in the Repertoire.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Reid, Natalie (January 1999). "Informal Consultations".
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* ^ "
United Nations Security Council Meeting records". Retrieved 10
February 2017. The preparatory work for formal meetings is conducted
in informal consultations for which no public record exists.
* ^ "Security Council Handbook Glossary". _
United Nations Security
Council_. "Consultations of the whole" are consultations held in
private with all 15 Council members present. Such consultations are
held in the Consultations Room, are announced in the UN Journal, have
an agreed agenda and interpretation, and may involve one or more
briefers. The consultations are closed to non-Council Member States.
"Informal consultations" mostly refer to "consultations of the whole",
but in different contexts may also refer to consultations among the 15
Council members or only some of them held without a Journal
announcement and interpretation.
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* ^ "UN troops face child abuse claims". BBC News. 30 November
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* ^ "Aid workers in Liberia accused of sex abuse". _The New York
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* ^ Holt, Kate (4 January 2007). "UN staff accused of raping
children in Sudan". _The Telegraph_. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
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