United Nations Global Compact


The United Nations Global Compact is a non-binding
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
pact A pact, from Latin ''pactum'' ("something agreed upon"), is a formal agreement. In international relations, pacts are usually between two or more sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized go ...
to encourage businesses and firms worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies, and to report on their implementation. The UN Global Compact is a principle-based framework for businesses, stating ten principles in the areas of
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Th ...
labor Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
, the
environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...
anti-corruption Anti-corruption (or anticorruption) comprise activities that oppose or inhibit corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately w ...
. Under the Global Compact, companies are brought together with UN agencies, labor groups and civil society. Cities can join the Global Compact through the Cities Programme. The UN Global Compact is the world's largest corporate sustainability ( corporate social responsibility) initiative with 13000 corporate participants and other stakeholders over 170 countries with two objectives: "Mainstream the ten principles in business activities around the world" and "Catalyse actions in support of broader UN goals, such as the
Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium ...
(MDGs) and
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
". Moving forward, the UN Global Compact and its signatories are deeply invested and enthusiastic about supporting work towards the SDGs. The UN Global Compact was announced by then UN Secretary-General
Kofi Annan Kofi Atta Annan (; 8 April 193818 August 2018) was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006. Annan and the UN were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize. He ...

Kofi Annan
in an address to the
World Economic Forum The World Economic Forum (WEF), based in Cologny, Geneva Canton, Switzerland, is an International non-governmental organization, international NGO, founded on 24 January 1971. The WEF's mission is stated as "committed to improving the state of ...

World Economic Forum
on 31 January 1999, and was officially launched at
UN Headquarters zh, 联合国总部大楼french: Siège des Nations uniesrussian: Штаб-квартира Организации Объединённых Наций es, Sede de las Naciones Unidas , image = UN HQ 2724390955 bfc562c6a9 (cropped).jpg , image_ ...

UN Headquarters
in New York City on 26 July 2000. The Global Compact Office works on the basis of a mandate set out by the UN General Assembly as an organization that "promotes responsible business practices and UN values among the global business community and the UN System." The UN Global Compact is a founding member of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges (SSE) initiative along with the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI), the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP-FI), and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

The Ten Principles

The UN Global Compact was initially launched with nine Principles. On 24 June 2004, during the first Global Compact Leaders Summit, Kofi Annan announced the addition of the tenth principle against
corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately withholding information, or being deliberately deceptive or a lack in integrity, knavishness, ...
in accordance with the
United Nations Convention Against Corruption#REDIRECT United Nations Convention Against Corruption {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move ...
adopted in 2003.


The UN Global Compact is not a regulatory instrument, but rather a forum for discussion and a network for communication including governments, companies and labour organisations, whose actions it seeks to influence, and civil society organisations, representing its stakeholders. The UN Global Compact says that once companies declared their support for the principles "This does not mean that the Global Compact recognizes or certifies that these companies have fulfilled the Compact’s principles." Instead, as mentioned in a 2015 interview with Executive Director, Lise Kingo, "we are the guide dogs, not the watchdogs", with the organization seeking to prioritize providing resources and support instead of attempting to enforce discipline. The UN Global Compact's goals are intentionally flexible and vague, but it distinguishes the following channels through which it provides facilitation and encourages dialogue: policy dialogues, learning, local networks and projects. Given recent climate talks and summits, the UN Global Compact stands to play a critical role in helping signatories and governments work in part to achieve the SDGs. Recent studies indicate that businesses are more open than ever to private sector interventions, such as
carbon pricing A carbon price — the method widely agreed to be the most efficient way for nations to reduce global warming Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shif ...
and other mechanics to help curb climate effects within the scope of business solutions. The Global Compact also will periodically create resources and guides that business and non profit organizations may use in their efforts to support the Compact's overall mission. One such example is th
SDG Compass
developed in collaboration with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and
World Business Council for Sustainable Development The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a CEO-led organization of over 200 multinational company, international companies. The Council is also connected to 60 national and regional business councils and partner organiza ...
(WBSCD), which is a collection of resources (analysis of the goals, indicators for businesses, tools for stakeholders) that companies can utilize in finding out their role in helping to achieve the SDGs. Th
Sustainable Ocean Business Action Platform
of the UN Global Compact has been actively supporting the launch in June 2020 of th
Seaweed Manifesto
the result of a collaborative work of seaweed supporters from private sector, research institutions, UN agencies and civil society, initiated by the Lloyd's Register Foundation. Building on the Manifesto's recommendations'','' the UN Global Compact, in partnership with the Lloyd’s Register Foundation and the French
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(CRNS), launched the Safe Seaweed Coalition in March 2021,
global coalition
to support a safe, sustainable and scalable seaweed industry.


The first Global Compact Leaders Summit, chaired by the then Secretary-General
Kofi Annan Kofi Atta Annan (; 8 April 193818 August 2018) was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006. Annan and the UN were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize. He ...

Kofi Annan
, was held in UN Headquarters in New York on 24 June 2004, to bring "intensified international focus and increased momentum" to the UN Global Compact. The second Global Compact Leaders Summit, chaired by Secretary-General
Ban Ki-moon
Ban Ki-moon
, was held on 5–6 July 2007 at the Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland. It adopted th
Geneva Declaration
on corporate responsibility. Marking the 10th anniversary of the Global Compact's launch, the Global Compact Leaders Summit 2010 took place on 24–25 June 2010 in New York. On the occasion, the Blueprint for Corporate Sustainability Leadership identifying leadership criteria linked to implementation of the ten principles, efforts to support development objectives, and engagement in the Global Compact was released. In 2009
Rotary International Rotary International is an international Service club, service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian service and to advance goodwill and peace around the world. ...

Rotary International
partnered with the UN Global Compact. This was a very friendly partnership since Rotary International played a role in the chartering of the United Nations. Since its creation in 2000 the Global Compact has been primarily focused on helping support and achieve the
Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium ...
, however, after those expired in 2015, their top priority has been updated to the pursuit and progress towards achieving the
Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more Sustainability, sustainable future for all".United Nations (2017) Resolution adopte ...

Sustainable Development Goals
, and the SDG's accompanying 2030 deadlines.

UN Global Compact – Cities Programme

In 2001, the
City of Melbourne The City of Melbourne is a Local government in Australia, local government area in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, located in the Melbourne city centre, central city area of Melbourne. In 2018 the city has an area of and had a p ...

City of Melbourne
proposed that cities as well as corporations should be allowed to join the UN Global Compact, arguing that this would provide a clear statement of a city's commitment to positive change, as well as motivating participation in international dialogue. The proposal was accepted, and the UN Global Compact - Cities Programme was launched in 2002. It was formed as an urban-focused component of the Global Compact with its International Secretariat initially located in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the States and territories of Australia, Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, and the second-mo ...

, Australia. The aim of the programme is to improve urban life in cities throughout the world. Melbourne became the first city to engage the Global Compact in June 2001. In April 2003, under the directorship of David Teller, a framework called the Melbourne Model was developed that went beyond the Ten Principles. It begins by drawing the resources of government, business and civil society into a cross-sector partnership in order to develop a practical project that addresses a seemingly intractable urban issue. In 2007, the then Director, Paul James (2007–2014) and his colleagues Dr. Andy Scerri and Dr. Liam Magee, took this methodology further by integrating the partnership model with a four-domain sustainability framework called '
Circles of Sustainability Circles of Sustainability is a method for understanding and assessing sustainability, and for managing projects directed towards socially sustainable outcomes. It is intended to handle 'seemingly intractable problems' such as outlined in sus ...
'. In 2007, the Secretariat moved from the
Committee For Melbourne The Committee for Melbourne is a non-profit organisation based in Melbourne, Australia. The Committee was founded in 1985 to bring together businesses, academia and non-profit organisations for activities, networking, and policy advice to governmen ...
to the
Global Cities InstituteThe RMIT Global Cities Research Institute was a major research institute of RMIT University. It was formed in 2006 as one of the four flagship research bodies at the university crossing all the disciplines from the humanities and social sciences to a ...
RMIT University RMIT University, officially the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT),, section 4(b) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) ...
, itself affiliated with
UN-HABITAT The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) is the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly ...
. There, projects associated with city-based responses to global
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known event ...
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), see spelling differences), is the process of foreign relations ...

became increasingly important. The Melbourne Model was further elaborated, with a sustainability indicators program developed as a way of assessing and monitoring progress. In 2012, the
Circles of Sustainability Circles of Sustainability is a method for understanding and assessing sustainability, and for managing projects directed towards socially sustainable outcomes. It is intended to handle 'seemingly intractable problems' such as outlined in sus ...
method was elaborated to guide a city or urban region through a rigorous assessment process. As one of the outcomes it provides a figurative image of the overall sustainability of that city to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses. In 2015, RMIT Professor Ralph Horne became the third director of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme and in February 2016 an Urban Thinkers Campus was organised at RMIT Melbourne in collaboration with World Vision International as part of the buildup to UN Habitat III. The theme of the Urban Thinkers Campus was Ethical Cities: Locking in Liveability. This was followed by the organisation of an Urban Innovation Forum on Ethical Cities in July 2016 in Barcelona, Spain as a collaboration between the UN Global Compact - Cities Programme, RMIT Europe and UN-Habitat. there are 120 participants in the City Network, 85 of them in Latin America and the Caribbean. Milwaukee and San Francisco are the only U.S. member cities. The Cities Programme ended in 2021.

Local networks

Local networks of the Global Compact advance the initiative and its ten principles at a country level. Currently there are approximately 85 Local Networks in total. These networks help companies and non profit organizations understand what responsible business means within diverse national, cultural, and linguistic contexts. Additionally, there are related programs for particular topics of interest, such as the Business for Peace initiative, that bring awareness to businesses and other organizations about instability and conflict, such that organizations can help to address these concerns from their own perspective and with the assistance of their local networks. Local connections to supplement the international connections made by the Global Compact at large can help to broaden the engagement and impact of members. Local Networks are independent, self-governed and self managed entities, and work closely with the UN Global Compact's New York headquarters, and coordinate as points of contact for UN Global Compact signatories in their respective countries. The Local Networks of the Global Compact are showcased, but not limited to the interactions chronicled below:


* The Global Compact Local Network in Australia was established in 2009 by a steering committee drawn from the Australian business community and stakeholder groups. It was formally incorporated in 2011. as the Global Compact Network Australia Limited, and elections were held for the inaugural board of directors. In 2011 it established two business-led leadership groups dealing with human rights and anti-corruption. The GCNA draws its funding directly from members and member-based activities, in contrast to many networks who rely in part on government funding.


* The Global Compact Local Network in Bulgaria was founded in January 2003, under the auspices of President
Georgi Parvanov Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov ( bg, Георги Седефчов Първанов, ) (born 28 June 1957) is a Bulgarian historian and politician who was List of heads of state of Bulgaria, President of Bulgaria from 2002 to 2012. He was elected afte ...

Georgi Parvanov
. The voluntary initiative unites 120 Bulgarian companies, non-governmental organizations and academia into a unique network. All members are united around the idea to apply the ten principles of the UN Global Compact in their daily practices and to be responsible corporate citizens. In 2006, to strengthen and enhance the role of the initiative, a management structure was introduced consisting of Advisory Board and a Secretariat. For the period 2006-2010 the network activities were supported by the
United Nations Development Program The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (french: Programme des Nations unies pour le développement, PNUD) is the global development network of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tha ...
Bulgaria. With the active participation and financial contribution of its members Global Compact Bulgaria organized numerous initiatives related to environment, health, education and youth. Among them are the projects: "Unleashing Entrepreneurship"; "Love Bridge"; "Sharing Best Practices in Corporate Social Responsibility". * With the end of the support from UNDP Bulgaria, the Global Compact Local Network in
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...

had to identify and formulate a new strategy for sustainability. So, between 2009 and 2010 the members signed an institutional framework for future organizational development. As a result, on 10 September 2010 a new independent organization was founded – Association Global Compact Network Bulgaria. Its members are 20 leading companies and organizations in Bulgaria, members the UN Global Compact as well. The Association is managed by a steering committee and control committee. Their main goals are to learn from each other, to communicate, to generate an advocacy impact and initiate dialogue or partnerships with other actors such as the government, local authorities, labour organisations and civil society organizations.


* The Global Compact Network France was established in 2004. It is the second largest local network of the UN Global Compact after Spain, with more than 1,100 participants in 2017. The main aim of the Global Compact Network France is to add personalized value to the French participants of the Global Compact, in order to help them to make progress in their CSR approach and enlarge the Global Compact network. The local network is entirely financed by its members.


* The Global Compact Network (GCN) India was formed by organizations from India who participate in the Global Compact. It was registered on 24 November 2003, with Registrar of Societies, NCT, Delhi, as a non-profit body. The main objective of the Network is to provide a forum to various Indian Companies/ Organizations to exchange experiences, network and work together on activities related to CSR. This is expected to promote sustainable growth besides encouraging good corporate citizenship. The Network, acts as an Apex level nodal agency representing various Indian Corporate bodies/ Institutions/ NGOs/ SMEs, who are committed to the UN Global Compact principles. * The Global Compact Network India has been one of the pioneering local initiatives of the Global Compact. It is one of the first local networks to be set up as a legal entity. Over the last nine years the network has seen modest growth and has been able to create a niche for itself within efforts by the business community directed towards realising the vision of sustainable development in India. At present Dinesh Kumar Sarraf, CMD, ONGC, is the President of the Global Compact Network India for the term 2015-17 and is managed by a Governing Council.


* The Global Compact Network in Mexico in December 2014 endorsed the commitment of the private sector towards improving gender equality. Echoing the sentiments of initiatives such as the "HeforShe", and the large support of individuals in the region for promoting gender equality and empowering women. Much of this progress is being achieved by practical guidelines for how private entities can make a more diverse, inclusive workplace that create codes of global business.


* The Global Compact Network Spain is the largest local network of signatories to the UN Global Compact. As an independent legal entity launched in 2004, it is managed by a steering committee with a chairman, deputy chairman, secretary, treasurer and 16 directors elected by the network’s general assembly. The steering committee includes representatives from large companies, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the public sector, educational entities and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). In order to abide by the rules of Spanish legislature, the general assembly holds a vote each year on budgetary issues and resolutions and nominates the steering committee. The Global Compact Network Spain has been successful in involving SMEs, developing interactive resources and reporting tools and emphasizing human rights through the commitment of the local companies.


* The Syria initiative aims at enhancing civic engagement and corporate social responsibility of private sector by promoting the ten principles of the UN Global Compact as well as forging partnerships between private sector organizations, public sector institutions and civil society. This initiative is a partnership between the Syrian Government represented by the State Planning Commission and the UNDP Country Office in Syria. It was launched under the patronage of the Head of State Planning Commission and in the presence of the Deputy Chairperson of the UN Global Compact in July 2008. The Syrian Global Compact Local Network has 26 businesses, five NGOs, and five federations of commerce and industry. It was displayed among 10 selected ones from around the world in the Global Compact Sixth Annual Local Networks Forum. The Syria story was called a "leadership case" and the Syria Network growth ratio was ranked first among the global top ten in 2008. The UNGC National Advisory Council has been formulated and held its founders’ meeting on October 15, 2008, with the participation of leaders from the Syrian private sector, international corporate representatives, local and international civil society organizations, UNDP, the Syrian Government, media and education sectors.


Some critics believe that without any effective monitoring and enforcement provisions, the Global Compact fails to hold corporations accountable. Moreover, these critics argue that companies could potentially misuse the Global Compact as a public relations instrument for " bluewash". Bluewashing refers to the alleged practice of companies claiming their membership or participation in philanthropic and charity based activity as an excuse, and perhaps as an entry door to increase corporate influence upon international organizations. An informal network previously known a
Global Compact Critics
leveled a variety of criticisms at the Global Compact, citing a lack of mechanisms for sanctioning non compliance or lack of progress. The Global Compact critics formally disbanded in February 2015, recommending that interested parties consult the Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO) website. Similarly, th
Alliance for a Corporate-Free UN
which also no longer exists, was a campaigning organization of several international NGOs, led by Corpwatch, which highlighted weaknesses in the principles underlying the Global Compact. The Global Compact was criticized by Maude Barlow, senior adviser on water issues to the President of the United Nations General Assembly in December 2008, accused the Global Compact of bluewashing. David Andrews, senior adviser on Food Policy and Sustainable Development, and Peter Utting, deputy director of UNRISD. Leaders of the tribe Ayoreo Indians in
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wrote to the UN Global Compact saying they are "concerned and frustrated" by the inclusion in it of a controversial Brazilian ranching company. The company, Yaguarete Porá, was charged and fined for illegally clearing the Ayoreo's forests, and concealing evidence of uncontacted Ayoreo living there. The Ayoreo asked that it be expelled from the Global Compact.


The Global Compact provides a list of its 12,000+ participant organizations, composed of roughly 8,000 businesses and 4,000 non-business entities on it
The site provides a brief overview of each participant, and a link to their Letter of Commitment (if new), Financial Overview and Contributions (if applicable), and Communication on Progress (COP). Notable companies who have signed on the Global Compact include, but are not limited to, Starbucks, L'Oreal, Bayer AG, Coca-Cola, 3M, and Deloitte. In addition to its signatories, the Global compact has been repeatedly supported by the UN General Assembly, honoring its 15th anniversary in June 2015 alongside the Secretary General, Ban Ki-Moon, himself who claims that "Business can be a global force for good" and that "advocacy and example can drive action to achieve a life of dignity for all people".

See also

Circles of Sustainability Circles of Sustainability is a method for understanding and assessing sustainability, and for managing projects directed towards socially sustainable outcomes. It is intended to handle 'seemingly intractable problems' such as outlined in sus ...
* Global Compact on Migration *
Global Reporting Initiative The Global Reporting Initiative (known as GRI) is an international independent standards organization that helps businesses, governments and other organizations understand and communicate their impacts on issues such as climate change, human right ...
Corporate social responsibility Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a form of international private business self-regulation which aims to contribute to societal goals of a philanthropic, activist, or charitable nature by engaging in or supporting volunteering or ethically-o ...
Sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

Sustainable development


External resources

* Hoessle, Ulrike (2016): PARTICIPATING IN THE UN GLOBAL COMPACT - Best Practices and Challenges from German Businesses (=WWS Series 4). Seattle: WWS Worldwide (www.wwsworldwide.com) * Hoessle, Ulrike (2015): US Companies and the Implementation of the UN Global Compact's Principles. In: Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 59: 9-56. http://gse.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/glbj/jcc/2015/00002015/00000059/art00004 * Hoessle, Ulrike (2014): The Contribution of the UN Global Compact towards the Compliance of International Regimes: A Comparative Study of Businesses from the USA, Mozambique, United Arab Emirates and Germany. In: Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 53: 27-60. * Rasche, A. and Kell, G. (Eds.) (2010) The United Nations Global Compact: Achievement, Trends and Challenges. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. * Kell, G. (2005) The Global Compact: Selected Experiences and Reflection, ''Journal of Business Ethics'', 59: 69–79. * Global Policy Forum Europe (Ed. 2007
Whose Partnership for whose development?: Corporate Accountability in the UN System beyond the Global Compact, Speaking Notes of a Hearing at the United Nations
Geneva, 4 July 2007. * Debate between Georg Kell and Bart Slob (2008
UN Global Compact – Is the Compact raising corporate responsibility standards?
''Ethical Corporation'', May 2008. {{authority control Global Compact United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Development Programme International Labour Organization Corporate social responsibility