For two articles dealing with membership of and participation in the General Assembly, see:
* General Assembly members * General Assembly observers
The UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY (abbreviated UNGA and GA. French
: _Assemblée Générale_ "AG") is one of the six principal organs of
The General Assembly meets under its president or secretary-general
in annual sessions, the main part of which lasts from September to
December and resumed part from January until all issues are addressed
(which often is just before the next session's start). It can also
reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Its composition,
functions, powers, voting, and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of
The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist
Central Hall in
Voting in the General Assembly on important questions, namely, recommendations on peace and security, budgetary concerns, and the election, admission, suspension or expulsion of members is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Other questions are decided by a straightforward majority . Each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment, Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members. The Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security under Security Council consideration. The one state, one vote power structure potentially allows states comprising just five percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote.
During the 1980s, the Assembly became a forum for the "North-South dialogue": the discussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries. These issues came to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup of the UN membership. In 1945, the UN had 51 members. It now has 193, of which more than two-thirds are developing countries . Because of their numbers, developing countries are often able to determine the agenda of the Assembly (using coordinating groups like the G77 ), the character of its debates, and the nature of its decisions. For many developing countries, the UN is the source of much of their diplomatic influence and the principal outlet for their foreign relations initiatives.
Although the resolutions passed by the General Assembly do not have the binding forces over the member nations (apart from budgetary measures), pursuant to its Uniting for Peace resolution of November 1950 (resolution 377 (V)), the Assembly may also take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member , in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression. The Assembly can consider the matter immediately with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security.
* 1 History * 2 Membership * 3 Agenda * 4 Resolutions
* 5 Resolutions and Decisions
* 5.1 UN budget * 5.2 Resolution numbering scheme
* 6 Elections
* 7.1 UNGASS 2016 * 7.2 Other special sessions * 7.3 General Debates
* 8 Emergency special sessions
* 9 Subsidiary organs
* 9.1 Committees
* 9.1.1 Main committees * 9.1.2 Other committees
* 9.2 Commissions
* 9.3 Boards
* 9.3.1 Executive Boards * 9.3.2 Boards
* 9.4 Councils and panels * 9.5 Working Groups and other
* 10 Seating * 11 Reform and UNPA * 12 Reform * 13 Notes * 14 External links
The first session of the UN General Assembly was convened on 10
January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in
Main article: Member states of the
All 193 members states of the
The agenda for each session is planned up to seven months in advance and begins with the release of a preliminary list of items to be included in the provisional agenda. This is refined into a provisional agenda 60 days before the opening of the session. After the session begins, the final agenda is adopted in a plenary meeting which allocates the work to the various Main Committees who later submit reports back to the Assembly for adoption by consensus or by vote.
Items on the agenda are numbered. Regular plenary sessions of the General Assembly in recent years have initially been scheduled to be held over the course of just three months, however additional work loads have extended these sessions to last on through just short of the next session. The routinely scheduled portions of the sessions are normally scheduled to commence on "the Tuesday of the third week in September, counting from the first week that contains at least one working day," as per the UN Rules of Procedure. The last two of these Regular sessions were routinely scheduled to recess exactly three months afterwards in early December, but were resumed in January and extended on until just before the beginning of the following sessions.
_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_
The General Assembly votes on many resolutions brought forth by sponsoring states. These are generally statements symbolizing the sense of the international community about an array of world issues. Most General Assembly resolutions are not enforceable as a legal or practical matter, because the General Assembly lacks enforcement powers with respect to most issues. The General Assembly has authority to make final decisions in some areas such as the United Nations budget.
General Assembly Resolutions are generally non-binding on member states, but carry considerable political weight, and are legally binding towards the operations of the General Assembly. The General Assembly can also refer an issue to the Security Council to put in place a binding resolution.
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS
GA Res 70/181 GA Res 69/200 GA Res 69/201 GA Res 68/197 GA Res 67/193 CND Dec 58/16 CND Res 58/8 CND Res 57/5 CND Dec 57/2 CND Res 56/12
The General Assembly also approves the budget of the United Nations, and decides how much money each member state must pay to run the organization.
The Charter of the
The budget covers the costs of
The main source of funds for the regular budget is the contributions of member states. The scale of assessments is based on the capacity of countries to pay. This is determined by considering their relative shares of total gross national product, adjusted to take into account a number of factors, including their per capita incomes.
In addition to the regular budget, member states are assessed for the costs of the international tribunals and, in accordance with a modified version of the basic scale, for the costs of peacekeeping operations.
RESOLUTION NUMBERING SCHEME
From the First to the Thirtieth General Assembly sessions, all General Assembly resolutions were numbered consecutively, with the resolution number followed by the session number in Roman numbers (for example, Resolution 1514 (XV), which was the 1514th numbered resolution adopted by the Assembly, and was adopted at the Fifteenth Regular Session (1960)). Beginning in the Thirty-First Session, resolutions are numbered by individual session (for example Resolution 41/10 represents the 10th resolution adopted at the Forty-First Session).
Division of the General Assembly by membership in the five
The General Assembly votes in elections for the ten non-permanent
members of the
Spanish Prime Minister
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
A further special session was held in 2016 this time on the
discussion of the
War on Drugs
Presenters included Russel Simmons, Michael Skolnik, Che Rhymefest Smith who screened the film WARonUS Directed by Queen Muhammad Aliand Hakeem Khaaliq. Brazilian President Dilma Rousseffdelivers the opening speech at the 66th Session of the General Assembly on September 21, 2011, marking the first time a woman opens a United Nations session.
OTHER SPECIAL SESSIONS
At the first
If the Security Council fails to act to maintain international peace
and security due to a disagreement between its permanent members, the
General Assembly has the power to convene an emergency special session
and act to ensure peace and security under
Annually, Heads of State , Government or heads of delegations speak at the opening of the new session of the General Assembly during the "General Debate".
EMERGENCY SPECIAL SESSIONS
The General Assembly may take action on maintaining international
peace and security if the
The "Uniting for Peace " resolution, adopted 3 November 1950,
empowered the Assembly to convene in emergency special session in
order to recommend collective measures – including the use of armed
force – in the event of a breach of the peace or act of aggression.
As with all Assembly resolutions, two-thirds of UN Members 'present
and voting' must approve any such recommendation before it can be
formally adopted by the Assembly. Emergency special sessions have been
convened under this procedure on ten occasions. The two most recent,
in 1982 and 1997 through 2009 respectively, have both been on the
status of the territories occupied by the State of
The General Assembly subsidiary organs are divided into five categories: committees (30 total, six main), commissions (six), boards (seven), councils and panels (five), working groups, and "other".
The main committees are ordinally numbered , 1–6:
* The First Committee: Disarmament and International Security
* The Second Committee: Economic and Financial (ECOFIN)
* The Third Committee: Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian (SOCHUM)
* The Fourth Committee:
The roles of many of the main committees have changed over time.
Until the late 1970s, the First Committee was the Political and
Security Committee (POLISEC) and there was also a sufficient number of
additional "political" matters that an additional, unnumbered main
committee, called the
Each main committee consists of all the members of the General Assembly. Each elects a chairman, three vice chairmen, and a rapporteur at the outset of each regular General Assembly session.
Soviet general secretary
These are not numbered. According to the General Assembly website, the most important are:
* Credentials Committee – This committee is charged with ensuring that the diplomatic credentials of all UN representatives are in order. The Credentials Committee consists of nine Member States elected early in each regular General Assembly session. * General Committee – This is a supervisory committee entrusted with ensuring that the whole meeting of the Assembly goes smoothly. The General Committee consists of the president and vice presidents of the current General Assembly session and the chairman of each of the six Main Committees.
Other committees of the General Assembly are enumerated .
There are six commissions:
* Disarmament Commission, established by GA Resolution 502 (VI) and
International Civil Service Commission, established by GA
Resolution 3357 (XXIX)
International Law Commission, established by GA Resolution 174
Despite its name, the former
There are seven boards which are categorized into two groups: a) Executive Boards and b) Boards
* Executive Board of the
* Board of Auditors
* Trade and Development Board
COUNCILS AND PANELS
The newest council is the
There are a total of four councils and one panel.
WORKING GROUPS AND OTHER
There is a varied group of working groups and other subsidiary bodies.
Countries are seated alphabetically in the General Assembly according to English translations of the countries' names. However, the country which occupies the front-most left position (and hence the countries' seating position in the Assembly) is rotated annually by lot. One country is balloted each year to sit in the front-most left position, and the remaining countries follow alphabetically behind it.
REFORM AND UNPA
Main article: Reform of the
On 21 March 2005, Secretary-General
The reform proposals were not taken up by the
In the General Debate of the 65th General Assembly,
REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY includes proposals to
change the powers and composition of the
U.N. General Assembly. This
could include, for example, tasking the UNGA with evaluating how well
member states implement UNGA resolutions, increasing the power of the
assembly vis-à-vis the
* History of the
* ^ CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS: Chapter IV Archived 12 October
2007 at the
Wayback Machine.. UN.org.
* ^ General Assembly: Subsidiary organs at UN.org.
* ^ The annual session convenes on Tuesday of the third week in
September per Resolution 57/301, Para. 1. The opening debate begins
the following Tuesday.
* ^ _A_ _B_ General Assembly of the United Nations. Un.org.
Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Population, total Data Table. Data.worldbank.org.
Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
* ^ "History of