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United Artists
United Artists
(UA) is an American film and television entertainment studio. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie
Charlie
Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios.[1] UA was repeatedly bought, sold, and restructured over the ensuing century. The current United Artists company is a successor to the original in name only.[2] The studio was acquired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
in 1981. On September 22, 2014, MGM
MGM
acquired a controlling interest in Mark Burnett and Roma Downey's entertainment companies One Three Media
One Three Media
and Lightworkers Media, then merged them to revive United Artists' TV production unit as United Artists
United Artists
Media Group (UAMG). However, on December 14 of the following year, MGM
MGM
wholly acquired UAMG and folded it into MGM
MGM
Television.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years 1.2 Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers
Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers
(1940s and 1950s) 1.3 The 1950s and 1960s 1.4 Public company 1.5 Transamerica Corporation

1.5.1 United Artists
United Artists
Classics

1.6 MGM/UA Entertainment Company

1.6.1 Turner

1.7 MGM/UA Communications Company 1.8 The 1990s 1.9 The 2000s to present

1.9.1 United Artists
United Artists
Entertainment 1.9.2 United Artists
United Artists
Media Group

2 Library and historical list of films 3 UA films on video 4 United Artists
United Artists
Broadcasting 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History Early years

Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, Charlie
Charlie
Chaplin, and D. W. Griffith in 1919

The first United Artists
United Artists
logo, used until the company's sale to Transamerica in 1967.

Pickford, Chaplin, Fairbanks, and Griffith incorporated UA as a joint venture on February 5, 1919. Each held a 25 percent stake in the preferred shares and a 20 percent stake in the common shares of the joint venture, with the remaining 20 percent of common shares held by lawyer and advisor William Gibbs McAdoo.[4] The idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin, Pickford and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier. Already Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work. They were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began, but Hart bowed out before anything was formalized. When he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures, apparently said, "The inmates are taking over the asylum". The four partners, with advice from McAdoo (son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary of then-President Woodrow Wilson), formed their distribution company. Hiram Abrams
Hiram Abrams
was its first managing director, and the company established its headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.[2]

List of UA stockholders in 1920

The original terms called for each of the stars to produce five pictures a year. By the time the company was operational in 1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and polished, and running times had settled at around ninety minutes (eight reels). The original goal was thus abandoned.

D.W. Griffith, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(seated) and Douglas Fairbanks at the signing of the contract establishing the United Artists motion-picture studio in 1919. Lawyers Albert Banzhaf (left) and Dennis F. O'Brien (right) stand in the background.

UA's first film, His Majesty, the American, written by and starring Fairbanks, was a success. Funding for movies was limited. Without selling stock to the public, following the other studios, all United had for finance was weekly prepayment installments from theater owners for upcoming movies. As a result, production was slow, and the company distributed an average of only five films a year in its first five years.[5][unreliable source?] By 1924, Griffith had dropped out, and the company was facing a crisis; the alternatives were to either bring in others to help support a costly distribution system or concede defeat.[citation needed] Veteran producer Joseph Schenck
Joseph Schenck
was hired as president.[5] He had been producing pictures for a decade,[citation needed] and he brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge,[5] his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge,[citation needed] and his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton.[5] Contracts were signed with independent producers, most notably Samuel Goldwyn,[citation needed] and Howard Hughes.[5] In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year, forming half of UA's schedule.[5] Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists
United Artists
name. They began international operations, first in Canada, and then in Mexico. By the end of the 1930s, United Artists
United Artists
was represented in over 40 countries. When he was denied an ownership share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures' merger with Fox Film
Film
Corporation to form 20th Century Fox. Al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists
United Artists
in the 1930s including Walt Disney
Disney
Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, and Walter Wanger.[5] As the years passed, and the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
Productions and Disney
Disney
went to RKO and Wanger to Universal Pictures. In the late 1930s, UA turned a profit. Goldwyn was providing most of the output for distribution. Goldwyn sued United several times for disputed compensation leading Goldwyn to leave. MGM's 1939 hit Gone with the Wind was supposed to be a UA release except that Selznick wanted Clark Gable, who was under contract to MGM, to play Rhett Butler. Also that year, Fairbanks died.[5] UA became embroiled in lawsuits with Selznick over his distribution of some films through RKO. Selznick considered UA's operation sloppy, and left to start his own distribution arm.[5] In the 1940s, United Artists
United Artists
was losing money because of poorly received pictures.[citation needed] Cinema attendance continued to decline as television became more popular.[5] The company sold its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company. Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers
Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers
(1940s and 1950s) In 1941 by Pickford, Chaplin, Disney, Orson Welles, Goldwyn, Selznick, Alexander Korda, and Wanger—many of whom were members of United Artists, formed the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers (SIMPP). Later members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol Lesser, and Hal Roach. The Society aimed to advance the interests of independent producers in an industry controlled by the studio system. SIMPP fought to end ostensibly anti-competitive practices by the seven major film studios—Loew's (MGM), Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Universal Pictures, RKO Radio Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Bros./First National—that controlled the production, distribution, and exhibition of motion pictures. In 1942, SIMPP filed an antitrust suit against Paramount's United Detroit Theatres. The complaint accused Paramount of conspiracy to control first-and subsequent-run theaters in Detroit. This was the first antitrust suit brought by producers against exhibitors that alleged monopoly and restraint of trade. In 1948, the U.S. Supreme Court Paramount Decision
Paramount Decision
ordered the major Hollywood movie studios to sell their theater chains and to eliminate certain anti-competitive practices. This court ruling ended the studio system. By 1958, SIMPP achieved many of the objectives that led to its creation, and the group ceased operations. The 1950s and 1960s Needing a turnaround, Pickford and Chaplin hired Paul V. McNutt, a former governor of Indiana, as chairman and Frank L. McNamee as president. McNutt did not have the skill to solve UA's financial problems and the pair was replaced after only a few months.[5] On February 16, 1951, lawyers-turned-producers Arthur B. Krim
Arthur B. Krim
(of Eagle-Lion Films) and Robert Benjamin approached Pickford and Chaplin with a wild idea: let them take over United Artists
United Artists
for ten years. If, at the end of those years, UA was profitable, they would own half the company. Fox Film
Film
Corporation president Spyros Skouras extended United Artists a $3 million loan through Krim and Benjamin's efforts.[5] In taking over UA, Krim and Benjamin created the first studio without an actual "studio". Primarily acting as bankers, they offered money to independent producers. UA leased space at the Pickford/Fairbanks Studio but did not own a studio lot. Thus UA did not have the overhead, the maintenance, or the expensive production staff at other studios. They had two hits, The African Queen and High Noon, turning a profit in their first year.[5] Among their first clients were Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
and John Huston, whose Horizon Productions gave UA one major hit, The African Queen (1951) and a substantial success, Moulin Rouge (1952). Others followed, among them Stanley Kramer, Otto Preminger, Hecht-Hill-Lancaster Productions, and actors newly freed from studio contracts and seeking to produce or direct their own films. With the instability in the film industry due to theater divestment, the business was considered risky. In 1955, movie attendance reached its lowest level since 1923. Chaplin sold his 25 percent share during this crisis to Krim and Benjamin for $1.1 million, followed a year later by Pickford who sold her share for $3 million.[5] Public company United Artists
United Artists
went public in 1957 with a $17 million stock and debenture offering. The company was averaging 50 films a year.[5] In 1958, UA acquired Ilya Lopert's Lopert Pictures Corporation, which released foreign films that attracted criticism or had censorship problems.[6] In 1957, UA created United Artists Records
United Artists Records
Corporation and United Artists Music
Music
Corporation after an unsuccessful attempt to buy a record company.[7] In 1968, UA Records merged with Liberty Records, along with its many subsidiary labels such as Imperial Records
Imperial Records
and Dolton Records. In 1972, the group was consolidated into one entity as United Artists Records
United Artists Records
and in 1979, EMI
EMI
acquired the division and managed by Capitol Records
Capitol Records
which continues to control the catalog.[8] In 1959, after failing to sell several pilots, United Artists
United Artists
offered its first ever television series, The Troubleshooters,[9] and later released its first sitcom, The Dennis O'Keefe Show. In the 1960s, mainstream studios fell into decline and some were acquired or diversified. UA prospered while winning 11 Academy Awards, including five for best picture,[5] adding relationships with the Mirisch brothers, Billy Wilder, Joseph E. Levine
Joseph E. Levine
and others. In 1961, United Artists
United Artists
released West Side Story, which won a record ten Academy Awards (including Best Picture). In 1960, UA purchased Ziv Television
Television
Programs. UA's television division was responsible for shows such as Gilligan's Island, The Fugitive, Outer Limits, and The Patty Duke Show. The television unit had begun to build up a profitable rental library, including Associated Artists Productions,[10] owners of Warner Bros. pre-1950[11][note 1] features, shorts and cartoons and 231 Popeye cartoon shorts purchased from Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
in 1958, becoming United Artists
United Artists
Associated, its distribution division. In 1963, UA released two Stanley Kramer
Stanley Kramer
films, It's A Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World and A Child Is Waiting. In 1964, UA introduced U.S. film audiences to the Beatles by releasing A Hard Day's Night (1964) and Help! (1965). At the same time, it backed two expatriate North Americans in Britain, who had acquired screen rights to Ian Fleming's James Bond
James Bond
novels. For $1 million, UA backed Harry Saltzman and Albert Broccoli's Dr. No in 1963 and launched the James Bond
James Bond
series.[12] The franchise outlived UA's time as a major studio, continuing half a century later. Other successful projects backed in this period included the Pink Panther series, which began in 1964, and Spaghetti Westerns, which made a star of Clint Eastwood. In 1964, the French subsidiary, Les Productions Artistes Associés, released its first production That Man from Rio. Transamerica Corporation On the basis of its film and television hits, in 1967, Transamerica Corporation purchased 98 percent of UA's stock. Transamerica selected David and Arnold Picker to lead its studio.[5] UA debuted a new logo incorporating the parent company's striped T emblem and the tagline "Entertainment from Transamerica Corporation". This wording was later shortened to "A Transamerica Company". The following year, in 1968, United Artists Associated was reincorporated as United Artists Television
Television
Distribution. UA released another Best Picture Oscar winner in 1967, In the Heat of the Night and a nominee for Best Picture, The Graduate, an Embassy production that UA distributed overseas. In 1970, UA lost $35 million; thus the Pickers were pushed aside for the return of Krim and Benjamin.[5] Other successful pictures included the 1971 screen version of Fiddler on the Roof. However, the 1972 film version of Man of La Mancha was a failure. New talent was encouraged, including Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Sylvester Stallone, Saul Zaentz, Miloš Forman, and Brian De Palma. In 1973, United Artists
United Artists
took over the sales and distribution of MGM's films in Anglo-America
Anglo-America
until the latter bought UA in 1981 due to the massive losses from Heaven's Gate. Cinema International Corporation assumed international distribution rights for MGM's films and carried on to United International Pictures (made from CIC and UA's International assets being owned by partner MGM) in the 1980s. In 1975, Harry Saltzman sold UA his 50 percent stake in Danjaq, the holding-company for the Bond films. UA was to remain a silent partner, providing money, while Albert Broccoli
Albert Broccoli
took producer credit. Danjaq and UA remained the public co-copyright holders for the Bond series, and the 2006 Casino Royale remake shares the copyright with Columbia Pictures. UA released One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest in 1975 a film which won the Best Picture Academy Award
Academy Award
and earned $56 million. UA followed with the next two years' Best Picture Oscar winners, Rocky
Rocky
and Annie Hall.[5] However, Transamerica was not pleased with UA's releases such as Midnight Cowboy
Midnight Cowboy
and Last Tango in Paris
Last Tango in Paris
that were rated X by the Motion Picture Association of America. In these instances, Transamerica demanded the byline "A Transamerica Company" be removed on the prints and in all advertising. At one point, the parent company expressed its desire to phase out the UA name and replace it with Transamerica Films. Krim tried to convince Transamerica to spin off United Artists, but he and Transamerica's chairman could not come to an agreement.[13] Finally in 1978, following a dispute with Transamerica chief John R. Beckett[5] over administrative expenses,[citation needed] UA's top executives, including chairman Krim, president Eric Pleskow, Benjamin and other key officers walked out. Within days they announced the formation of Orion Pictures,[5] with backing from Warner. The departures concerned several Hollywood figures enough that they took out an ad in a trade paper warning Transamerica that it had made a fatal mistake in letting them go.[citation needed] Transamerica inserted Andy Albeck as UA's president. United had its most successful year with four hits in 1979: Rocky
Rocky
II, Manhattan, Moonraker, and The Black Stallion.[5] The new leadership agreed to back Heaven's Gate, the pet project of director Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
overran its budget and cost $44 million. This led to the resignation of Albeck who was replaced by Norbert Auerbach.[5] United Artists
United Artists
recorded a major loss for the year due almost entirely to this fiasco. It destroyed UA's reputation with Transamerica and the greater Hollywood community. However, it may have saved the United Artists
United Artists
name, as UA's final head before the sale, Steven Bach, wrote in his book Final Cut that there was talk about renaming United Artists
United Artists
to Transamerica Pictures. In 1980, Transamerica decided to exit the film making business, and put United Artists
United Artists
on the market. Kirk Kerkorian's Tracinda Corp. purchased the company in 1981.[14][15] Tracinda also owned Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.[16] United Artists
United Artists
Classics In 1981, United Artists
United Artists
Classics, which had formerly been a division of the company that re-released library titles, was turned into a first-run art film distributor by Nathaniel T. Kwit, Jr. Tom Bernard was hired as the division's head of sales and Ira Deutchman[17][18] as head of marketing. Later the division added Michael Barker and Donna Gigliotti. Deutchman left to form Cinecom, and Barker and Bernard formed Orion Classics and Sony
Sony
Pictures Classics. The label mostly released foreign and independent films such as Ticket to Heaven
Ticket to Heaven
and The Grey Fox, and occasional first-run reissues from the UA library, such as director's cuts of Head Over Heels and Cutter's Way. When Barker and Bernard left to form Orion, the label was briefly rechristened MGM/UA Classics before it ceased operating in the late 1980s.[citation needed] MGM/UA Entertainment Company The merged companies became MGM/UA Entertainment Company and in 1982 began launching new subsidiaries: the MGM/UA Home Entertainment Group, MGM/UA Classics and MGM/UA Television
Television
Group. Kerkorian also bid for the remaining, outstanding public stock, but dropped his bid, facing lawsuits and vocal opposition.[5] After the purchase, David Begelman's duties were transferred from MGM to MGM/UA. Under Begelman, MGM/UA produced unsuccessful films and he was fired in July 1982. Of the 11 films he put into production, by the time of his termination only Poltergeist proved to be a hit.[19] As part of the consolidation, in 1983, MGM
MGM
closed and marketed United Artists' long time headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.[20] WarGames
WarGames
and Octopussy
Octopussy
made substantial profits for the new MGM/UA in 1983, but were not sufficient for Kerkorian. A 1985-restructuring led to independent MGM
MGM
and UA production units with the combined studio leaders each placed in charge of a single unit. Speculation from analysts was that one of the studios, most likely UA, would be sold to fund the other's (MGM) stock buy-back to take that studio private. However, soon afterwards, one unit's chief was fired and the remaining executive, Alan Ladd, Jr., took charge of both.[5] Turner On August 7, 1985, Ted Turner
Ted Turner
announced that his Turner Broadcasting System would buy MGM/UA. As film licensing to television became more complicated, Turner saw the value of acquiring MGM's film library for his superstation WTBS.[21] Under the terms of the deal, Turner would immediately sell United Artists
United Artists
back to Kerkorian.[16] In anticipation, Kerkorian installed film producer Jerry Weintraub
Jerry Weintraub
as the chairman and chief executive of United Artists
United Artists
Corporation in November 1985.[22] Former American Broadcasting Company
American Broadcasting Company
executive Anthony Thomopoulos was recruited as UA's president[23] Weintraub's tenure at UA was brief; he left the studio in April 1986, replaced by former Lorimar
Lorimar
executive Lee Rich.[24] On March 25, 1986, Turner finalized his acquisition of MGM/UA in a cash-stock deal for $1.5 billion and renamed it MGM
MGM
Entertainment Co.[21][25][26][27][28][29] Kerkorian then repurchased most of United Artists' assets for roughly $480 million.[25][26] As a result of this transaction, the original United Artists
United Artists
ceased to exist. Kerkorian, for all intents and purposes, created an entirely new company implementing the inherited assets; thus, the present day UA is not the legal successor to the original incarnation, though it shares similar assets.[30] MGM/UA Communications Company

Logo from 1987 to 1994.

Due to financial community concerns over his debt load, Ted Turner
Ted Turner
was forced to sell MGM's production and distribution assets to United Artists for $300 million on August 26, 1986.[25][26][31][32] The MGM lot and lab facilities were sold to Lorimar-Telepictures.[31] Turner kept the pre-May 1986 MGM
MGM
film and television library, along with the Associated Artists Productions
Associated Artists Productions
library, Gilligan's Island
Gilligan's Island
and its animated spin-offs, and the RKO Pictures
RKO Pictures
films that United Artists
United Artists
had previously purchased.[31] United Artists
United Artists
was renamed MGM/UA Communications Company (MUCC) and organized into three main units: one television production and two film units. David Gerber headed up the TV unit with Anthony Thomopoulous at UA, and Alan Ladd, Jr. at MGM. Despite a resurgence at the box office in 1987 with Spaceballs, The Living Daylights, and Moonstruck, MUCC lost $88 million.[5] In April 1988, Kerkorian's 82 percent of MUCC was up for sale. MGM
MGM
and UA were split by July. Eventually, 25 percent of MGM
MGM
was offered to Burt Sugarman, and producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber, but the plan fell-through. Rich, Ladd, Thomopoulous and other executives grew tired of Kerkorian's antics and began to leave.[5] By summer 1988, the mass exodus of executives started to affect productions, with many film cancellations. The 1989 sale of MGM/UA to the Australian company Qintex/Australian Television
Television
Network (owners of the Hal Roach
Hal Roach
library, which both MGM
MGM
and UA had distributed in the 1930s) also fell-through, due to the company's bankruptcy later that year. On November 29, 1989, Turner Broadcasting System
Turner Broadcasting System
(the owners of the pre-May 1986 MGM library) attempted to buy entertainment assets from Tracinda Corporation, including MGM/UA Communications Co. (which also included United Artists, MGM/UA Home Video, and MGM/UA Television
Television
Productions), but failed.[33] UA was essentially dormant after 1990 and released no films for several years. The 1990s Eventually, in 1990, Italian promoter Giancarlo Parretti purchased UA. He purchased a small company and renamed it Pathé
Pathé
Communications anticipating a successful purchase of Pathé, the original French company, but failed in that attempt, instead merging MGM/UA with his former company, resulting in MGM- Pathé
Pathé
Communications Co. During the transaction, Parretti overstated his own financial condition and within a year defaulted to his primary lender, Crédit Lyonnais, which foreclosed on the studio in 1992.[34][15] This resulted in the sale or closure of MGM/UA's string of US theaters. On July 2, 1992, MGM-Pathé Communications was again named Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. In an effort to make MGM/UA saleable, Credit Lyonnais ramped up production and convinced John Calley to run UA. Under his supervision, Calley revived the Pink Panther and James Bond
James Bond
franchises and highlighted UA's past by giving the widest release ever to a film with an NC-17 rating, Showgirls. Credit Lyonnais sold MGM
MGM
in 1996, again to Kirk Kerkorian's Tracinda, resulting in Calley's departure.[15] In 1999, filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
attempted to buy UA from Kerkorian who rejected the offer, but Coppola signed a production deal with the studio instead.[13] The 2000s to present In 1999, UA was repositioned as a specialty studio.[35] MGM
MGM
had just acquired The Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
Company, which had been a leading distributor of arthouse films. After that name was retired, MGM
MGM
folded UA into Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Pictures. G2 Films, successor to Goldwyn, was renamed United Artists. The distributorship, branding, and copyrights for two of UA's main franchises (Pink Panther, and Rocky) were moved to MGM, although select MGM
MGM
releases (notably the James Bond franchise co-held with Danjaq, LLC and the Amityville Horror remake) carry a United Artists
United Artists
copyright. The first arthouse film to bear the UA name was Things You Can Tell Just by Looking at Her. UA (re-christened United Artists
United Artists
Films)[citation needed] hired Bingham Ray to run the company in 2000.[15] Under his supervision, it produced and distributed many art films, including Bowling for Columbine; 2002's Nicholas Nickleby and the winner of that year's Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, No Man's Land; and 2004's Undertow, and Hotel Rwanda, a co-production of UA and Lions Gate Entertainment. In 2005, a partnership of Comcast, Sony
Sony
and several merchant banks bought United Artists
United Artists
and its parent, MGM, for $4.8 billion.[15] Though only a minority investor, Sony
Sony
closed MGM's distribution system and folded most of its staff into Sony's own studio, and the movies UA had completed and planned for release - Capote, Art School Confidential, The Woods, and Romance and Cigarettes[citation needed] - were reassigned to Sony
Sony
Pictures Classics.[15] In March 2006, MGM
MGM
announced that it would return once again as a distribution company domestically. Striking distribution deals with The Weinstein Company, Lakeshore Entertainment, Bauer Martinez Entertainment, and other independent studios, MGM
MGM
distributed films from these companies. MGM
MGM
continued funding and co-producing projects released in conjunction with Sony's Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group on a limited basis and produced "tentpoles" for its own distribution company, MGM
MGM
Distribution. Sony
Sony
had a minority stake in MGM, but otherwise MGM
MGM
and UA operated under the direction of Stephen Cooper (CEO and minority owner of MGM). United Artists
United Artists
Entertainment On November 2, 2006, MGM
MGM
announced that Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
and his long-time production partner Paula Wagner
Paula Wagner
were resurrecting UA.[36][37] This announcement came after the duo were released from a fourteen-year production relationship at Viacom-owned Paramount Pictures. Cruise, Wagner and MGM Studios
MGM Studios
created United Artists
United Artists
Entertainment LLC and the producer/actor and his partner owned a 30 percent stake in the studio,[38] with the approval by MGM's consortium of owners. The deal gave them control over production and development. Wagner was named CEO, which was allotted an annual slate of four films with different budget ranges, while Cruise served as a producer for the revamped studio and the occasional star. UA became the first motion picture studio granted a WGA waiver in January 2008 during the Writers' Strike.[39] On August 14, 2008, MGM
MGM
announced that Wagner would leave UA to produce films independently.[40] Her output as head of UA was two films, both starring Cruise, Lions for Lambs[41] and Valkyrie.[42] Wagner's departure led to speculation that a UA overhaul was imminent.[40] Since then, UA has served as a co-producer with MGM
MGM
for two releases: the 2009 remake of Fame and Hot Tub Time Machine--these are the last original films to date to bear the UA banner. Throughout 2010, due to continued debt and credit issues for MGM
MGM
Holdings, Inc., United Artists' parent company left the future of MGM
MGM
and UA in doubt until it was resolved near the end of the year.[citation needed] A 2011 financial report revealed that MGM
MGM
reacquired its 100 percent stake in United Artists.[38] MGM
MGM
stated that it might continue to make new films under the UA brand.[38] United Artists
United Artists
Media Group On September 22, 2014, MGM
MGM
acquired a 55 percent interest in One Three Media and Lightworkers Media, both operated by Mark Burnett
Mark Burnett
and Roma Downey and partly owned by Hearst Entertainment. The two companies were consolidated into a new television company, United Artists
United Artists
Media Group, a revival of the UA brand. Burnett became UAMG's CEO and Downey became president of Lightworkers Media, the UAMG family and faith division. UAMG became the distributing studio for Mark Burnett Productions programming such as Survivor. UAMG was to form an over-the-top faith-based channel.[15][43] On December 14, 2015, MGM
MGM
announced that it had acquired the remaining 45 percent stake of UAMG it did not already own and folded UAMG into MGM
MGM
Television. Hearst, Downey, and Burnett received stakes in MGM collectively valued at $233 million. Additionally, Burnett was promoted to CEO of MGM
MGM
TV, replacing the outgoing Roma Khanna. The planned over-the-top faith service became a separate entity owned by MGM, Burnett, Downey and Hearst.[44] UA continues to exist as a brand-name for the in-house material parent company MGM
MGM
currently distributes.[citation needed] Library and historical list of films Main article: List of United Artists
United Artists
films A majority of UA's post-1952 library is now owned by MGM, while the pre-1952 films (with few exceptions) are now either owned by other companies (such as Turner Entertainment) or are in the public domain. However, throughout the studio's history, UA acted more as a distributor than a film studio, crediting the copyright to the production company responsible. This explains why certain UA releases, such as High Noon
High Noon
(1952) and The Final Countdown (1980), are still under copyright but not owned by MGM.[original research?] UA films on video UA originally leased the home video rights to its films to Magnetic Video, the first home video company. Fox purchased Magnetic in 1981 and renamed it 20th Century-Fox Video that year. In 1982, 20th Century-Fox Video merged with CBS Video Enterprises (which earlier split from MGM/CBS Home Video after MGM
MGM
merged with UA) giving birth to CBS/Fox Video. Although MGM
MGM
owned UA around this time, the latter studio's licensing deal with CBS/Fox was still in effect; however, the newly renamed MGM/UA Home Video started releasing some UA product, including UA films originally released in the mid 80s. Prior to MGM's purchase, UA licensed foreign video rights to Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
through Warner Home Video, in a deal that was set to expire in 1991.[45] In 1986, the pre-1950 WB and the pre-May 1986 MGM
MGM
film and television libraries were purchased by Ted Turner
Ted Turner
after its short-lived ownership of MGM/UA, and as a result CBS/Fox lost home video rights to the pre-1950 WB films to MGM/UA Home Video. When the deal with CBS/Fox (inherited from Magnetic Video) expired in 1989, the UA released films through MGM/UA Home Video. Before the Magnetic Video and Warner Home Video
Warner Home Video
deals in 1980, United Artists had exclusive rental contacts with a small video label called VidAmerica in the US and another small label called Intervision Video in the UK.[46][47][48] for the home video release of 20 titles from the UA library (e.g. The Great Escape, Some Like It Hot, and Hair, along with a few pre-1950 WB titles). In 1988, United Artists
United Artists
licensed the video releases for its more obscure titles to a small specialty video distributor called Wood Knapp Video. This deal lasted until 1995. United Artists
United Artists
Broadcasting United Artists
United Artists
owned and operated two television stations between the years of 1968 and 1977. Legal ID's for the company would typically say " United Artists
United Artists
Broadcasting: an entertainment service of Transamerica Corporation," along with the Transamerica "T" logo.

DMA Market Station Years Owned Current Affiliation Notes

17. Cleveland
Cleveland
– Akron – Canton WUAB
WUAB
43 1968–1977 MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
affiliate owned by Raycom Media Licensed to Lorain. The call letters stand for United Artists Broadcasting, which founded the station. Kaiser Broadcasting owned a minor stake from 1975 to 1977 following the closure of crosstown WKBF. In 1977, Gaylord Entertainment Company
Gaylord Entertainment Company
acquired WUAB.

NR San Juan – Ponce – Mayagüez WRIK-TV 7 1970–1978 Independent station WSTE owned by Univision Licensed to Ponce. Operates 3 booster stations throughout Puerto Rico.

Additionally, United Artists
United Artists
Broadcasting also held the permit to KUAB-TV in Houston, Texas, which would have possibly launched sometime around 1969 on channel 20.[citation needed] United Artists
United Artists
also owned one radio station, WWSH in Philadelphia, from 1970 to 1977. UAB/Transamerica left the broadcasting business in 1977 by selling WUAB
WUAB
to the Gaylord Broadcasting Company and WWSH to Cox Enterprises. See also

List of United Artists
United Artists
films United Artists
United Artists
Television United Artists
United Artists
Records

Notes

^ WB retained a pair of features from 1949 that they merely distributed, and all short subjects released on or after September 1, 1948, in addition to all cartoons released in August 1948.

References

^ Woo, Elaine (September 29, 2011). "Mo Rothman dies at 92; found new audience for Chaplin". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-10-01.  ^ a b Balio, Tino (March 2, 2009). United Artists, Volume 1, 1919–1950: The Company Built by the Stars, Volume 1 (2nd ed.). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780299230036. Retrieved September 2, 2017.  ^ McNary, Dave (December 14, 2015). " Mark Burnett
Mark Burnett
Named President of MGM
MGM
Television". Variety. Retrieved September 2, 2017.  ^ Siklos, Richard (4 March 2007). "Mission Improbable: Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
as Mogul". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 October 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "History of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Inc". Funding Universe. Retrieved December 20, 2014.  ^ Balio, Tino (March 2, 2009). United Artists: The Company that Changed the Film
Film
Industry (1st ed.). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 226–227. ISBN 9780299114404. Retrieved September 2, 2017.  ^ "US Sets Up Own Diskery Label". Billboard: 20. October 14, 1957. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 2, 2017.  ^ "About: 1970-1979". EMI
EMI
Archive Trust. Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ McNeil, Alex (1996). Total television: the comprehensive guide to programming from 1948 to the present (4th ed.). New York: Penguin Books. p. 886. ISBN 9780140249163. Retrieved September 2, 2017.  ^ "Movies from a.a.p.: Programs of quality from quality studios, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
features and cartoons, Popeye cartoons". Archive.org. 1957. Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ Schickel, Richard; Perry, George (September 9, 2008). You Must Remember This: The Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Story. Philadelphia.: Running Press. p. 255. ISBN 9780762434183. Retrieved 2 September 2017.  ^ Kamp, David (October 2012). "Fifty Years of Bond, James Bond: The Greatest Film
Film
Franchise's Biggest Birthday". Vanity Fair. Retrieved October 1, 2017. In 1961, Broccoli worked his connections to secure a meeting in New York with Arthur Krim, the head of United Artists. Krim agreed to a budget of just over a million dollars for a James Bond movie.  ^ a b Medavoy, Mike; Young, Josh (June 25, 2013). You're Only as Good as Your Next One: 100 Great Films, 100 Good Films, and 100 for Which I Should Be Shot. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 85–86. ISBN 9781439118139. Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ Cole, Robert J. (May 16, 1981). "M-G-M is Reported Purchasing United Artists for $350 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved August 17, 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g Fleming, Mike Jr; Busch, Anita (September 22, 2014). " MGM
MGM
Buys 55% Of Roma Downey
Roma Downey
And Mark Burnett's Empire; Relaunches United Artists". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved November 4, 2014.  ^ a b Fabrikant, Geraldine (August 8, 1985). "Turner Acquiring MGM Movie Empire". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2014.  ^ "Handle With Care". American Film. Winter 1980.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Siskel, Gene (May 16, 1982). "Hellow, Sweet Art: Small Films Big Success in Chicago". Chicago Tribune. p. 141. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Harmetz, Aljean (July 13, 1982). "Begelman Removed as Chief of United Artists". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ "700 Bankers Trust Workers To Be Shifted to Jersey City". The New York Times. March 31, 1983. Retrieved August 17, 2015.  ^ a b Prince, Stephen (2000). A New Pot of Gold: Hollywood Under the Electronic Rainbow, 1980 1989 (Paperback ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 14–16. ISBN 9780520232662. Retrieved September 2, 2017.  ^ Dellugach, Al (November 12, 1985). "Weintraub Is New Chief of United Artists". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 4, 2014.  ^ "New Head For United Artists". The New York Times. November 20, 1985. Retrieved January 26, 2015.  ^ Harris, Kathryn (April 29, 1986). "Rich Resigns From Lorimar
Lorimar
to Become Chairman of UA". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 26, 2015.  ^ a b c Bart, Peter (May 1990). Fade Out: The Calamitous Final Days of MGM
MGM
(1st ed.). New York: Morrow. pp. 236–238. ISBN 9780671710606. Retrieved September 2, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b c Parsons, Patrick R. (April 5, 2008). Blue Skies: A History of Cable Television. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 507. ISBN 9781592137060. Retrieved 1 October 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Stefoff, Rebecca (1992). Ted Turner, Television's Triumphant Tiger. Ada, Oklahoma: Garrett Educational Corp. p. 55. ISBN 9781560740247. Retrieved October 1, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Storch, Charles (May 7, 1986). "Turner May Sell Equity In Company". Chicago Tribune. Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. Retrieved December 15, 2011.  ^ Gendel, Morgan (June 7, 1986). "Turner Sells The Studio, Holds on to the Dream". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 15, 2011.  ^ Balio, Tino (March 2, 2009). United Artists, Volume 2, 1951–1978: The Company That Changed the Film
Film
Industry. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 343. ISBN 9780299230135. Retrieved 2 September 2017.  ^ a b c Fabrikant, Geraldine (June 7, 1986). "Turner To Sell Mgm Assets". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2015.  ^ "Turner, United Artists
United Artists
Close Deal". Orlando Sentinel. United Press International. August 27, 1986. Retrieved September 20, 2013.  ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (November 29, 1989). "Turner Buying MGM/UA". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2014.  ^ Bart, Peter (April 10, 2013). "MGM: Sometimes a Roaring Silence Is Best". Variety. Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ " United Artists
United Artists
restructuring by MGM". CNNMoney. June 7, 1999. Retrieved 2015-01-26.  ^ " MGM
MGM
Puts Cruise in Charge of New United Artists". USA Today. November 2, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ Petrecca, Laura; Lieberman, David (November 2, 2006). "Tom Cruise, producing partner cut a deal with United Artists". Zap2it. Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ a b c Fritz, Ben (March 23, 2012). " MGM
MGM
regains full control of United Artists". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 26, 2015.  ^ "SHOCKER! WGA To Announce Side Deal With Tom Cruise's United Artists; Now Studio Moguls Mad at MGM's Sloan". Deadline Hollywood. January 4, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ a b Fleming, Michael (13 August 2008). " Paula Wagner
Paula Wagner
leaves UA". Variety. Retrieved 14 August 2008.  ^ Cieply, Michael (April 23, 2008). "The Nazi Plot That's Haunting Tom Cruise and United Artists". The New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2008.  ^ "Valkyrie (2008)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved April 13, 2009.  ^ Highfill, Samantha (17 January 2015). " MGM
MGM
is launching the United Artists Media Group (again)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 11, 2015.  ^ McNary, Dave (December 14, 2015). " Mark Burnett
Mark Burnett
Named President of MGM
MGM
Television". Variety. Retrieved December 14, 2015.  ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (May 31, 1988). "For MGM/UA, Bidders Are Scarce". The New York Times.  ^ Bins, Chuck (December 23, 1980). "VCR revolution to provide wide selection for TV viewers". New Castle News. p. 8.  ^ "This Month" (pdf). Panorama. October 8, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ Kopp, George (October 4, 1980). "Europe Moves Forward in Copyright Levy Push". Billboard: 87. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved October 1, 2017. 

Further reading

Bach, Steven. Final Cut. New York: Morrow, 1985. Balio, Tino. United Artists: The Company Built by the Stars. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976. Balio, Tino. United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987. Berg, A. Scott. Goldwyn. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988. Gabler, Neal. An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood. New York: Crown Publishers, 1988. Schickel, Richard. D.W. Griffith: An American Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983. Thomson, David. Showman: The Life of David O. Selznick. New York: Alfred A, Knopf, 1992.

External links

United Artists
United Artists
on IMDbPro (subscription required) United Artists
United Artists
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Film
and Theater Research.

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