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U.S. Department of Defense

* Dept. of the Army
Army
(since 1947)

HEADQUARTERS The Pentagon
The Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia , U.S.

MOTTO(S) "This We'll Defend"

COLORS Black, gold

MARCH "The Army
Army
Goes Rolling Along "

ANNIVERSARIES Army
Army
Birthday : 14 June

ENGAGEMENTS See list

* Revolutionary War

War of 1812
War of 1812

Mexican War

Civil War

Indian Wars

War with Spain
Spain

China Relief Expedition

Philippine Insurrection

Mexican Expedition

World War I
World War I

World War II
World War II

Korean War
Korean War
1958 Lebanon crisis

Vietnam
Vietnam
Conflict

Dominican Civil War
Dominican Civil War

Invasion of Grenada
Grenada

* Invasion of Panama
Panama

Somali Civil War

Persian Gulf War

Kosovo War

Global War on Terrorism

Afghanistan Campaign

Iraq
Iraq
Campaign Inherent Resolve Campaign

WEBSITE Army.mil

COMMANDERS

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF President Donald Trump
Donald Trump

SECRETARY OF DEFENSE James Mattis

SECRETARY OF THE ARMY Mark Esper

CHIEF OF STAFF GEN Mark A. Milley

VICE CHIEF OF STAFF GEN James C. McConville

SERGEANT MAJOR OF THE ARMY SMA Daniel A. Dailey

INSIGNIA

FLAG (1956–PRESENT)

EMBLEM OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

LOGO (2001–PRESENT)

SEAL OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

FIELD FLAG (1962–PRESENT)

The UNITED STATES ARMY (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces . It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States
United States
and is designated as the Army
Army
of the United States
United States
in the United States
United States
Constitution, Article 2, Section 2, Clause 1 and United States
United States
Code, Title 10, Subtitle B, Chapter 301, Section 3001. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army
Army
has its roots in the Continental Army
Army
, which was formed (14 June 1775) to fight the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(1775–1783)—before the United States
United States
of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States
United States
Army
Army
on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army
Army
considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.

As a uniformed military service , the U.S. Army
Army
is part of the Department of the Army
Army
, which is one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense . The U.S. Army
Army
is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army (SECARMY) and by a chief military officer , the Chief of Staff of the Army
Army
(CSA) who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff . It is the largest military branch, and in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army
Army
(USA) was 476,000 soldiers ; the Army
Army
National Guard (ARNG) had 343,000 soldiers and the United States Army
Army
Reserve (USAR) had 199,000 soldiers; the combined-component strength of the U.S. Army
Army
was 1,018,000 soldiers. As a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U.S. Army
Army
is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, sustained, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders". The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States
United States
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Mission

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins

* 2.2 19th century

* 2.2.1 Early wars on the Frontier * 2.2.2 American Civil War
American Civil War
* 2.2.3 Later 19th century

* 2.3 20th century

* 2.3.1 World wars

* 2.3.2 Cold War
Cold War

* 2.3.2.1 1945–1960 * 2.3.2.2 1960–1970 * 2.3.2.3 1970–1990

* 2.3.3 1990s

* 2.4 21st century

* 3 Organization

* 3.1 Army
Army
components * 3.2 Army
Army
commands and army service component commands * 3.3 Structure * 3.4 Combat maneuver organizations * 3.5 Special
Special
operations forces

* 4 Personnel

* 4.1 Commissioned officers * 4.2 Warrant officers * 4.3 Enlisted personnel * 4.4 Training

* 5 Equipment

* 5.1 Weapons * 5.2 Vehicles

* 5.3 Uniforms

* 5.3.1 Berets

* 5.4 Tents * 5.5 3D printing

* 6 See also * 7 Notes and references * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

MISSION

The United States
United States
Army
Army
serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces . Section 3062 of Title 10, U.S. Code defines the purpose of the army as:

* Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States * Supporting the national policies * Implementing the national objectives * Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States

HISTORY

Main article: History of the United States
United States
Army
Army

This article or section MAY NEED TO BE CLEANED UP OR SUMMARIZED because it has been split from/to History of the United States
United States
Army
Army
.

ORIGINS

Storming of Redoubt No. 10 in the Siege of Yorktown
Siege of Yorktown
during the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
prompted the British government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and British recognition of the United States
United States
of America

The Continental Army
Army
was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain , with George Washington
George Washington
appointed as its commander. The army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources and military thinking influenced the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben , who taught Prussian Army
Army
tactics and organizational skills.

The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, sometimes used the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics , hitting where the British were weakest to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton , but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army
Army
prevailed against the British.

After the war, the Continental Army
Army
was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point
West Point
's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans , it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The Regular Army
Army
was at first very small and after General St. Clair\'s defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army
Army
was reorganized as the Legion of the United States
United States
, which was established in 1791 and renamed the United States
United States
Army
Army
in 1796.

19TH CENTURY

Early Wars On The Frontier

Further information: Army
Army
on the Frontier General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders during the defense of New Orleans , the final major and most one-sided battle of the War of 1812
War of 1812

The War of 1812
War of 1812
, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. The U.S. Army
Army
did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U.S. Army
Army
seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh , which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U.S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U.S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington , which was defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore , prompting British agreement on the previously rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed (but not ratified), Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans
and Siege of Fort St. Philip , and became a national hero. U.S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane , Levant and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides (the United States
United States
and Great Britain) returned to the geographical status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict.

The army's major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars (1818–1858) to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma. The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians' winter food supply, but that was no use in Florida
Florida
where there was no winter. The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes, but that too was useless because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida
Florida
in the late eighteenth century.

The U.S. Army
Army
fought and won the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which was a defining event for both countries. The U.S. victory resulted in acquisition of territory that eventually became all or parts of the states of California
California
, Nevada
Nevada
, Utah
Utah
, Colorado
Colorado
, Arizona
Arizona
, Wyoming
Wyoming
and New Mexico
New Mexico
.

American Civil War

Further information: Union Army
Army
The Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
, the turning point of the American Civil War
American Civil War

The American Civil War
American Civil War
was the costliest war for the U.S. in terms of casualties. After most slave states , located in the southern U.S., formed the Confederate States , the Confederate States Army
Army
, led by former U.S. Army
Army
officers, mobilized a large fraction of Southern white manpower. Forces of the United States
United States
(the "Union" or "the North") formed the Union Army
Army
, consisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state, north and south, except South Carolina
South Carolina
.

For the first two years Confederate forces did well in set battles but lost control of the border states. The Confederates had the advantage of defending a large territory in an area where disease caused twice as many deaths as combat. The Union pursued a strategy of seizing the coastline, blockading the ports, and taking control of the river systems. By 1863, the Confederacy was being strangled. Its eastern armies fought well, but the western armies were defeated one after another until the Union forces captured New Orleans in 1862 along with the Tennessee
Tennessee
River. In the Vicksburg Campaign of 1862–1863, General Ulysses Grant seized the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and cut off the Southwest. Grant took command of Union forces in 1864 and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties, he had General Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
under siege in Richmond as General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and the Carolinas . The Confederate capital was abandoned in April 1865 and Lee subsequently surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House. All other Confederate armies surrendered within a few months.

The war remains the deadliest conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 soldiers. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6.4% in the North and 18% in the South .

Later 19th Century

Army
Army
soldiers in 1890

Following the Civil War, the U.S. Army
Army
had the mission of containing western tribes of Native Americans on the Indian reservations . They set up many forts, and engaged in the last of the American Indian Wars . U.S. Army
Army
troops also occupied several Southern states during the Reconstruction Era to protect freedmen .

The key battles of the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
of 1898 were fought by the Navy. Using mostly new volunteers, the U.S. Army
Army
defeated Spain
Spain
in land campaigns in Cuba
Cuba
and played the central role in the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
.

20TH CENTURY

U.S. Army
Army
troops assault a German bunker, France
France
, c. 1918

Starting in 1910, the army began acquiring fixed-wing aircraft . In 1910, Mexico
Mexico
was having a civil war, peasant rebels fighting government soldiers. The army was deployed to American towns near the border to ensure safety to lives and property. In 1916, Pancho Villa , a major rebel leader, attacked Columbus, New Mexico
New Mexico
, prompting a U.S. intervention in Mexico
Mexico
until 7 February 1917. They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until 1918.

World Wars

For a list of campaigns see List of United States
United States
Army
Army
campaigns during World War II
World War II

The United States
United States
joined World War I
World War I
as an "Associated Power" in 1917 on the side of Britain , France
France
, Russia
Russia
, Italy
Italy
and the other Allies . U.S. troops were sent to the Western Front and were involved in the last offensives that ended the war. With the armistice in November 1918, the army once again decreased its forces.

In 1939, estimates of the Army's strength range between 174,000 and 200,00 soldiers, smaller than that of Portugal
Portugal
's, which ranked it 17th or 19th in the world in size. General George C. Marshall became Army
Army
Chief of Staff in September 1939 and set about expanding and modernizing the Army
Army
in preparation for war. American soldiers hunt Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville Campaign

The United States
United States
joined World War II
World War II
in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor . On the European front , U.S. Army troops formed a significant portion of the forces that captured North Africa and Sicily and later fought in Italy
Italy
. On D-Day 6 June 1944 and in the subsequent liberation of Europe and defeat of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, millions of U.S. Army
Army
troops played a central role. In the Pacific War , U.S. Army
Army
soldiers participated alongside the United States
United States
Marine Corps in capturing the Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
from Japanese control. Following the Axis surrenders in May (Germany) and August (Japan) of 1945, army troops were deployed to Japan and Germany
Germany
to occupy the two defeated nations. Two years after World War II, the Army
Army
Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States
United States
Air Force in September 1947. In 1948, the army was desegregated by order of President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
.

Cold War

1945–1960

U.S. Army
Army
soldiers look on an atomic bomb test of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada
Nevada
Test Site during the Korean War
Korean War
.

The end of World War II
World War II
set the stage for the East–West confrontation known as the Cold War
Cold War
. With the outbreak of the Korean War , concerns over the defense of Western Europe rose. Two corps, V and VII , were reactivated under Seventh United States
United States
Army
Army
in 1950 and American strength in Europe rose from one division to four. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops remained stationed in West Germany, with others in Belgium
Belgium
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the United Kingdom , until the 1990s in anticipation of a possible Soviet attack. :minute 9:00-10:00

During the Cold War, American troops and their allies fought communist forces in Korea and Vietnam
Vietnam
. The Korean War
Korean War
began in 1950, when the Soviets walked out of a U.N. Security Council meeting, removing their possible veto. Under a United Nations
United Nations
umbrella, hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops fought to prevent the takeover of South Korea
South Korea
by North Korea
North Korea
and later to invade the northern nation. After repeated advances and retreats by both sides and the Chinese People\'s Volunteer Army
Army
's entry into the war, the Korean Armistice Agreement returned the peninsula to the status quo in 1953.

1960–1970

The Vietnam War
Vietnam War
is often regarded as a low point for the U.S. Army due to the use of drafted personnel , the unpopularity of the war with the American public and frustrating restrictions placed on the military by American political leaders. While American forces had been stationed in the Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
since 1959, in intelligence and advising/training roles, they were not deployed in large numbers until 1965, after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident . American forces effectively established and maintained control of the "traditional" battlefield, but they struggled to counter the guerrilla hit and run tactics of the communist Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army
Army
. On a tactical level, American soldiers (and the U.S. military as a whole) did not lose a sizable battle. A U.S. Army
Army
infantry patrol moves up to assault the last North Vietnamese Army
Army
position at Dak To, South Vietnam
Vietnam
during Operation Hawthorne

During the 1960s, the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components, the Army
Army
National Guard and the Army
Army
Reserve . In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara decided that 15 combat divisions in the Army
Army
National Guard were unnecessary and cut the number to eight divisions (one mechanized infantry, two armored, and five infantry), but increased the number of brigades from seven to 18 (one airborne, one armored, two mechanized infantry and 14 infantry). The loss of the divisions did not sit well with the states. Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them. Under the proposal, the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base. However, no reduction in total Army
Army
National Guard strength was to take place, which convinced the governors to accept the plan. The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December 1967 and 1 May 1968.

1970–1990

U.S. Army
Army
soldiers prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City
Panama City
during the United States invasion of Panama
Panama

The Total Force Policy was adopted by Chief of Staff of the Army General Creighton Abrams in the aftermath of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and involves treating the three components of the army – the Regular Army
Army
, the Army
Army
National Guard and the Army
Army
Reserve as a single force. Believing that no U.S. President should be able to take the United States (and more specifically the U.S. Army) to war without the support of the American people, General Abrams intertwined the structure of the three components of the army in such a way as to make extended operations impossible, without the involvement of both the Army
Army
National Guard and the Army
Army
Reserve.

The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The army converted to an all-volunteer force with greater emphasis on training and technology. The Goldwater-Nichols Act
Goldwater-Nichols Act
of 1986 created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified, geographically organized command structures. The army also played a role in the invasions of Grenada
Grenada
in 1983 (Operation Urgent Fury ) and Panama
Panama
in 1989 (Operation Just Cause ).

By 1989 Germany
Germany
was nearing reunification and the Cold War
Cold War
was coming to a close. Army
Army
leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength. By November 1989 Pentagon briefers were laying out plans to reduce army end strength by 23%, from 750,000 to 580,000. A number of incentives such as early retirement were used.

1990s

M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams
move out before the Battle of Al Busayyah during the Gulf War
Gulf War

In 1990, Iraq
Iraq
invaded its smaller neighbor, Kuwait
Kuwait
, and U.S. land forces quickly deployed to assure the protection of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. In January 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced, a U.S.-led coalition which deployed over 500,000 troops, the bulk of them from U.S. Army formations, to drive out Iraqi forces . The campaign ended in total victory, as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army
Army
. Some of the largest tank battles in history were fought during the Gulf war. The Battle of Medina Ridge , Battle of Norfolk and the Battle of 73 Easting were tank battles of historical significance.

After Operation Desert Storm, the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities. In 1990 the Department of Defense issued guidance for "rebalancing" after a review of the Total Force Policy, but in 2004, Air War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is an "essential ingredient to the successful application of military force."

21ST CENTURY

Army
Army
Rangers take part in a raid during operation in Nahr-e Saraj, Afghanistan

On 11 September 2001, 53 Army
Army
civilians (47 employees and six contractors) and 22 soldiers were among the 125 victims killed in the Pentagon in a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 commandeered by five Al-Qaeda hijackers slammed into the western side of the building, as part of the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
. Lieutenant General Timothy Maude was the highest-ranking military official killed at the Pentagon and the most senior U.S. Army
Army
officer killed by foreign action since the death of Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner Jr. on 18 June 1945 in the Battle of Okinawa
Battle of Okinawa
during World War II. U.S. Army
Army
soldiers with 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division return fire during a firefight with Taliban
Taliban
forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province, Afghanistan, March 2011

In response to the 11 September attacks and as part of the Global War on Terror , U.S. and NATO
NATO
forces invaded Afghanistan in October 2001, displacing the Taliban
Taliban
government. The U.S. Army
Army
also led the combined U.S. and allied invasion of Iraq
Iraq
in 2003. It served as the primary source for ground forces with its ability to sustain short and long-term deployment operations. In the following years, the mission changed from conflict between regular militaries to counterinsurgency , resulting in the deaths of more than 4,000 U.S. service members (as of March 2008) and injuries to thousands more. 23,813 insurgents were killed in Iraq
Iraq
between 2003–2011.

Until 2009, the army's chief modernization plan, its most ambitious since World War II, was the FCS program . In 2009, many systems were canceled and the remaining were swept into the BCT modernization program . In response to Budget sequestration in 2013 , the army is planned to shrink to a size not seen since the World War II
World War II
buildup. From 2016 to 2017, the army retired hundreds of OH-58 Kiowa Warrior observation helicopters without an adequate successor. The 2015 expenditure for Army
Army
research, development and acquisition changed from $32 billion projected in 2012 for FY15 to $21 billion for FY15 expected in 2014. By 2017, the Brigade Modernization project was completed and its headquarters, the Brigade Modernization Command, was renamed the Joint Modernization Command, or JMC, to reflect its evolving mission at TRADOC. (TRADOC is the Army
Army
Command whose mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army, to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM and to design hardware, as well as to define materiel for AMC). :minutes 2:30-15:00

ORGANIZATION

Main article: Structure of the United States
United States
Army
Army
Organization chart

ARMY COMPONENTS

U.S. general officers, World War II, Europe

The task of organizing the U.S. Army
Army
commenced in 1775. In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States
United States
Army
Army
was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. During times of war, the U.S. Army
Army
was augmented by the much larger United States
United States
Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army.

By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army
Army
had mobilized the U.S. Volunteers on four separate occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. During World War I, the "National Army
Army
" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. Volunteers. It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps and the State Militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army
Army
" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.

In 1941, the " Army
Army
of the United States
United States
" was founded to fight World War II. The Regular Army, Army
Army
of the United States, the National Guard and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States
United States
Army
Army
Reserve . The Army
Army
of the United States
United States
was re-established for the Korean War
Korean War
and Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft .

Currently, the Army
Army
is divided into the Regular Army
Army
, the Army Reserve and the Army
Army
National Guard. Some states further maintain state defense forces , as a type of reserve to the National Guard, while all states maintain regulations for state militias . State militias are both "organized", meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces, or "unorganized" simply meaning that all able bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service. The unorganized militia has never been activated in the history of the United States, and by law this would only be done in the event of an extreme national emergency, such as a mainland invasion of the United States
United States
.

The U.S. Army
Army
is also divided into several branches and functional areas . Branches include officers, warrant officers, and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area. However, officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases, as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia. Some branches, such as Special
Special
Forces, operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army
Army
branch.

U.S. ARMY BRANCHES AND FUNCTIONAL AREAS BRANCH INSIGNIA BRANCH INSIGNIA

FUNCTIONAL AREA (FA)

Acquisition Corps (AC)

Air Defense Artillery
Artillery
(AD)

Information Network Engineering (FA 26)

Adjutant General\'s Corps (AG) Includes Army
Army
Bands (AB) Armor (AR) Includes Cavalry (CV)

Electronic Warfare Officer (FA 29)

Aviation (AV)

Civil Affairs Corps (CA)

Information Operations (FA 30)

Chaplain Corps (CH)

Strategic Intelligence (FA 34)

Chemical Corps
Chemical Corps
(CM)

Cyber Corps (CY)

Space Operations (FA 40)

Dental Corps (DC)

Corps of Engineers (EN)

Public Affairs Officer (FA 46)

Electronic Warfare (EW)

Field Artillery
Artillery
(FA)

Academy Professor (FA 47)

Finance Corps (FI)

Infantry (IN)

Foreign Area Officer (FA 48)

Judge Advocate General\'s Corps (JA)

Logistics (LG)

Operations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49)

Medical Corps (MC)

Military Intelligence Corps (MI)

Force Management (FA 50)

Military Police Corps (MP)

Medical Service Corps (MS)

Acquisition (FA 51)

Medical Specialist Corps
Medical Specialist Corps
(SP)

Army
Army
Nurse Corps (AN)

Simulation Operations (FA 57)

Ordnance Corps (OD)

Psychological Operations (PO)

Health Services (FA 70)

Public Affairs (PA)

Quartermaster Corps (QM)

Laboratory Sciences (FA 71)

Signal Corps (SC)

Special
Special
Forces (SF)

Preventive Medicine Sciences (FA 72)

Transportation Corps (TC)

Veterinary Corps (VC)

Behavioral Sciences (FA 73)

Before 1903, members of the National Guard were considered state soldiers unless federalized (i.e., activated) by the President. Since the Militia Act of 1903 , all National Guard soldiers have held dual status: as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and when activated as a reserve of the U.S. Army
Army
under the authority of the President.

Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War
Gulf War
, peacekeeping in Kosovo
Kosovo
, Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
.

ARMY COMMANDS AND ARMY SERVICE COMPONENT COMMANDS

Headquarters, United States
United States
Department of the Army
Army
(HQDA):

ARMY COMMANDS CURRENT COMMANDER LOCATION OF HEADQUARTERS

United States
United States
Army
Army
Forces Command (FORSCOM) GEN Robert B. Abrams Fort Bragg
Fort Bragg
, North Carolina
North Carolina

United States
United States
Army
Army
Materiel Command (AMC) GEN Gustave F. Perna Redstone Arsenal , Alabama
Alabama

United States
United States
Army
Army
Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) GEN David G. Perkins Fort Eustis , Virginia
Virginia

ARMY SERVICE COMPONENT COMMANDS CURRENT COMMANDER LOCATION OF HEADQUARTERS

United States
United States
Army
Army
Africa (USARAF)/Ninth Army
Army
/ United States
United States
Army Southern European Task Force BG Eugene J. LeBoeuf, Acting Caserma Ederle , Vicenza
Vicenza
, Italy
Italy

United States
United States
Army
Army
Central (ARCENT)/Third Army
Army
LTG Michael X. Garrett Shaw Air Force Base , South Carolina
South Carolina

United States
United States
Army
Army
Europe (USAREUR)/Seventh Army
Army
(U.S.) LTG Christopher Cavoli Clay Kaserne , Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
, Germany
Germany

United States
United States
Army
Army
North (ARNORTH)/Fifth Army
Army
LTG Jeffrey S. Buchanan Joint Base San Antonio , Texas
Texas

United States
United States
Army
Army
Pacific (USARPAC) GEN Robert B. Brown Fort Shafter , Hawaii
Hawaii

United States
United States
Army
Army
South (ARSOUTH)/Sixth Army
Army
MG Clarence K.K. Chinn Joint Base San Antonio, Texas

Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) MG Kurt J. Ryan Scott AFB , Illinois
Illinois

United States
United States
Army
Army
Cyber Command (ARCYBER) LTG Paul Nakasone Fort Belvoir , Virginia
Virginia

United States
United States
Army
Army
Space and Missile Defense Command /United States Army
Army
Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) LTG James H. Dickinson Redstone Arsenal , Alabama
Alabama

United States
United States
Army
Army
Special
Special
Operations Command (USASOC) LTG Kenneth E. Tovo Fort Bragg, North Carolina

OPERATIONAL FORCE HEADQUARTERS CURRENT COMMANDER LOCATION OF HEADQUARTERS

Eighth Army
Army
(EUSA) LTG Thomas S. Vandal Yongsan Garrison , South Korea
South Korea

DIRECT REPORTING UNITS CURRENT COMMANDER LOCATION OF HEADQUARTERS

Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
and Soldiers\' and Airmen\'s Home National Cemetery Jack E. Lechner Arlington, Virginia
Virginia

United States
United States
Army
Army
Marketing and Engagement Brigade (USAMEB) COL Brian M. Cavanaugh Fort Knox
Fort Knox
, Kentucky
Kentucky

United States
United States
Army
Army
Acquisition Support Center (USASC) Craig A. Spisak Fort Belvoir, Virginia

United States
United States
Army
Army
Civilian Human Resources Agency (CHRA) Barbara P. Panther Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

United States
United States
Army
Army
Corps of Engineers (USACE) LTG Todd T. Semonite Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

United States
United States
Army
Army
Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) MG Mark S. Inch Quantico, Virginia
Virginia

United States
United States
Army
Army
Financial Management Command (USAFMC) BG David C. Coburn Indianapolis, Indiana
Indianapolis, Indiana

United States
United States
Army
Army
Human Resources Command (HRC) MG Jason T. Evans Alexandria, Virginia
Virginia

United States
United States
Army
Army
Installation Management Command (IMCOM) LTG Kenneth R. Dahl Joint Base San Antonio , Texas
Texas

United States
United States
Army
Army
Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) MG Christopher S. Ballard Fort Belvoir, Virginia

United States
United States
Army
Army
Medical Command (MEDCOM) LTG Nadja West Joint Base San Antonio, Texas

United States
United States
Army
Army
Military District of Washington (MDW) MG Michael L. Howard Fort Lesley J. McNair , Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

United States
United States
Army
Army
Recruiting Command (USAREC) MG Jeffrey J. Snow Fort Knox, Kentucky

United States
United States
Army
Army
Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) MG Peter D. Utley Alexandria, Virginia
Virginia

United States
United States
Army
Army
War College (AWC) MG John S. Kem Carlisle, Pennsylvania

United States
United States
Military Academy (USMA) LTG Robert L. Caslen West Point, New York

Source: U.S. Army
Army
organization

STRUCTURE

Main article: Transformation of the United States
United States
Army
Army

See Structure of the United States
United States
Army
Army
for detailed treatment of the history , components , administrative and operational structure and the branches and functional areas of the Army. U.S. Army
Army
soldiers of 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry Regiment , Maryland
Maryland
Army
Army
National Guard conduct an urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix, New Jersey
New Jersey
U.S. soldiers from the 6th Infantry Regiment taking up positions on a street corner during a foot patrol in Ramadi, Iraq
Iraq

The U.S. Army
Army
is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army
Army
National Guard and the Army
Army
Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month – known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs) – and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army
Army
and the Army
Army
Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code , while the National Guard is organized under Title 32 . While the Army
Army
National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors. However, the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U.S. President, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes.

The U.S. Army
Army
is led by a civilian Secretary of the Army
Army
, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the Secretary of Defense . The Chief of Staff of the Army
Army
, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the Secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief; and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff , a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States
United States
, the Secretary of Defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff . In 1986, the Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the unified combatant commanders , who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility, thus the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the Secretary of Defense. The 1st Cavalry Division\'s combat aviation brigade performs a mock charge with the horse detachment

By 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (COCOM):

* United States
United States
Army
Army
Central headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base , South Carolina * United States
United States
Army
Army
North headquartered at Fort Sam Houston , Texas * United States
United States
Army
Army
South headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas * United States
United States
Army
Army
Europe headquartered at Clay Kaserne , Wiesbaden, Germany * United States
United States
Army
Army
Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter , Hawaii * United States
United States
Army
Army
Africa headquartered at Vicenza
Vicenza
, Italy

U.S. Army
Army
Special
Special
Forces soldiers from the 3rd Special
Special
Forces Group patrol a field in the Gulistan district of Farah, Afghanistan

The army also transformed its base unit from divisions to brigades . Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of ground combat brigades are:

* Armored brigades, with strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014. * Stryker brigades, with strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014. * Infantry brigades, with strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.

In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery) and battlefield surveillance brigades. Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.

COMBAT MANEUVER ORGANIZATIONS

To track the effects of the 2018 budget cuts, see Transformation of the United States
United States
Army#Divisions and Brigades

The U.S. Army
Army
currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent units. The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth . In June 2013, the Army
Army
announced plans to downsize to 32 active combat brigade teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active duty strength to 490,000 soldiers. Army
Army
Chief of Staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army
Army
was to shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army
Army
Reserve" by 2018. However, this plan was scrapped by the new administration and now the Army
Army
plans to grow by 16,000 soldiers to a total of 476,000 by October 2017. The National Guard and the Army
Army
Reserve will see a smaller expansion.

Within the Army
Army
National Guard and United States
United States
Army
Army
Reserve there are a further 8 divisions, over 15 maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer and support battalions. The Army
Army
Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.

United States
United States
Army
Army
Forces Command (FORSCOM)

DIRECT REPORTING UNITS CURRENT COMMANDER LOCATION OF HEADQUARTERS

I Corps LTG Gary J. Volesky Joint Base Lewis-McChord
Joint Base Lewis-McChord
, Washington

III Corps LTG Paul E. Funk II Fort Hood , Texas
Texas

XVIII Airborne Corps
XVIII Airborne Corps
LTG Stephen J. Townsend Fort Bragg
Fort Bragg
, North Carolina
North Carolina

First Army
Army
(FUSA) LTG Stephen Twitty Rock Island Arsenal , Illinois
Illinois

United States
United States
Army
Army
Reserve Command (USARC) LTG Charles D. Luckey Fort Bragg, North Carolina

COMBAT MANEUVER UNITS ALIGNED UNDER FORSCOM

NAME HEADQUARTERS SUBUNITS SUBORDINATE TO

1st Armored Division Fort Bliss , Texas 1 Stryker Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 2 armored BCTs, 1 Division Artillery
Artillery
(DIVARTY ), 1 Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB) and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps

1st Cavalry Division Fort Hood, Texas 3 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY , 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps

1st Infantry Division Fort Riley , Kansas
Kansas
2 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY , 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps

3d Cavalry Regiment Fort Hood, Texas 4 Stryker squadrons, 1 fires squadron, 1 engineer squadron and 1 support squadron (overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division) III Corps

3rd Infantry Division Fort Stewart , Georgia 2 armored BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 48th Infantry Brigade Combat Team of the Georgia Army
Army
National Guard XVIII Airborne Corps

4th Infantry Division Fort Carson , Colorado
Colorado
1 infantry BCT, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 armored BCT, DIVARTY , 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps

7th Infantry Division Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington Administrative control of 2 Stryker BCTs and 1 DIVARTY of the 2nd Infantry Division as well as the 81st Stryker Brigade Combat Team of the Washington and California
California
Army
Army
National Guard I Corps

10th Mountain Division Fort Drum , New York 2 infantry BCTs, 1 DIVARTY , 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Mountain) of the Vermont
Vermont
Army
Army
National Guard XVIII Airborne Corps

82nd Airborne Division Fort Bragg, North Carolina 3 airborne infantry BCTs, 1 airborne DIVARTY , 1 CAB and 1 airborne sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne Corps

101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division
Fort Campbell
Fort Campbell
, Kentucky
Kentucky
3 air assault infantry BCTs, 1 air assault DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne Corps

COMBAT MANEUVER UNITS ALIGNED UNDER OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

NAME HEADQUARTERS SUBUNITS SUBORDINATE TO

2nd Cavalry Regiment Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany
Germany
4 Stryker squadrons, 1 engineer squadron, 1 fires squadron and 1 support squadron U.S. Army
Army
Europe

2nd Infantry Division Camp Red Cloud , South Korea
South Korea
2 Stryker BCTs, 1 mechanized brigade from the ROK Army
Army
, 1 DIVARTY (under administrative control of 7th ID) and 1 sustainment brigade. An ABCT was deactivated and in its place a stateside ABCT from the active divisions is rotated in on a regular basis. Eighth Army
Army

25th Infantry Division Schofield Barracks , Hawaii
Hawaii
2 infantry BCTs, 1 airborne infantry BCT, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade U.S. Army
Army
Pacific

173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team Camp Ederle , Vicenza
Vicenza
, Italy
Italy
3 airborne infantry battalions (including 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment of the Texas
Texas
Army
Army
National Guard ), 1 airborne field artillery battalion, 1 cavalry squadron, 1 airborne engineer battalion (54th Brigade Engineer Battalion (BEB), effective 17 June 2015) and 1 airborne support battalion U.S. Army
Army
Europe

COMBAT MANEUVER UNITS ALIGNED UNDER THE ARMY NATIONAL GUARD, UNTIL FEDERALIZED

NAME LOCATIONS SUBUNITS

28th Infantry Division Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, Ohio
Ohio
and Maryland
Maryland
2nd Infantry BCT , 56th Stryker BCT and 28th Combat Aviation Brigade

29th Infantry Division Virginia
Virginia
, Maryland, North Carolina
North Carolina
and Florida
Florida
30th Armored BCT , 53rd Infantry BCT , 116th Infantry BCT and 29th CAB

34th Infantry Division Minnesota
Minnesota
, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, Iowa
Iowa
and Idaho
Idaho
1st Armored BCT , 2nd Infantry BCT , 32nd Infantry BCT , 116th Cavalry BCT and 34th CAB

35th Infantry Division Kansas
Kansas
, Missouri
Missouri
, Illinois
Illinois
, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
, Georgia and Arkansas
Arkansas
33rd Infantry BCT , 39th Infantry BCT , 45th Infantry BCT and 35th CAB

36th Infantry Division Texas
Texas
, Louisiana
Louisiana
and Mississippi
Mississippi
56th Infantry BCT , 72nd Infantry BCT , 155th Armored BCT , 256th Infantry BCT , 36th CAB and the 3rd BCT (Regular Army) (formerly of the 10th Mountain Division)

38th Infantry Division Indiana
Indiana
, Michigan
Michigan
, Ohio
Ohio
and Tennessee
Tennessee
37th Infantry BCT , 76th Infantry BCT , 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment and 38th CAB

40th Infantry Division California
California
, Oregon
Oregon
, Washington and Hawaii
Hawaii
29th Infantry BCT , 41st Infantry BCT , 79th Infantry BCT and 40th CAB

42nd Infantry Division New York , New Jersey
New Jersey
and Vermont
Vermont
27th Infantry BCT , 50th Infantry BCT and 42nd CAB

For a description of U.S. Army
Army
tactical organizational structure, see: a U.S. context and also a global context .

SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES

United States
United States
Army
Army
Special
Special
Operations Command (Airborne) (USASOC):

NAME HEADQUARTERS STRUCTURE AND PURPOSE

1st Special
Special
Forces Command (Airborne) Fort Bragg, North Carolina
North Carolina
The 1st SFC(A) manages seven special forces groups (the 1st SFG(A) , 3rd SFG(A) , 5th SFG(A) , 7th SFG(A) , 10th SFG(A) , 19th SFG(A) (ARNG ) and 20th SFG(A) (ARNG)) that are trained for unconventional warfare , foreign internal defense , special reconnaissance , direct action and counter-terrorism missions. The command also manages two military information support groups (the 4th MISG(A) and 8th MISG(A) ) that are trained to conduct psychological operations ; the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) that enables military commanders and U.S. ambassadors to improve relationships with various stakeholders via five operational battalions ( 91st CA BN, 92nd CA BN, 96th CA BN , 97th CA BN and 98th CA BN ); and the 528th Sustainment Brigade (Airborne) that provides combat service support and combat health support units via a Special
Special
Troops Battalion ; the 112th Special Operations Signal Battalion (Airborne) , an ARSOF Support Operations Cell, six ARSOF Liaison Elements; and two Medical Role II teams. The command also has an organic Military Intelligence Battalion providing multi-source intelligence information and analysis.

Army
Army
Special
Special
Operations Aviation Command Ft. Bragg, North Carolina Organizes, mans, trains, resources and equips Army
Army
special operations aviation units to provide responsive, special operations aviation support to Special
Special
Operations Forces (SOF) consisting of five units: USASOC Flight Company (UFC), Special
Special
Operations Training Battalion (SOATB), Technology Applications Program Office (TAPO), Systems Integration Management Office (SIMO) and the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (160th SOAR)

75th Ranger Regiment Fort Benning , Georgia Three maneuver battalions (the 1st Ranger BN , 2nd Ranger BN , and 3rd Ranger BN ) and a Special
Special
Troops Battalion of elite airborne infantry specializing in direct action raids and airfield seizures.

John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School Ft. Bragg, North Carolina The SWCS selects and trains Army
Army
Special
Special
Forces, Civil Affairs and Military Information Support Operations Soldiers consisting of five distinct units and one directorate: 1st Special
Special
Warfare Training Group (Airborne), Special
Special
Warfare Education Group (Airborne), Special
Special
Warfare Medical Group (Airborne), Special
Special
Forces Warrant Officer Institute, David K. Thuma Noncommissioned Officers Academy and the Directorate of Training and Doctrine.

1st Special
Special
Forces Operational Detachment-Delta Ft. Bragg, North Carolina Elite special operations and counter-terrorism unit under the control of Joint Special Operations Command .

PERSONNEL

Main articles: Ranks and Insignia of NATO
NATO
, United States
United States
Army officer rank insignia , and United States
United States
Army
Army
enlisted rank insignia

These are the U.S. Army
Army
ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO
NATO
designations. Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army
Army
, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime.

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS

Main article: Commissioned Officers

There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer including the United States
United States
Military Academy , Reserve Officers\' Training Corps and Officer Candidate School . Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same. Certain professions including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers and chaplains are commissioned directly into the army and are designated by insignia unique to their staff community.

Most army commissioned officers are promoted based on an "up or out" system. The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time.

Army
Army
regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as "General (last name)" regardless of the number of stars. Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as "Colonel (last name)" and first and second lieutenants as "Lieutenant (last name)".

US DOD PAY GRADE O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10 O-11

Insignia

Title Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General General General of the Army
Army

Abbreviation 2LT 1LT CPT MAJ LTC COL BG MG LTG GEN GA

NATO
NATO
Code OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9 OF-10

Note: General of the Army
Army
is reserved for wartime.

WARRANT OFFICERS

Main article: Warrant officers

Warrant officers are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the Secretary of the Army
Army
, but receive their commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two (CW2).

By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as "Mr. (last name)" or "Ms. (last name)" by senior officers and as "sir" or "ma'am" by all enlisted personnel. However, many personnel address warrant officers as "Chief (last name)" within their units regardless of rank.

US DOD PAY GRADE W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5

Insignia

Title Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer 2 Chief Warrant Officer 3 Chief Warrant Officer 4 Chief Warrant Officer 5

Abbreviation WO1 CW2 CW3 CW4 CW5

NATO
NATO
Rank WO-1 WO-2 WO-3 WO-4 WO-5

ENLISTED PERSONNEL

Main article: Enlisted personnel

Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers . This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists who have the same pay grade, but do not exercise leadership responsibilities.

Privates (E1 and E2) and privates first class (E3) are addressed as "Private (last name)", specialists as "Specialist (last name)", corporals as "Corporal (last name)" and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class and master sergeants all as "Sergeant (last name)". First sergeants are addressed as "First Sergeant (last name)" and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as "Sergeant Major (last name)".

US DOD PAY GRADE E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9

Insignia No insignia

Title Private Private Private First Class Specialist Corporal Sergeant Staff Sergeant Sergeant First Class Master Sergeant First Sergeant Sergeant Major Command Sergeant Major Sergeant Major of the Army
Army

Abbreviation PV1 ¹ PV2 ¹ PFC SPC ² CPL SGT SSG SFC MSG 1SG SGM CSM SMA

NATO
NATO
Code OR-1 OR-2 OR-3 OR-4 OR-4 OR-5 OR-6 OR-7 OR-8 OR-8 OR-9 OR-9 OR-9

¹ PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished. ² SP4 is sometimes encountered instead of SPC for specialist. This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at pay grades E-5 to E-7.

TRAINING

Rangers practice fast roping techniques from an MH-47 during an exercise at Fort Bragg
Fort Bragg
A trainer with Company A, 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment, Task Force Strike, 101st Airborne Division assists Iraqi army ranger students during a room clearing drill at Camp Taji, Iraq
Iraq
on 18 July 2016

Training in the U.S. Army
Army
is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective. Basic training consists of 10 weeks for most recruits followed by Advanced Individualized Training (AIT) where they receive training for their military occupational specialties (MOS) . Some individuals MOSs range anywhere from 14–20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT. The length of AIT school varies by the MOS The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier and some highly technical MOS training may require many months (e.g., foreign language translators). Depending on the needs of the army, Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the Infantry School , both at Fort Benning , Georgia.

Following their basic and advanced training at the individual-level, soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an "additional skill identifier" (ASI). The ASI allows the army to take a wide-ranging MOS and focus it into a more specific MOS. For example, a combat medic, whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency treatment, may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist or even a licensed practical nurse. For commissioned officers, training includes pre-commissioning training, known as Basic Officer Leader Course A, either at USMA or via ROTC
ROTC
, or by completing OCS . After commissioning, officers undergo branch specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course B, (formerly called Officer Basic Course), which varies in time and location according their future assignments. Officers will continue to attend standardized training at different stages of their career. U.S. Army
Army
soldiers familiarizing with the latest INSAS 1B1 during exercise Yudh Abhyas 2015

Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers (CTC); the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin , California, the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk , Louisiana
Louisiana
and the Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels , Germany. ARFORGEN is the Army
Army
Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment, at unit level and for other echelons as required by the mission. Individual-level replenishment still requires training at a unit level, which is conducted at the continental U.S. (CONUS) replacement center (CRC) at Fort Bliss , in New Mexico
New Mexico
and Texas before their individual deployment.

EQUIPMENT

Main article: Equipment of the United States
United States
Army
Army

WEAPONS

Lockheed Martin Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system used by the army for ballistic missile protection Individual weapons

The army employs various individual weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. The most common weapons used by the army are the compact variant of the M16 rifle , the M4 carbine , as well as the 7.62×51mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army
Army
Rangers . The primary sidearm in the U.S. Army
Army
is the 9 mm M9 pistol ; the M11 pistol is also used. Both handguns are to be replaced by the M17 through the Modular Handgun System program. Soldiers are also equipped with various hand grenades , such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade .

Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the squad level. Indirect fire is provided by the M320 grenade launcher . The M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for door breaching and close-quarters combat. The M14EBR is used by designated marksmen. Snipers use the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle , the M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle . American troops of the 28th Infantry Division march down the Champs-Élysées , in the victory parade following the Liberation of Paris 3rd Infantry Division soldiers manning an M1A1 Abrams in Iraq
Iraq
Crew served weapons

The army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons.

The M240 is the U.S. Army's standard Medium Machine Gun. The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun. In the same way, the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units.

The U.S. Army
Army
uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224 , normally assigned at the infantry company level. At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars . The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121 , usually employed by mechanized units.

Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm M119A1 and the 155 mm M777 (which will replace the M198 ).

The U.S. Army
Army
utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti-Armor Capability. The AT4
AT4
is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. The FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile. The FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles.

VEHICLES

A US soldier on patrol with the support of a Humvee vehicle

U.S. Army
Army
doctrine puts a premium on mechanized warfare. It fields the highest vehicle-to-soldier ratio in the world as of 2009.

The army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the Humvee , which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform and ambulance, among many other roles. While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles. The M1A2 Abrams is the army's main battle tank , while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle . Other vehicles include the Stryker , the M113 armored personnel carrier and multiple types of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles.

The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units.

While the United States
United States
Army
Army
Aviation Branch operates a few fixed-wing aircraft , it mainly operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. These include the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter , the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior armed reconnaissance/light attack helicopter, the UH-60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopter and the CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter. Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types.

Under the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966 , the Army
Army
agreed to limit its fixed-wing aviation role to administrative mission support (light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions). For UAVs , the Army
Army
is deploying at least one company of drone MQ-1C Gray Eagles to each Active Army
Army
division.

UNIFORMS

Main article: Uniforms of the United States
United States
Army
Army

The Army
Army
Combat Uniform (ACU) currently features a digital Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) and is designed for use in woodland, desert and urban environments. However, soldiers operating in Afghanistan and trainees in Basic Combat Training (as of 2017), are being issued a fire-resistant ACU with the " MultiCam " pattern, officially known as Operation Enduring Freedom Camouflage Pattern or "OCP". The Ranger Honor Platoon marching in the former service uniform An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment , wearing ASUs, representing the United States
United States
at the 2010 Victory Day commemoration in Moscow
Moscow

The standard garrison service uniform is the Army
Army
Service Uniform , which functions as both a garrison uniform (when worn with a white shirt and necktie) and a dress uniform (when worn with a white shirt and either a necktie for parades or a bow tie for after six p.m. or black tie events).

Berets

The U.S. Army's black beret is no longer worn with the new ACU for garrison duty, having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap. After years of complaints that it was not suited well for most work conditions, Army
Army
Chief of Staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011. Soldiers still wear berets who are currently in a unit in jump status, whether the wearer is parachute-qualified or not (maroon beret). Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (tan beret) and Special
Special
Forces (rifle green beret) may wear it with the Army
Army
Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions. Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools.

TENTS

The Army
Army
has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment. The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities), forward operating bases (FOBs), after action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare and recreation (MWR) facilities, as well as security checkpoints. Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier
Soldier
Systems Center .

The U.S. Army
Army
is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter or DRASH. In 2008, DRASH became part of the Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System.

3D PRINTING

In November 2012, the U.S. Army
Army
developed a tactical 3D printing capability to allow it to rapidly manufacture critical components on the battlefield.

SEE ALSO

* United States
United States
Army
Army
portal * Military of the United States
United States
portal

* America\'s Army
Army
(Video games for recruitment ) * Army
Army
CHESS (Computer Hardware Enterprise Software and Solutions) * Army
Army
National Guard * Comparative military ranks * History of the United States
United States
Army
Army
* List of active United States
United States
military aircraft * List of former United States
United States
Army
Army
medical units * List of wars involving the United States
United States
* Military–industrial complex * Officer Candidate School ( United States
United States
Army) * Reserve Officers\' Training Corps and Junior Reserve Officers\' Training Corps * Soldier\'s Creed * Structure of the United States
United States
Army
Army
* Timeline of United States
United States
military operations * Transformation of the United States
United States
Army
Army
* U.S. Army
Army
Combat Arms Regimental System * U.S. Army
Army
Regimental System * United States
United States
Military Academy * United States
United States
Army
Army
Basic Training * United States
United States
Army
Army
Center of Military History * United States
United States
Volunteers * Vehicle markings of the United States
United States
military * Warrant Officer Candidate School ( United States
United States
Army)

NOTES AND REFERENCES

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* This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army
Army
Center of Military History document " Army
Army
Birthdays".

FURTHER READING

Main article: Bibliography of United States
United States
military history

* "Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award (VUA) Citations". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 26 December 2014. * Bailey, Beth. America's Army: Making the All-Volunteer Force (2009) ISBN 0674035364 * Bluhm, Jr,, Raymond K. (Editor-in-Chief); Andrade, Dale; Jacobs, Bruce; Langellier, John; Newell, Clayton R.; Seelinger, Matthew (2004). U.S. Army: A Complete History (Beaux Arts ed.). Arlington, VA: The Army
Army
Historical Foundation. p. 744. ISBN 978-0-88363-640-4 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * Chambers, John Whiteclay, ed. The Oxford Guide to American Military History (1999) online at many libraries * Clark, J. P. Preparing for War: The Emergence of the Modern U.S. Army, 1815–1917 (Harvard UP, 2017) 336 pp. * Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I
World War I
(1998), a standard history * Kretchik, Walter E. U.S. Army
Army
Doctrine: From the American Revolution to the War on Terror (University Press of Kansas; 2011) 392 pages; studies military doctrine in four distinct eras: 1779–1904, 1905–1944, 1944–1962, and 1962 to the present. * Woodward, David R. The American Army
Army
and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2014). 484 pp. online review

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