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The Info List - United Kingdom General Election, 1997



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* Indicates boundary change – so this is a nominal figure ^ Figure does not include the speaker

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PRIME MINISTER BEFORE ELECTION

John Major
John Major
Conservative SUBSEQUENT PRIME MINISTER

Tony Blair
Tony Blair
Labour

* 1987 election * MPs

* 1992 election * MPs

* 1997 election * MPs

* 2001 election * MPs

* 2005 election * MPs

Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring).

The UNITED KINGDOM GENERAL ELECTION OF 1997 was held on Thursday 1 May 1997, five years after the previous election on Thursday 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons . Under the leadership of Tony Blair
Tony Blair
, the Labour Party ended its 18 years in opposition and won the general election with a landslide victory , winning 418 seats, the most seats the party has ever held, and the highest proportion of seats held by any party in the post-war era.

The election saw a huge 10.2% swing from the Conservatives to Labour on a national turnout of 71% and would be the last national vote where turnout exceeded 70% until the 2016 EU referendum was held nineteen years later. Blair, as a result, became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom , a position he held until his resignation on 27 June 2007.

Under Blair's leadership, the Labour Party had adopted a more centrist policy platform under the name ' New Labour
New Labour
'. This was seen as moving away from the traditionally more left-wing stance of the Labour Party. Labour made several campaign pledges such as the creation of a National Minimum Wage , devolution referendums for Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
and promised greater economic competence than the Conservatives, who were unpopular following the events of Black Wednesday in 1992.

The Labour campaign was ultimately a success and the party returned an unprecedented 418 MPs and began the first of three consecutive terms for Labour in government. However, 1997 was the last election in which Labour had a net gain of seats until 2017 . A record number of women were elected to parliament, 120, of whom 101 were Labour MPs. This was in part thanks to Labour's policy of using all-women shortlists .

The Conservative Party was led by incumbent Prime Minister John Major and ran their campaign emphasising falling unemployment and a strong economic recovery following the early 1990s recession . However, a series of scandals , party disunity over the European Union
European Union
, the events of Black Wednesday
Black Wednesday
and a desire of the electorate for change after 18 years of Tory rule all contributed to the Conservatives' worst defeat since 1906 , with only 165 MPs elected to Westminster, as well as their lowest percentage share of the vote since 1832 .

The party was left with no seats whatsoever in Scotland
Scotland
or Wales, and many key Conservative politicians, including Defence Secretary Michael Portillo , Foreign Secretary Malcolm Rifkind
Malcolm Rifkind
, Trade Secretary Ian Lang , Scottish Secretary Michael Forsyth and former ministers Edwina Currie , Norman Lamont
Norman Lamont
, David Mellor and Neil Hamilton lost their parliamentary seats.

However, future Prime Minister Theresa May
Theresa May
was elected to the safe Conservative seat at Maidenhead , and future Speaker John Bercow
John Bercow
in the seat at Buckingham
Buckingham
. Following the defeat, the Conservatives began their longest continuous spell in opposition in the history of the present day (post– Tamworth Manifesto ) Conservative Party, and indeed the longest such spell for any incarnation of the Tories /Conservatives since the 1760s, lasting 13 years.

The Liberal Democrats , under Paddy Ashdown
Paddy Ashdown
, returned 46 MPs to parliament, the most for any third party since 1929 and more than double the amount of seats they got in 1992, despite a drop in popular vote. The Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
(SNP) returned 6 MPs, double their total in 1992.

As with all general elections since the early 1950s, the results were broadcast live on the BBC; the presenters were David Dimbleby
David Dimbleby
, Peter Snow and Jeremy Paxman
Jeremy Paxman
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 Loss of parliamentary majority * 3 Timing

* 4 Campaign

* 4.1 Conservative campaign * 4.2 Labour campaign * 4.3 Liberal Democrat campaign

* 5 Notional 1992 results

* 6 Results

* 6.1 Results by constituent country

* 7 Defeated MPs

* 7.1 Conservative Ministers who lost their seats * 7.2 Other Conservative MPs who lost their seats * 7.3 Liberal Democrats who lost their seats * 7.4 Social and Democratic Labour Party MP who lost his seat * 7.5 Democratic Unionist MP who lost his seat * 7.6 Referendum
Referendum
Party MP who lost his seat

* 8 Post election events * 9 Internet coverage * 10 See also * 11 References

* 12 Further reading

* 12.1 Manifestos

* 13 External links

OVERVIEW

The British economy had been in recession at the time of the 1992 election, which the Conservatives had won, and although the recession had ended within a year, events such as Black Wednesday
Black Wednesday
had tarnished the Conservative government's reputation for economic management. Labour had elected John Smith as its party leader in 1992, but his death from heart attack in 1994 led the way for Tony Blair
Tony Blair
to become Labour leader.

Blair brought the party closer to the political centre and abolished the party's Clause IV
Clause IV
in their constitution, which had committed them to mass nationalisation of industry. Labour also reversed its policy on unilateral nuclear disarmament and the events of Black Wednesday allowed Labour to promise greater economic management under the Chancellorship of Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
. A manifesto, entitled New Labour, New Life For Britain was released in 1996 and outlined 5 key pledges:

* Class sizes to be cut to 30 or under for 5, 6 and 7 year olds by using money from the assisted places scheme. * Fast track punishment for persistent young offenders, by halving the time from arrest to sentencing. * Cut NHS waiting lists by treating an extra 100,000 patients as a first step by releasing £100 million saved from NHS red tape. * Get 250,000 under 25 year olds off benefit and into work by using money from a windfall levy on the privatised utilities. * No rise in income tax rates, cut VAT
VAT
on heating to 5%, and keeping inflation and interest rates as low as possible.

Disputes within the Conservative government over European Union issues, and a variety of "sleaze" allegations had severely affected the government's popularity. Despite the strong economic recovery and substantial fall in unemployment in the four years leading up to the election, the rise in Conservative support was only marginal with all of the major opinion polls having shown Labour in a comfortable lead since late 1992.

LOSS OF PARLIAMENTARY MAJORITY

Following the 1992 General Election, the Conservatives held government with 336 of the 651 House of Commons seats. Through a series of defections and by-election defeats, the Conservative government gradually lost its absolute majority in the House of Commons. By 1997, the Conservatives held only 324 House of Commons seats.

1993 Judith Chaplin (Newbury) died, by-election won by Liberal Democrats. 1993 Robert Adley (ChristChurch) died, by-election won by Liberal Democrats. 1994 Stephen Milligan (Eastleigh) died, by-election won by Liberal Democrats. 1994 John Blackburn (Dudley West) died, by-election won by Labour. 1995 Sir Nicholas Fairbairn (Perth and Kinross) died, by-election won by Scottish National Party. 1995 Geoffrey Dickens (Littleborough and Saddleworth) died, by-election won by Liberal Democrats. 1995 Alan Howarth (Stratford-on-Avon) defected from Conservative to Labour. 1995 Emma Nicholson (Devon West and Torridge) defected from Conservatives to Liberal Democrats. 1996 Sir David Lightbown (South East Staffordshire) died, by-election won by Labour. 1996 Peter Thurnham (Bolton North East) defected from Conservatives to Liberal Democrats. 1996 Barry Porter (Wirral South) died, by-election won by Labour. 1997 George Gardiner (Reigate) defected from Conservatives to Referendum
Referendum
Party.

TIMING

The previous Parliament first sat on 29 April 1992. The Parliament Act 1911 required at the time for each Parliament to be dissolved before the fifth anniversary of its first sitting, therefore the latest date the dissolution and the summoning of the next parliament could have been held on was 28 April 1997.

The 1985 amendment of the Representation of the People Act 1983 required that the election must take place on the eleventh working day after the deadline for nomination papers, which in turn must be no more than six working days after the next parliament was summoned.

Therefore, the latest date the election could have been held on was 22 May 1997 (which happened to be a Thursday). British elections (and referendums ) have been held on Thursdays by convention since the 1930s, but can be held on other working days.

CAMPAIGN

Prime Minister John Major
John Major
called the election on Monday 17 March 1997, ensuring the formal campaign would be unusually long, at six weeks (Parliament was dissolved on 8 April ). The election was scheduled for 1 May, to coincide with the local elections on the same day. This set a precedent, as the three subsequent general elections were also held alongside the May local elections.

The Conservatives argued that a long campaign would expose Labour and allow the Conservative message to be heard. However, Major was accused of arranging an early dissolution to protect Neil Hamilton from a pending parliamentary report into his conduct: a report that Major had earlier guaranteed would be published before the election.

In March 1997, soon after the election was called, Asda
Asda
introduced a range of election themed beers, these being Major's Mild, Tony's Tipple and Ashdown's Ale.

CONSERVATIVE CAMPAIGN

The Conservatives started low in the polls, and had experienced great difficulties over the past 5 years, with polling often putting it some 40 points adrift of Labour. Major hoped that a long campaign would expose Labour's "hollowness" and the Conservative campaign emphasised stability, as did its manifesto title 'You can only be sure with the Conservatives'. However, the campaign was beset by deep set problems, such as the rise of James Goldsmith
James Goldsmith
's Referendum
Referendum
Party , advocating a referendum on continued membership of the European Union.

The Party threatened to take away many right leaning voters from the Conservatives. Furthermore, about 200 candidates broke with official Conservative policy to oppose British membership of the single European currency . Major fought back, saying: "Whether you agree with me or disagree with me; like me or loathe me, don't bind my hands when I am negotiating on behalf of the British nation." The moment is remembered as one of the defining, and most surreal, moments of the election.

Meanwhile, there was also division amongst the Conservative cabinet, with Chancellor Kenneth Clarke
Kenneth Clarke
describing the views of Home Secretary Michael Howard
Michael Howard
on Europe as "paranoid and xenophobic nonsense". The Conservatives also struggled to come up with a definitive theme to attack the Labour Party, with some strategists arguing for an approach which castigated Labour for "stealing Tory clothes" (copying their positions), with others making the case for a more confrontational approach, stating that "New Labour" was just a façade for "old Labour".

The New Labour, New Danger
New Labour, New Danger
poster, which depicted Tony Blair
Tony Blair
with demon eyes, was an example of the latter strategy. Major veered between the two approaches, which left Conservative Central Office staff frustrated. As Andrew Cooper explained: "We repeatedly tried and failed to get him to understand that you couldn't say that they were dangerous and copying you at the same time." In any case, the campaign failed to gain much traction, and the Conservatives went down to a landslide defeat at the polls.

LABOUR CAMPAIGN

Labour ran a slick campaign, which emphasised the splits within the Conservative government, and argued that the country needed a more centrist administration. Labour ran a centrist campaign that was good at picking up dissatisfied Tory voters, particularly moderate and suburban ones. Tony Blair
Tony Blair
, highly popular, was very much the centrepiece of the campaign, and proved a highly effective campaigner.

The Labour campaign was reminiscent of those of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
for the US Presidency, focusing on centrist themes, as well as adopting policies more commonly associated with the right, such as cracking down on crime and fiscal responsibility. The influence of political 'Spin' came into great effect for New Labour
New Labour
at this point, as media centric figures such as Alastair Campbell
Alastair Campbell
and Peter Mandelson
Peter Mandelson
provided a clear cut campaign, and establishing a relatively new political brand "New Labour' with enviable success.

LIBERAL DEMOCRAT CAMPAIGN

The Liberal Democrats had suffered a disappointing performance in 1992, but they were very much strengthened in 1997 due to potential tactical voting between Labour and Lib Dem supporters in Tory marginal constituencies, particularly in the south - particularly given their share of the vote decreased while their number of seats nearly doubled. The Lib Dems promised to increase education funding paid for by a 1p increase in income tax.

NOTIONAL 1992 RESULTS

The election was fought under new boundaries, with a net increase of eight seats compared to the 1992 election (651 to 659). Changes listed here are from the notional 1992 result, had it been fought on the boundaries established in 1997. These notional results were calculated by Colin Rallings and Michael Thrasher and were used by all media organisations at the time. The notional results of the 1992 election, as shown on a map of the 1997 constituencies.

UK GENERAL ELECTION 1992

PARTY SEATS GAINS LOSSES NET GAIN/LOSS SEATS % VOTES % VOTES +/−

Labour 273 17 15 +2 41.6 34.4 11,560,484

Conservative 343 28 21 +7 52.1 41.9 14,093,007

Liberal Democrat 18 0 2 −2 2.7 17.8 5,999,384

Others 25 1 0 +1 3.6 5.9

RESULTS

Labour won a landslide victory with their largest parliamentary majority (179) to date. On the BBC's election night programme Professor Anthony King described the result of the exit poll, which accurately predicted a Labour landslide, as being akin to "an asteroid hitting the planet and destroying practically all life on Earth". After years of trying the Labour Party had convinced the electorate that they would usher in a new age of prosperity—their policies, organisation and tone of optimism slotting perfectly into place.

Labour's victory was largely credited to the charisma of Tony Blair and a Labour public relations machine managed by Alastair Campbell
Alastair Campbell
and Peter Mandelson
Peter Mandelson
. Between the 1992 election and the 1997 election there had also been major steps to modernise the party, including scrapping Clause IV
Clause IV
that had committed the party to extending public ownership of industry. New Labour
New Labour
had suddenly seized the middle ground of the political spectrum, attracting voters much further to the right than their traditional working class or left wing support. In the early hours of 2 May 1997 a party was held at the Royal Festival Hall , in which Blair stated that "a new dawn has broken, has it not?".

The election was a crushing defeat for the Conservative Party, with the party having its lowest percentage share of the popular vote since 1832 under the Duke of Wellington 's leadership, being wiped out in Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
. A number of prominent Conservative MPs lost their seats in the election, including Michael Portillo
Michael Portillo
, Malcolm Rifkind
Malcolm Rifkind
, Edwina Currie
Edwina Currie
, David Mellor , Neil Hamilton and Norman Lamont
Norman Lamont
. Such was the extent of Conservative losses at the election that Cecil Parkinson , speaking on the BBC's election night programme, joked upon the Conservatives winning their second seat that he was pleased that the subsequent election for the leadership would be contested.

The Liberal Democrats more than doubled their number of seats thanks to the use of tactical voting against the Conservatives. Although their share of the vote fell slightly, their total of 46 MPs was the highest for any UK Liberal party since David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
led the party to 59 seats in 1929 .

The Referendum
Referendum
Party , which sought a referendum on the United Kingdom's relationship with the European Union
European Union
, came fourth in terms of votes with 800,000 votes mainly from former Conservative voters, but won no seats in parliament. The six parties with the next highest votes stood only in either Scotland
Scotland
, Northern Ireland or Wales
Wales
; in order, they were the Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
, the Ulster Unionist Party , the Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
, Plaid Cymru
Plaid Cymru
, Sinn Féin , and the Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party
.

In the previously safe seat of Tatton , where incumbent Conservative MP Neil Hamilton was facing charges of having taken cash for questions , the Labour and Liberal Democrat Parties decided not to field candidates in order that an independent candidate, Martin Bell , would have a better chance of winning the seat, which he did with a comfortable margin.

The result declared for the constituency of Winchester showed a margin of victory of just two votes for the Liberal Democrats. The defeated Conservative candidate mounted a successful legal challenge to the result on the grounds that errors by election officials (failures to stamp certain votes) had changed the result; the court ruled the result invalid and ordered a by-election on 20 November which was won by the Liberal Democrats with a much larger majority, causing much recrimination in the Conservative Party about the decision to challenge the original result in the first place.

This election marked the start of Labour government for the next 13 years, until the formation of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition in 2010.

↓ 418 165 46 30

LABOUR CONSERVATIVE LIB DEM O

UK General Election 1997

CANDIDATES VOTES

PARTY LEADER STANDING ELECTED GAINED UNSEATED NET % OF TOTAL % NO. NET %

LABOUR Tony Blair
Tony Blair
639 418 145 0 +145 63.4 43.2 13,518,167 +8.8

Conservative John Major
John Major
648 165 0 178 –178 25.0 30.7 9,600,943 –11.2

Liberal Democrat Paddy Ashdown
Paddy Ashdown
639 46 30 2 +28 7.0 16.8 5,242,947 –1.0

Referendum
Referendum
James Goldsmith
James Goldsmith
547 0 0 0 0

2.6 811,849 N/A

SNP Alex Salmond
Alex Salmond
72 6 3 0 +3 0.9 2.0 621,550 +0.1

UUP David Trimble
David Trimble
16 10 1 0 +1 1.5 0.8 258,349 0.0

SDLP John Hume
John Hume
18 3 0 1 –1 0.5 0.6 190,814 +0.1

Plaid Cymru
Plaid Cymru
Dafydd Wigley
Dafydd Wigley
40 4 0 0 0 0.6 0.5 161,030 0.0

Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
Gerry Adams
Gerry Adams
17 2 2 0 +2 0.3 0.4 126,921 0.0

DUP Ian Paisley
Ian Paisley
9 2 0 1 –1 0.3 0.3 107,348 0.0

UKIP Alan Sked 193 0 0 0 0

0.3 105,722 N/A

Independent N/A 25 1 1 0 +1 0.2 0.1 64,482 0.0

Green Peg Alexander and David Taylor 89 0 0 0 0

0.3 61,731 –0.2

Alliance John Alderdice 17 0 0 0 0

0.2 62,972 0.0

Socialist Labour Arthur Scargill
Arthur Scargill
64 0 0 0 0

0.2 52,109 N/A

Liberal Michael Meadowcroft
Michael Meadowcroft
53 0 0 0 0

0.1 45,166 –0.1

BNP John Tyndall 57 0 0 0 0

0.1 35,832 0.0

Natural Law Geoffrey Clements 197 0 0 0 0

0.1 30,604 –0.1

Speaker Betty Boothroyd
Betty Boothroyd
1 1 1 0 0

0.1 23,969

ProLife Alliance Bruno Quintavalle 56 0 0 0 0

0.1 19,332 N/A

UK Unionist Robert McCartney 1 1 1 0 +1 0.2 0.0 12,817 N/A

PUP Hugh Smyth 3 0 0 0 0

0.0 10,928 N/A

National Democrats Ian Anderson 21 0 0 0 0

0.0 10,829 N/A

Socialist Alternative Peter Taaffe

0 0 0 0

0.0 9,906 N/A

Scottish Socialist Tommy Sheridan 16 0 0 0 0

0.0 9,740 N/A

Independent Labour N/A 4 0 0 0 0

0.0 9,233 – 0.1

Independent Conservative N/A 4 0 0 0 0

0.0 8,608 –0.1

Monster Raving Loony Screaming Lord Sutch
Screaming Lord Sutch
24 0 0 0 0

0.0 7,906 –0.1

Rainbow Dream Ticket Rainbow George Weiss 29 0 0 0 0

0.0 3,745 N/A

NI Women\'s Coalition Monica McWilliams and Pearl Sagar 3 0 0 0 0

0.0 3,024 N/A

Workers\' Party Tom French 8 0 0 0 0

0.0 2,766 –0.1

National Front John McAuley 6 0 0 0 0

0.0 2,716 N/A

Legalise Cannabis Howard Marks
Howard Marks
4 0 0 0 0

0.0 2,085 N/A

People\'s Labour Jim Hamezian 1 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,995 N/A

Mebyon Kernow Loveday Jenkin 4 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,906 N/A

Scottish Green Robin Harper 5 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,721

Conservative Anti- Euro
Euro
Christopher Story 1 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,434 N/A

Socialist (GB) None 5 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,359 N/A

Community Representative Ralph Knight 1 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,290 N/A

Residents

1 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,263 N/A

Social Democratic John Bates 2 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,246 –0.1

Workers Revolutionary Sheila Torrance 9 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,178 N/A

Real Labour N/A 1 0 0 0 0

0.0 1,117 N/A

Independent Democratic N/A

0 0 0 0

0.0 982

Independent Liberal Democrat N/A

0 0 0 0

0.0 890

Communist Mike Hicks 3 0 0 0 0

0.0 639

Independent Green N/A 1 0 0 0 0

0.0 593

Green (NI)

1 0 0 0 0

0.0 539

Socialist Equality Davy Hyland 3 0 0 0 0

0.0 505

All parties with more than 500 votes shown. Labour total includes New Labour and "Labour Time for Change" candidates; Conservative total includes candidates in Northern Ireland (excluded in some lists) and "Loyal Conservative" candidate.

The Popular Unionist MP elected in 1992 died in 1995 and the party folded shortly afterwards.

There was no incumbent Speaker in the 1992 election.

GOVERNMENT\'S NEW MAJORITY 179

Total votes cast 31,286,284

Turnout 71.3%

POPULAR VOTE

LABOUR   43.2%

Conservative   30.7%

Liberal Democrat   16.8%

Referendum   2.6%

Scottish National   2.0%

Others   1.9%

PARLIAMENTARY SEATS

LABOUR   63.4%

Conservative   25.0%

Liberal Democrat   7.0%

Scottish National   0.9%

Ulster Unionist   1.5%

Others   2.1%

The disproportionality of the house of parliament in the 1997 election was 16.71 according to the Gallagher Index , mainly between Labour and the Liberal Democrats.

RESULTS BY CONSTITUENT COUNTRY

LAB CON LD SNP PC NI PARTIES OTHERS TOTAL

England 328 165 34 - - - 2 529

Wales 34 - 2 - 4 - - 40

Scotland 56 - 10 6 - - - 72

Northern Ireland - - - - - 18 - 18

Total 418 165 46 6 4 18 2 (inc Speaker) 659

DEFEATED MPS

CONSERVATIVE MINISTERS WHO LOST THEIR SEATS

* Tony Newton (Braintree ) - Lord President of the Council
Lord President of the Council
and Leader of the House of Commons
Leader of the House of Commons
* Michael Portillo
Michael Portillo
(Enfield Southgate ) - Secretary of State for Defence * Malcolm Rifkind
Malcolm Rifkind
(Edinburgh Pentlands ) - Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs * Ian Lang
Ian Lang
(Galloway and Upper Nithsdale ) - Secretary of State for Trade and Industry * Michael Forsyth (Stirling ) - Secretary of State for Scotland
Scotland
* William Waldegrave (Bristol West ) - Chief Secretary to the Treasury * Roger Freeman (Kettering ) - Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
* Sir Derek Spencer (Brighton Pavilion ) - Solicitor General for England and Wales
Wales
* Michael Morris (Northampton South ) - Chairman of Ways and Means * James Douglas-Hamilton (Edinburgh West ) - Minister of State at the Scottish Office
Scottish Office
* Alistair Burt
Alistair Burt
(Bury North ) - Minister of State at Department of Social Security * Phillip Oppenheim (Amber Valley ) - Exchequer Secretary to the Treasury * Michael Bates (Langbaurgh ) - Paymaster-General
Paymaster-General
* Raymond Robertson (Aberdeen South ) - Minister for Education, Housing, Fisheries and Sport * Greg Knight (Derby North ) - Minister of State for Industry at the Department of Trade and Industry * John Bowis OBE (Battersea ) - Health Minister * Iain Sproat (Harwich ) - Trade Minister * Robin Squire (Hornchurch ) - Education Minister * Andrew Mitchell
Andrew Mitchell
(Gedling ) - Social Security Minister * The Hon. Tom Sackville (Bolton, West ) - Home Office
Home Office
Minister * Sir Nicholas Bonsor, 4th Baronet (Upminster ) - Foreign Office Minister * Timothy Kirkhope (Leeds North West ) - Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department * Gwilym Jones (Cardiff North ) - Under Secretary of State in the Welsh Office
Welsh Office
* George Kynoch (Kincardine and Deeside ) - Under-Secretary of State for Scotland
Scotland
* Roger Evans (Monmouth ) - Social Security Minister * David Evennett (Erith and Crayford ) - Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Education and Skills
Secretary of State for Education and Skills
* Lady Olga Maitland (Sutton and Cheam ) - Parliamentary Private Secretary to The Rt. Hon. Sir John Wheeler * Simon Coombs (Swindon ) - Parliamentary Private Secretary
Parliamentary Private Secretary
to The Rt. Hon. Ian Lang
Ian Lang
* Timothy Wood (Stevenage ) - Comptroller of the Household * Gyles Brandreth
Gyles Brandreth
(City of Chester ) - Whip
Whip
* Angela Knight (Erewash ) - Economic secretary to the treasury
Economic secretary to the treasury
* Anthony Coombs (Wyre Forest ) - Whip
Whip
* Jacqui Lait (Hastings and Rye ) - Whip
Whip

OTHER CONSERVATIVE MPS WHO LOST THEIR SEATS

Constituencies given are those contested in 1997, rather than those held prior to the election - Norman Lamont, for example, had previously represented Kingston upon Thames in London.

* Dame Angela Rumbold (Mitcham and Morden ) - Deputy Chairman of the Conservative Party * Sir Graham Bright
Graham Bright
(Luton South ) - Vice-Chairman of the Conservative Party * Sir Marcus Fox (Shipley ) - Chairman of the 1922 committee * Neil Hamilton (Tatton ) - Chairman of the Monday Club * Norman Lamont
Norman Lamont
(Harrogate and Knaresborough ) - former Chancellor of the Exchequer * David Hunt (Wirral West ) - former Secretary of State for Wales
Wales
* Edwina Currie
Edwina Currie
(South Derbyshire ) - former Health Minister * Richard Tracey (Surbiton ) - former Sports Minister * Sebastian Coe
Sebastian Coe
(Falmouth and Camborne ) - Olympic gold medallist * David Mellor (Putney ) - former Secretary of State for National Heritage * John Cope (Northavon ) - former Paymaster General
Paymaster General
* Sir Robert Atkins (South Ribble ) - former Minister for Sport * Sir Jeremy Hanley
Jeremy Hanley
(Richmond and Barnes ) - former Chairman of the Conservative Party * Derek Conway (Shrewsbury and Atcham ) - former Vice Chamberlain of HM Household * Jonathan Aitken
Jonathan Aitken
(South Thanet ) - former Chief secretary to the treasury * Sir Rhodes Boyson
Rhodes Boyson
(Brent North ) * Sir Jim Lester (Broxtowe ) * Sir Ivan Lawrence (Burton ) * Sir Donald Thompson (Calder Valley ) * Sir Malcolm Thornton (Crosby ) * Sir Roger Moate (Faversham ) * Sir John Michael Gorst (Hendon North ) * Sir Andrew Bowden (Brighton Kemptown ) * Dame Peggy Fenner DBE (Medway ) * Sir Mark Lennox-Boyd (Morecambe and Lunesdale ) * Sir Michael Neubert (Romford ) * Sir James Hill (Southampton Test ) * Sir Dudley Smith
Dudley Smith
(Warwick and Leamington ) * Sir Peter Fry (Wellingborough ) * Nicholas Budgen (Wolverhampton South West ) * Phil Gallie (Ayr ) * Elizabeth Peacock (Batley and Spen ) * Andrew Hargreaves (Birmingham Hall Green ) * Harold Elletson (Blackpool North ) * Jonathan Evans (Brecon and Radnorshire ) * Nirj Deva (Brentford and Isleworth ) * Michael Brown (Brigg and Cleethorpes ) * Michael Stern (Bristol North West ) * David Sumberg (Bury South ) * Nigel Forman (Carshalton and Wallington ) * Robert Spink (Castle Point ) * Den Dover (Chorley ) * Rod Richards (North West Clwyd ) * Graham Riddick (Colne Valley ) * William Powell (Corby ) * David Congdon (Croydon North East ) * Bob Dunn (Dartford ) * David Shaw (Dover ) * Harry Greenway (Ealing North ) * Dr Ian Twinn (Edmonton ) * Spencer Batiste (Elmet ) * Matthew Carrington (Fulham ) * James Couchman (Gillingham ) * Douglas French (Gloucester ) * Paul Marland (West Gloucestershire ) * Jacques Arnold (Gravesham ) * Michael Carttiss (Great Yarmouth ) * Warren Hawksley (Halesowen and Stourbridge ) * Jerry Hayes (Harlow ) * Hugh Dykes (Harrow East ) * Robert Gurth Hughes (Harrow West ) * John Leslie Marshall (Hendon South ) * Sir Colin Shepherd (Hereford ) * Robert Jones (West Hertfordshire ) * Charles Hendry (High Peak ) * Vivian Bendall (Ilford North ) * Gary Waller (Keighley ) * Keith Mans (Lancaster ">

* ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/202525.stm * ^ “”. "BBC Vote \'97 Election coverage". YouTube. Retrieved 9 December 2010. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "1997: Labour landslide ends Tory rule". BBC News. 15 April 2005. Retrieved 28 March 2010. * ^ "House of Lords Debates 17 March 1997 vol 579 cc653-4: Dissolution of Parliament". House of Lords Hansard. Retrieved 21 June 2010. * ^ "Advertising & Promotion: Ads contract election fever". www.campaignlive.co.uk. 20 March 1997. Retrieved 9 April 2017. * ^ A B Snowdon 2010 , p. 4. * ^ Travis, Alan (17 April 1997). "Rebels' seven-year march". The Guardian (London). * ^ Bevins, Anthony (17 April 1997). "Election \'97 : John Major takes on the Tories". The Independent. Retrieved 19 December 2015. * ^ Snowdon 2010 , p. 35. * ^ "Major events influenced BBC\'s news online Social media agency London FreshNetworks blog". Freshnetworks.com. 5 June 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2010.

FURTHER READING

* Butler, David and Dennis Kavanagh. The British General Election of 1997 (1997), the standard scholarly study * Snowdon, Peter (2010) . Back from the Brink: The Extraordinary Fall and Rise of the Conservative Party. London: HarperCollins
HarperCollins
. ISBN 978-0-00-730884-2 .

MANIFESTOS

* Labour (New Labour, New Life For Britain) * Conservative (You can only be sure with the Conservatives) * Liberal Democrats (Make the Difference) * National Democrats (A Manifesto for Britain) * British National Party