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The Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(USAN; Spanish: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; Portuguese: União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Dutch: Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising 12 South American countries. The UNASUR Constitutive Treaty was signed on 23 May 2008, at the Third Summit of Heads of State, held in Brasília, Brazil.[9] According to the Constitutive Treaty, the Union's headquarters will be located in Quito, Ecuador.[3] On 1 December 2010, Uruguay
Uruguay
became the ninth state to ratify the UNASUR
UNASUR
treaty, thus giving the union full legality.[10][11] As the Constitutive Treaty entered into force on 11 March 2011, UNASUR
UNASUR
became a legal entity during a meeting of Foreign Ministers in Mitad del Mundo, Ecuador, where they had laid the foundation stone for the Secretariat Headquarters.[12] The South American Parliament will be located in Cochabamba, Bolivia, while the headquarters of its bank, the Bank of the South
Bank of the South
are located in Caracas, Venezuela.[3] On 4 May 2010, at a heads of state summit held in Campana, 75 km (47 mi) north of Buenos Aires, former Argentine President Néstor Kirchner was unanimously elected the first Secretary General of UNASUR for a two-year term. The new post was conceived as a first step towards the creation of a permanent bureaucratic body for a supranational union, which will eventually replace the political bodies of Mercosur
Mercosur
and CAN. The headquarters of the secretariat is located in Quito. After Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname
Suriname
and Venezuela, Uruguay
Uruguay
became the ninth nation to ratify the constitutive treaty of the organization on 1 December 2010, thus completing the minimum number of ratifications Necessary for the entry into force of the Treaty, on 11 March 2011[13][10][11] With the entry into force of the Treaty,[14] Unasur became a legal entity during the Summit Ministers of Foreign Affairs, in Mitad del Mundo, Ecuador, where the cornerstone was laid for the headquarters of the General Secretariat of the Union.[15][16]

Contents

1 Overview 2 History

2.1 Background 2.2 Formation 2.3 Naming

3 Structure

3.1 Secretary General 3.2 Presidency pro tempore 3.3 Councils and bodies

3.3.1 Ministerial Councils 3.3.2 Other institutions

3.4 Council of Economy and Finance 3.5 Council of South American Defense 3.6 South American Council of Health

4 Summits 5 Demographics

5.1 Languages 5.2 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Common Market 6.2 Economic development 6.3 Monetary policy

7 Defense policy 8 Democracy 9 Free movement of people 10 Electoral monitors 11 Participating nation states

11.1 Participating non-South American territories 11.2 Non-participating South American states and territories

12 See also 13 Bibliography 14 References 15 External links

Overview[edit] At the Third South American Summit on 8 December 2004, presidents or representatives from 12 South American nations signed the Cusco Declaration, a two-page statement of intent announcing the foundation of the South American Community. Panama
Panama
and Mexico
Mexico
attended the signing ceremony as observers. The mechanics of the new entity came out of the First South American Community of Nations Heads of State Summit, which was held in Brasília
Brasília
on 29–30 September 2005. An important operating condition of UNASUR
UNASUR
is that no new institutions will be created in the first phase, so as not to increase bureaucracy, and the community will use the existing institutions belonging to the previous trade blocs. History[edit] Background[edit]

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Main article: Latin American integration See also: Pan-Americanism

Heads of State of the then South American Community of Nations in Brasilia
Brasilia
in September 2005.

Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the Spanish and Portuguese colonization brought about the establishment and development of colonial empires in the Americas that integrated politically, economically and culturally vast extensions of the continent each with their respective metropolis. Since the Spanish American wars of independence
Spanish American wars of independence
a trend towards the political integration of the newly born republics of Hispanic America became strong in the thinking of several independence leaders, influenced in turn by the Spanish Enlightenment and the French and American revolutions. A notable early exponent of this trend was Francisco de Miranda, who envisioned a federated republic encompassing all of Hispanic America, which he called "Colombia". The independence war efforts saw the concurrence of integrated armies composed by Spanish Americans of diverse regions on both sides of the conflict (v.g. Patriots and Royalists), and fighting all over the territories of many future nations. For example, the Army of the Andes which was gathered in the United Provinces of the River Plate
United Provinces of the River Plate
fought in Chile, Peru
Peru
and Ecuador, and later integrated with Simón Bolívar's Army (which itself included troops of future Venezuela, Colombia
Colombia
and Ecuador) to further fight in Peru
Peru
and the Upper Peru. By the 1820s, the main proponent of a federation of the newly born republics was Simón Bolívar, although this idea was shared by many notable contemporaries, including José de San Martín
José de San Martín
and Bernardo de Monteagudo, under either republican or constitutional monarchical governments. In 1826, Bolívar summoned a conference to be held in Panama, which was to be known as the "Amphictyonic" Congress of Panama because of the parallelism with the Hellenic Amphictyonic League. The Congress was attended by Gran Colombia
Colombia
(including present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Panama
Panama
and Ecuador), the Federal Republic of Central America (including present-day Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala), the United Mexican States, and Peru. The ostensible intention was to form a defensive league that could prevent foreign expansionism and foster the interests of the Spanish American republics. The Congress' conclusions, however, were not ratified by the participants, except for Gran Colombia. Soon after, both Gran Colombia
Colombia
and the United Provinces of Central America fell apart and the whole of Hispanic America
Hispanic America
was balkanized by competing national governments. By the 1990s, however, Brazil
Brazil
had consolidated as the most powerful country in South America (accounting for half of the regional GDP) and began to promote the notion of a united South America (a new regional framing) where Brasilia
Brasilia
would be pivotal.[17] The project did not take hold until the United States' foreign policy priorities turned to other regions in the 2000s. Formation[edit] Main article: Cusco Declaration

South American presidents gathered during an extraordinary meeting for the signing of the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty in May 2008 in Brasilia.

The complete integration between the Andean Community
Andean Community
and the Mercosur nations was formalized during the meeting of South American heads of state that took place on 23 May 2008 in Brasília.[18] In the 2004 South American Summit, representatives of twelve South American nations signed the Cuzco Declaration, a two-page letter of intent announcing the establishment of the then-named "South American Community of Nations". Panama
Panama
and Mexico
Mexico
were present as observers. The leaders announced the intention of modeling the new community in the mold of the European Union, including a unified passport, a parliament and, eventually, a single currency. The then Secretary General of the Andean Community
Andean Community
Allan Wagner
Allan Wagner
speculated that an advanced union such as the EU should be possible within the next fifteen years. Naming[edit]

Néstor Kirchner, first Secretary General of UNASUR

On 28 December 2005, Chilean former foreign minister Ignacio Walker proposed that the Union's former designation, the South American Community of Nations, abbreviated as CSN, be changed to South American Union; nevertheless, many members stated to him that that proposal had already been rejected to prevent confusion since its acronym of U.S.A. (Spanish: Unión Sudamericana) would be easily confused for the United States of America. In the press, the phrase "United States of South America" was bandied about as an analogy to the United States to reflect the economic and political power that the union would have on the world stage.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25] The name was finally changed on 16 April 2007 to Union of South American Nations. The new name was jointly agreed by all member states during the first day of meeting at the First South American Energy Summit,[26] held at Isla Margarita, Venezuela. Structure[edit]

Headquarters of UNASUR

The presidents of each member nation will have an annual meeting, which will be the top political mandate. The first meeting was held in Brasilia
Brasilia
on 29 and 30 September 2005. The second meeting was held in Cochabamba, Bolivia, on 8 and 9 December 2006. The third meeting was held in Brasília
Brasília
– this meeting should have taken place in Indias (Colombia), but was postponed because of tension between Ecuador, Colombia
Colombia
and Venezuela. It was at this meeting that UNASUR
UNASUR
was formalized and in which the Constitutive Treaty of the organization was signed.[27] The foreign ministers of each country will meet once every six months. They will make concrete proposals for action and executive decision. The Permanent Representative Committee of the President of Mercosur and the Director of the Mercosur
Mercosur
Department, the Secretary General of the Andean Community, the Secretary General of ALADI
ALADI
and the Permanent Secretaries of any institution for regional cooperation and integration, Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, Among others, will also attend these meetings.[28][citation needed] On 9 December 2005, the Strategic Reflection Commission on the South American Integration Process was created. It consists of 12 members, whose function is to elaborate proposals that will help in the process of integration among the South American nations. These proposals were to be made at the 2nd UNASUR
UNASUR
Meeting (2006).[29] The Executive Committee, created at the 2nd UNASUR
UNASUR
Meeting, was transformed into the Political Commission or Council of Deputies, in accordance with the Decisions of the Political Dialogue. The text prepared by heads of state to form UNASUR
UNASUR
was approved at the 3rd UNASUR
UNASUR
Meeting in Brasília
Brasília
on 23 May 2008. This meeting was scheduled to take place in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, on 24–28 January 2008, but was postponed because of tensions between Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Secretary General[edit] Main article: Secretary General of the Union of South American Nations

Ernesto Samper, the most recent Secretary General.

A Secretary General is the legal representative of the Secretariat in Quito, Ecuador. Former Ecuadorian president Rodrigo Borja
Rodrigo Borja
was nominated to this position but resigned a few days before the formation of the USAN in May 2008. On 4 May, Néstor Kirchner
Néstor Kirchner
of Argentina
Argentina
was appointed as the first Secretary General, despite resistance from Colombia, Uruguay, and Peru. After the death of Néstor Kirchner
Néstor Kirchner
in 2010, there was a period of time when the position went unfilled, which eventually ended when María Emma Mejía Vélez was elected in March 2011. After Ernesto Samper
Ernesto Samper
completed his term in January 2017, UNASUR
UNASUR
members have been unable to come to consensus on a successor.[30]

Nº Secretary General Country Beginning of the mandate End of the mandate

1 Néstor Kirchner  Argentina 4 May 2010 27 October 2010

— Interim

2 María Emma Mejía Vélez  Colombia 9 May 2011 11 June 2012

3 Alí Rodríguez Araque  Venezuela 11 June 2012 31 July 2014

4 Ernesto Samper  Colombia 1 August 2014 31 January 2017[31]

— Vacant; No successor approved.[30]

Presidency pro tempore[edit] Main article: President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations

Mauricio Macri, the current President of UNASUR.

The temporary presidency will be governed by a year and will be rotating among the member countries between each UNASUR
UNASUR
meeting. They have already presided over UNASUR: Chile, from May 2008 to August 2009, Ecuador, from August 2009 to November 2010. The current president of UNASUR
UNASUR
is Mauricio Macri, President of Argentina. According to the document "Decisions of the Political Dialogue", which was signed during the 1st South American Energy Meeting, a permanent general cabinet will be created and headquartered in Quito, Ecuador.[32]

Nº President pro tempore Country Beginning of the Mandate End of the Mandate

1 Michelle Bachelet  Chile 23 May 2008 10 August 2009

2 Rafael Correa Ecuador 10 August 2009 26 November 2010

3 Bharrat Jagdeo  Guyana 26 November 2010 29 October 2011

4 Fernando Lugo  Paraguay 29 October 2011 22 June 2012

5 Ollanta Humala  Peru 22 June 2012 30 August 2013

6 Dési Bouterse  Suriname 30 August 2013 4 December 2014

7 José Mujica  Uruguay 4 December 2014 1 March 2015

8 Tabaré Vázquez  Uruguay 1 March 2015 17 April 2016

9 Nicolás Maduro  Venezuela 17 April 2016 21 April 2017

10 Mauricio Macri  Argentina 21 April 2017 incumbent

Councils and bodies[edit] The organisations of UNASUR
UNASUR
are:[33][34][35]

Council of Heads of State and of Government of Unasur President Pro Tempore of UNASUR Council of Minister of External Relationships of Unasur Council of Delegates of Unasur Secretary General of UNASUR

Ministerial Councils[edit] There are twelve Ministerial Councils of the USAN.[36]

Council of South American Defense Electoral Council South American Energy Council South American Council of Health South American Council of Social Development South American Council of Infrastructure and Planning South American Council of fight against the drug traffic South American Council of Economy and Finances South American Council of Education South American Council of Culture South American Council of Science, Technology and Innovation South American Council of Citizen Security, Justice and Coordination of Action against Transnational Organized Crime

Other institutions[edit]

South American Parliament Bank of the South South American Institute of Government in Health

Council of Economy and Finance[edit]

Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the members of Unasur.

The Economic and Financial Council of Unasur was established on 12 August 2011, in Buenos Aires, during a meeting of Finance Ministers and representatives of the Central Banks of the twelve countries of the region. Argentine Deputy Economy Minister Roberto Feletti said that the Council would study measures to strengthen regional trade in national currencies without the use of dollar. "We have reached an agreement on three axes of work and one of them is to move forward with multilateral payment mechanisms, to sustain trade and protect the volumes of reserves," Feletti said, noting that trade between countries in the region moves 120 billion dollars Yearly. "The use of national currencies, excluding the dollar, protects reserves and increases trade because there are lower transaction rates." He also detailed plans of the technical groups focused on the development and strengthening of Development Banks, such as the Andean Development Corporation (CAF) and the Bank of the South. He explained that the technicians will review the Latin American Reserve Fund (FLAR), aiming at in order to give greater capacity to intervene to the governments of the bloc in case of speculative attacks against currency or sovereign debt.[37] Council of South American Defense[edit] Main article: Council of South American Defense

Flags of the member countries of UNASUR
UNASUR
in front of the headquarters of the organization, in Ecuador.

The creation of a Council of South American Defense was proposed by Brazil
Brazil
and discussed for the first time at a summit of the South American presidents in April 2008. The project was extensively discussed throughout 2008. The then Brazilian Defense Minister, Nelson Jobim, said in April 2008 that the Council would be formed after the "political" decision of the presidents who participated in the launch of the Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(UNASUR) on 23 May 2008.[38][39] On 15 December 2008, at the extraordinary UNASUR
UNASUR
summit, the creation of the South American Defense Council was finally approved. The defense ministers of Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Guyana, Suriname
Suriname
and Venezuela. The Defense Council is responsible for developing joint defense policies, promoting the exchange of personnel among the Armed Forces of each country, conducting joint military exercises, participating in United Nations peace operations, promoting the exchange of analyzes on the world defense scenarios and the integration of industrial bases of military equipment.[40][41][42] South American Council of Health[edit] Main article: South American Council of Health The South American Council of Health
South American Council of Health
is a UNASUR
UNASUR
body established and approved on 16 December 2008, which brings together health ministers of the member states to develop regional programs in the region. Area of public health to be jointly financed by the South American bloc, to coordinate the energy policy of Unasur.[43] It was created by decision of the Heads of State and Government of UNASUR, meeting extraordinarily in the Coast of Sauipe, Bahia, Brazil
Brazil
in December 2008. It was finally constituted on 21 April 2009 in Santiago, Chile.[39] It is a permanent council composed of Ministers from UNASUR
UNASUR
member countries. This body was created in order to constitute a space of integration concerning health, incorporating efforts and improvements from other mechanisms of regional integration, such as MERCOSUR, ORAS CONHU and ACTO, to promote common policies and coordinated activities among member countries. It is also a consultation and consensus body concerning health, which intends to delve deeply into relevant themes and strengthen public policies aimed at improving the living conditions of the inhabitants of the South American continent. Since health is an essential right to all human beings and all societies, and it is also a vital component for the development of mankind, the Health Council seeks political and social acceptance regarding the issue, proposing health to be seen as an important booster of cooperation and integration of the bloc’s nations, intensifying the coordination of such nations and respecting diversity and interculturalism in the region. The Health Council aims to strengthen, by establishing a South American political institution with expertise in sanitary issues, the development of solutions to challenges that transcend national borders, developing values and mutual interests among the neighboring countries, thus facilitating the interaction of the Member States health authorities through the exchange of knowledge and technology in the region. The South American Health Council (SHC) is composed of the Health Ministries of Unasur Member States. In order to achieve the Council’s goals, the Coordinating Committee – responsible for preparing propositions of Agreements and Resolutions – was created. The Presidency of the Health Council is held by the Minister of Health of the country nominated for the Pro Tempore Presidency (PTP) of Unasur. It is in charge of coordinating the activities of all its bodies and managing the Technical Secretary. The Pro Tempore President has a two-year term that may be extended for another two years, being unconditionally succeeded by a president from a different country. The SHC is supported by the Technical Secretary in charge of the Pro Tempore Presidency (PTP) and two countries of the previous and following PTP, in order to ensure the continuity of works. It is technically supported by the South American Institute for Government in Health (ISAGS). Additionally, it is composed of five Technical Groups 1- Health Surveillance and Response; 2- Development of Universal Health Systems; 3- Health Promotion and Action on Social Determinants; 4- Universal Access to Medicines; 5- Human Resources Development and Management) and six Structuring Networks (1- Network of National Institutes of Health (RINS); 2- Network of Health Technical Schools of UNASUR
UNASUR
(RETS), 3- Network of National Institutions and Institutes of Cancer (RINC); 4- Network of Public Health Schools of Unasur (RESP); 5- Network of Disasters Risk Management; 6- Network of International Offices and International Cooperation in Health (REDSSUR-ORIS)[44] The South American Institute of Government in Health
South American Institute of Government in Health
(ISAGS) of UNASUR is an intergovernmental entity of public character that has as main objective to promote the exchange, the critical reflection, the knowledge management and the generation of innovations in the field of Health policy and governance.[45] Summits[edit]

South American leaders during the Unasur 4th Summit, in Georgetown, Guyana.

Heads of State at the 5th UNASUR
UNASUR
Meeting in Lima, in Peru.

The first Union summit was held in Brasilia
Brasilia
on 23 May 2008, in which the Constitutive Treaty was signed. Due to the political crisis that Bolivia
Bolivia
faced, pro-tempore president Michelle Bachelet
Michelle Bachelet
convened an emergency summit in Santiago, Chile, on 15 September 2008. The leaders of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil
Brazil
and Brazil
Brazil
took part in this summit, in addition to President Michelle Bachelet, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay
Uruguay
and Venezuela
Venezuela
and the Secretary General of the OAS, José Miguel Insulza.[46] After a six-hour meeting between the leaders in the Palacio de La Moneda, they finally declared their support for President Evo Morales's government and gave "its absolute support to Bolivia."[47]

No Date Country Host Host leader

1st 15 September 2008  Chile Santiago
Santiago
de Chile Sebastián Piñera

2nd 10 August 2009  Ecuador Quito Rafael Correa

3rd 28 August 2009  Argentina Bariloche Cristina Fernández
Cristina Fernández
de Kirchner

4th 26 November 2010  Guyana Georgetown Bharrat Jagdeo

5th 29 October 2011  Paraguay Asunción Fernando Lugo

6th 30 November 2012  Peru Lima Ollanta Humala

7th 30 August 2013  Suriname Paramaribo Dési Bouterse[48]

8th 4 December 2014  Ecuador Guayaquil Rafael Correa[49]

9th 23 April 2016  Ecuador Quito Rafael Correa

The July 2014 summit was a joint UNASUR/ BRICS
BRICS
summit.

There have been other presidential extraordinary meetings, such as:

May 2010: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Election of Néstor Kirchner
Néstor Kirchner
as Secretary General. September 2010: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Discussion of the 2010 Ecuador
Ecuador
crisis. December 2010: Mar del Plata, Argentina. Kirchner's successor after his death. (Concurring with the 20th Ibero-American Summit) June 2012: Mendoza, Argentina. Discussion on the Impeachment of Fernando Lugo
Fernando Lugo
and suspension of Paraguay. (Concurring with the XLIII Mercosur
Mercosur
presidential summit) April 2013: Lima, Peru. Recognition of contested Venezuelan presidential elections results.[50] July 2013: Cochabamba, Bolivia. Discussion on the Evo Morales "kidnapping" incident in Europe (due to European/US suspicions that the Bolivian Presidential aircraft carried US fugitive Edward Snowden.)

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of South America UNASUR
UNASUR
countries has together 410 million inhabitants and a rate of population growth of about 0.6% per year. There are several demographics such as tropical forests, the Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
and the icy portions of Patagonia. On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans (mainly Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians), Africans
Africans
and indigenous. There is a high percentage of mestizos that vary greatly in composition according to each place. There is also a minor population of Asians, especially in Brazil. The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by French, English and Dutch in smaller numbers. Economically, Brazil, Argentina
Argentina
and Colombia
Colombia
are the wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent.[citation needed]

v t e

Largest population centres of the South America by metropolitan area Source?

Rank City name Member state Pop.

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

1  São Paulo Brazil 21,090,792

Rio de Janeiro

Lima

2  Buenos Aires Argentina 13,693,657

3  Rio de Janeiro Brazil 13,131,431

4  Lima Peru 9,904,727

5  Bogotá Colombia 9,286,225

6  Santiago Chile 6,683,852

7  Belo Horizonte Brazil 5,829,923

8  Caracas Venezuela 5,322,310

9  Porto Alegre Brazil 4,258,926

10  Brasilia Brazil 4,201,737

Languages[edit]

Museum of the Portuguese Language
Museum of the Portuguese Language
in São Paulo. Portuguese is the most spoken language in South America.

Portuguese, Spanish, English and Dutch are the official languages of UNASUR. Spanish is the official language of Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia
Colombia
and Venezuela. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Dutch is the official language of Suriname; English is the official language of Guyana.[51] Indigenous languages of South America include Quechua in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Chile
Chile
and Colombia; Wayuunaiki
Wayuunaiki
in northern Colombia
Colombia
(La Guajira) and northwestern Venezuela
Venezuela
(Zulia); Guaraní in Paraguay
Paraguay
and, to a much lesser extent, in Bolivia; Aymara in Bolivia, Peru, and less often in Chile; and Mapudungun
Mapudungun
is spoken in certain pockets of southern Chile
Chile
and, more rarely, Argentina. At least three South American indigenous languages (Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages. Other languages found in South America include, Hindustani and Javanese in Suriname; Italian in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Venezuela and Chile; and German in certain pockets of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country; among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of East Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival. Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew
Trelew
and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia. There are also small clusters of Japanese-speakers in Brazil, Colombia
Colombia
and Peru. Arabic speakers, often of Lebanese, Syrian, or Palestinian descent, can be found in Arab communities in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela
Venezuela
and in Paraguay.[52] Religion[edit] An estimated 87% of South Americans are Christians[53] (69% Roman Catholic, 18% other Christian denominations mainly Traditional Protestants
Protestants
and Evangelicals
Evangelicals
but also Orthodoxy), accounting for ca. 19% of Christians worldwide. Both Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and São Paulo
São Paulo
figure among the largest Jewish populations by urban area. Argentina
Argentina
also has the largest number of Muslims in Latin America, around 500,000 Japanese Buddhism, Shinto-derived Japanese New Religions
Japanese New Religions
are common in Brazil
Brazil
and Peru. Korean Confucianism
Korean Confucianism
is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism is spread throughout the continent. Due to the immigration of Indonesian workers, Suriname and Guyana
Guyana
have a large Hindu and Muslim community. Also Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries along with Afro-American religions.

Religion in South America

Countries Christians Roman Catholics Other Christians No religion (atheists and agnostics)

 Argentina 88% 77% 11% 11%

 Bolivia 96% 74% 22% 4%

 Brazil 86% 64% 22% 9%

 Chile 70% 57% 13% 25%

 Colombia 92% 80% 12% 7%

 Guyana 57% 7% 50% 3%

 Paraguay 95% 85% 10% 2%

 Peru 94% 81% 13% 3%

 Suriname 48% 22% 26% 10%

 Uruguay 58% 47% 11% 41%

 Venezuela 88% 71% 17% 8%

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of South America

Quotes panel of BM&F Bovespa, in São Paulo, the Brazil's stock exchange and 12th biggest of the world.

Financial center of Santiago, Chile

Soya crops in the province of Buenos Aires. Argentina
Argentina
is the third largest producer of soybeans in the world.

Paraguaná Refinery Complex, considered the second largest and largest capacity in the world.

Recife, Brazil. The country is a featured tourism destination.

In recent decades the economies of South America have been transformed into fully competitive and efficient markets. In recent years, one characteristic of the economy of UNASUR
UNASUR
has been its excessive growth and high competitiveness, leading to world profits alongside China and India. This economic situation is marked by policies favoring market opening, aimed at the exploitation of natural resources, industrialization and a very attractive destination for investors. In spite of all this, the situation is marked by immense regional differences and by an irregularity in the distribution of the income that stands out at world level, although it is recognized as one of the regions of the world where poverty and inequality have been reduced more energetically in recent decades. There are regions with very high industrialization, where the main economic flows move, while there are sectors where there are hardly any industries. Most of the possessions are concentrated in the hands of a minority of the population, whereas millions of individuals experience different levels of privations arriving, in extreme cases, to the absolute poverty. However, it is necessary to emphasize that poverty in South America has been reduced in a surprising way, especially in the Southern Cone
Southern Cone
and North of South America. Today, thanks to the development of many South American nations, it has allowed the world, their eyes on some governments, even forming part of economic blocs like G20
G20
and BRICS. Although this reality is common to the entire South American group, the countries of the so-called Southern Cone
Southern Cone
(Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) present more positive socioeconomic data and high HDI rates. The South American economy is divided between the mineral extractivism in the Amazon region and the agriculture present in practically all its States. Industrialization is of medium level to high in diverse regions, although very strong the presence of local industries of origin Foreign (multinational). The extraction and export of oil is notable in Venezuela, which owns some of the largest world reserves, in Argentina
Argentina
and in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
compared to the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
and São Paulo. Bolivia
Bolivia
stands out for the production of natural gas, with important reserves of this matter that in recent years have led to what has been known as the "Gas War." The richest and most industrialized regions of the continent are: São Paulo State in Brazil, where its main financial center (in its capital), the main technological centers in South America (São Carlos, São José dos Campos
São José dos Campos
and Campinas) and its largest and most mobile port -; Followed by the Fluvial-Industrial axis of Paraná between Rosario
Rosario
and La Plata
La Plata
in Argentina
Argentina
centered in Buenos Aires (second most active port and city with higher GDP); And for the also Brazilian State of Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
Brazil
and Argentina
Argentina
are considered the regional leaders of South America. They are the two largest nations and the two largest economies in South America. These are the only South American countries that are members of the G-20 and Brazil, specially, as member of the BRICS. They're also the largest producers and exporters of agricultural products of the continent. The highest nominal GDP in 2017 is Brazil
Brazil
(8th worldwide) with 2,140,940 trillion dollars, followed by Argentina
Argentina
(21th worldwide) with 628,935 billion dollars, and Colombia
Colombia
(31st at the global level) with 306,439 billion dollars. The highest GDP in 2017 is in Brazil
Brazil
(8th worldwide) with 3,216,031 trillion dollars, Argentina
Argentina
(27th worldwide) with 912,816 billion dollars, and Colombia
Colombia
(31st Worldwide) with 720,151 billion dollars. The highest GDP per capita in 2017 is held by Chile
Chile
with US$24,113, followed by Uruguay
Uruguay
with 21,527 and Argentina
Argentina
with 20,047. In terms of nominal per capita GDP, the ranking is headed by Uruguay
Uruguay
with US$15,679, Chile
Chile
with US$13,576, and Argentina
Argentina
with US$12,503. Common Market[edit] Main article: Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America

Members of UNASUR
UNASUR
and main regional highways.

One of the initiatives of Unasur is the creation of a common market, starting with the elimination of tariffs for products considered non-sensitive until 2014 and for sensitive products until 2019.[54] The Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America is currently underway, with investments estimated at US$38 billion from the Inter-American Development Bank, the Andean Development Corporation, the National Bank for Economic and Social Development and the Financial Fund for Development of the Plata Basin.[55] The initial integration plans through the infrastructure cooperation of UNASUR
UNASUR
came with the construction of the Bioceanic Corridor and the Interoceanic Highway. Roads that will link more firmly the countries of the Pacific coast, especially Chile
Chile
and Peru, with the countries of the Atlantic coast like Brazil
Brazil
and Argentina, extending highways through the continent, allowing better connections of the ports to Bolivia
Bolivia
and more internal parts of Argentina, Peru
Peru
And Brazil. The Pacific Highway, between Peru
Peru
and Brazil, began to be built in September 2005, financed 60% by Brazil
Brazil
and 40% by Peru, and was completed in December 2010.[55] The South American Energy Ring will interconnect Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay
Uruguay
with natural gas from various sources, such as the Camisea Gas project in Peru
Peru
and the Tarija gas deposits in Bolivia. Although this proposal has been signed and ratified, political and economic difficulties in Argentina
Argentina
and Bolivia
Bolivia
have delayed this initiative, and to this day, this agreement remains more a protocol than a current project, since Chile
Chile
and Brazil
Brazil
are already building LNG terminals for Gas from external suppliers.[55] Economic development[edit]

Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocks) in no particular order

Presidents of the seven founding countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Venezuela
Venezuela
and Uruguay) officially launched the South American Bank in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in December 2007. The heads of all the founding countries were at the ceremony, with the exception of President Tabaré Vázquez
Tabaré Vázquez
of Uruguay. The capital will be US$7b, with Venezuela
Venezuela
responsible for US$3b and Brazil
Brazil
US$2b. The headquarters will be located in Caracas
Caracas
with offices in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and La Paz.[56][57] The Bank of the South
Bank of the South
will finance economic development projects to improve local competitiveness and to promote the scientific and technological development of the member states. Its founding charter affirms that the bank will promote projects in a "stable and equal" manner and priorities will be oriented towards reinforcing South American integration, reducing asymmetries, and promoting an egalitarian distribution of investments. The Brazilian Minister, Guido Mantega, stated that the bank is not similar to the International Monetary Fund; it will be a credit institution similar to the World Bank. Monetary policy[edit] Main articles: Single South American currency and Bank of the South

Rafael Correa, Evo Morales, Néstor Kirchner, Cristina Fernández, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Nicanor Duarte, and Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
at the signing of the founding charter of the Bank of the South

The Bank of the South
Bank of the South
(Portuguese: Banco do Sul, Spanish: Banco del Sur, Dutch: Bank van het Zuiden, English: Bank of the South) will establish monetary policy and finance development projects. One of the objectives of monetary union is to establish a Single South American currency. Support for the creation of this currency was provided in January 2007 by Peruvian President Alan García,[58] and other South American authorities expressed themselves in favor, as Bolivian President Evo Morales
Evo Morales
in April of that year, who proposed that the currency Only one denominated "Pacha" ("earth" in Quechua language), however, except for the right of each country to suggest a name for the common currency.[59] The South American economy is divided between mineral industry in the Amazon region and agriculture, which is present in practically all member states. Industrialization is advanced in several regions, although there is a strong presence of local industries of foreign (multinational) origin. In Brazil
Brazil
and Argentina
Argentina
the level of industrialization is intense.[60] Defense policy[edit] Main article: South American Defense Council

Soldier of the Brazilian Army
Brazilian Army
patrols the surroundings of the Summit of Heads of State of Unasur in 2008, held in Brasilia.

The South American Defense Council (CDS) was proposed by Venezuela
Venezuela
and Brazil
Brazil
to serve as a mechanism for regional security, promoting military co-operation. From the beginning Brazil, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile, the countries that took the leadership of the project, made clear that they did not intend to form a NATO-like alliance, but a cooperative security arrangement, enhancing multilateral military cooperation, promoting confidence and security building measures and fostering defense industry exchange. Colombia
Colombia
initially refused to join the defense council due to the strong military ties it has with the United States through the Plan Colombia. However, after reviewing the proposal they decided to join on 20 July 2008.[61][62] Shortly following the signing by Colombia's President, President of Chile
Chile
Michelle Bachelet
Michelle Bachelet
appointed a working group to investigate and draft a plan for the new council. Finally, on 10 March 2009, the 12 nation members held, in Chile, the first meeting of the newly formed council.[63] In mid-2010, UNASUR
UNASUR
played a key role in mediating the 2010 Colombia– Venezuela
Venezuela
diplomatic crisis. On 1 September 2010, the agency "UnasurHaití" was created to provide US$100 million in help to Haiti.[64] Democracy[edit]

South American presidents in front of the Casa Rosada, Buenos Aires, during the bicentenary of the May Revolution.

On 26 November 2010, the Additional Protocol on Commitment to Democracy was signed in the city of Georgetown, Cooperative Republic of Guyana.[65] The protocol derives from the mandate established in the Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Declaration of 1 October 2010, which affirms that member states will not tolerate a challenge to institutional authority, nor attempt to strike a legitimately constituted civilian power, adopting concrete and immediate measures in case of breach of constitutional order. It is applicable "in the event of a breach or threat of a breach of the democratic order, of a violation of the constitutional order or in any situation that endangers the legitimate exercise of power and the observance of democratic values and principles."[66] In the event of such a situation, the Council of Heads of State and Government or the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs may be convened extraordinarily by the Pro-Tempore Presidency of the Union, ex officio or at the request of the affected State or another member of UNASUR, to deliberate on the application of sanctions to the affected state. Among the political and diplomatic sanctions envisaged by the Protocol, the following stand out:[66]

Suspension of the right to participate in the different organs and instances of Unasur[66] Partial or total closure of land borders with the affected State, including suspension or limitation of trade, air and sea transportation, communications, energy supply, services and supply.

Free movement of people[edit]

Brazilian passport
Brazilian passport
with the indication of Mercosur.

Visits by South American citizens to any South American independent country of up to 90 days only require an identification document issued by the traveler's country. In November 2006, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Uruguay
Uruguay
agreed to abolish visa requirements for tourists between any of those nations.[67] Mercosur, along with its Associate members of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador
Ecuador
established that their territories together form an "area of free residence with the right to work" to all its citizens, with no additional requirements other than nationality. The Free Movement and Residence Agreement was established in the Brasília
Brasília
summit based in a previous document signed on 6 December 2002.[68] Citizens of any Mercosur
Mercosur
countries will have a simplified process in temporary residence visa of up to two years in any other member countries, with the requirements of a valid passport, birth certificate, and no criminal record. Temporary residence can become permanent if a licit means of living can be verified. At a summit in Guayaquil, Ecuador
Ecuador
on 4 December 2014, UNASUR
UNASUR
general secretary Ernesto Samper
Ernesto Samper
announced, "We have approved the concept of South American citizenship," including the creation of a single passport.[69] Electoral monitors[edit] UNASUR
UNASUR
has also initiated the creation of electoral monitor teams that could replace the monitors from the Organization of American States.[70] Participating nation states[edit] Main article: Member states of the Union of South American Nations

Signed In force Document 1969 1969 Cartagena Agreement 1991 1991 Treaty of Asunción 2004 2004 Cusco Declaration 2008 2011 Constitutive Treaty

      Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(UNASUR)

  Andean Pact
Andean Pact
( Andean Community
Andean Community
of Nations)

    Mercosur

       

v t e

UNASUR
UNASUR
member states. (Territories in white not part of UNASUR.)

Members of the Andean Community
Andean Community
of Nations (CAN): 1 L

  Bolivia
Bolivia
M  Colombia  Ecuador  Peru

Members of Mercosur: 2 L

 Argentina  Brazil  Paraguay  Uruguay   Venezuela
Venezuela
S

Other members:

  Chile
Chile
1 2 L   Guyana
Guyana
C   Suriname
Suriname
C

1 These countries are also considered to be associate members of Mercosur. 2 These countries are also considered to be associate members of the Andean Community. C Caribbean Community
Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) member state L Latin American Integration Association
Latin American Integration Association
(ALADI) member state M Accessing member to Mercosur S Suspended

Observers:[71]

  Mexico
Mexico
L  Panama

Member states of the Andean Community
Andean Community
trade bloc.

Member states of the Mercosur
Mercosur
trade bloc.

Member states of neither Andean Community
Andean Community
nor Mercosur.

Exclusive Economic Zones
Exclusive Economic Zones
of the member states of the USAN. Considering them, the total area reaches the 29 884 548 km².

Participating non-South American territories[edit] The following territories situated outside South America are part of member states and therefore participate:

Easter Island
Easter Island
(Rapa Nui), a Chilean territory situated in Oceania. San Andrés y Providencia, a Colombian territory situated in Central America. Isla Aves, a Venezuelan territory situated in the Antilles. Argentine and Chilean Antarctic bases.

Non-participating South American states and territories[edit] The following parts of South America are or were territories of non-South American states and therefore do not participate:

Aruba, Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao
Curaçao
are parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands near the Venezuelan coastline. French Guiana, which is an overseas department of France and is therefore part of the European Union. The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are overseas territories of the United Kingdom[72] and overseas countries and territories of the European Union;[73] they are also claimed by Argentina.[74] Trinidad and Tobago, although not a member, this sovereign state had been a dependency of Great Britain and was invited to join the Union of South American Nations by President of Venezuela, Nicolas Maduro
Nicolas Maduro
in July 2013.[75]

See also[edit]

Latin America portal

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States Continental union Economic integration South American Institute of Government in Health Mercosur Andean Community
Andean Community
of Nations Free Trade Area of the Americas Latin American Integration Association Latin American Parliament Organization of Ibero-American States Central American Parliament Caribbean Community North American Union Organization of American States Rio Group Pacific Alliance

Bibliography[edit]

José Antonio Sanahuja. "Post-liberal regionalism in South America: the case of Unasur", European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (EUI-RSCAS) 2012/05. Pdf version downloadable in[76] José Briceño. "From the South American Free Trade Area to the Union of South American Nations: The Transformations of a Rising Regional Process". Latin American Policy, Volume 1, Issue 2, pages 208–229, December 2010 Luis Schenoni. "Unveiling the South American Balance". Estudos Internacionais, Volume 2, Issue 2, pages 215–232, December 2014. PDF version downloadable[17] Anne Marie Hoffmann: "South America's Neoliberal Turnaround: The End for Regional Social Policy", GIGA Focus Afrika No. 06/2016

References[edit]

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UNASUR
Means Union of South American Nations, Hugo Chávez". Mathaba News Agency. 18 April 2007. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2011.  ^ a b c Goodman, Joshua (23 May 2008). "South American Presidents Agree to Form Unasur Bloc (Update3)". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 February 2011.  ^ "Surface area (sq. km)". World Development Indicators.  ^ The World Factbook. The World Factbook. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b c d World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015 edition. ^ Calculated using UNDP data for the member states with weighted population. ^ "South America nations found union". BBC News. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008.  ^ a b " Uruguay
Uruguay
Senate puts Unasur over the top". Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Herald. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011.  ^ a b "Uruguay's ratification gives Unasur legal status (nine out of twelve)". MercoPress. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011.  ^ "Sede de Unasur llevará el nombre de Néstor Kirchner" (in Spanish). telesur. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011.  ^ Ministério das Relações Exteriores. UNASUL ^ "Tratado Constitutivo da Unasul".  ^ "Sede da Unasul levará nome de Néstor Kirchner". Terra. 9 March 2011.  ^ Segun el chanceler uruguayo, Luis Almagro: Unasur, un factor de "estabilidad, democracia y paz" en la región. Abc, 2 de dezembro de 2010. ^ a b Schenoni, Luis L. ""Unveiling the South American Balance" in Estudos Internacionais, 2(2): 215-232". Estudos Internacionais v. 2 n. 2 jul-dez 2015 p. 215-232.  ^ Ministros da América do Sul vão a Caracas
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Vicente Fox
by Andrés Oppenheimer. Mexico:Presidencia de la República. ^ "Estados Unidos de Sudamérica" Herejías y silencios. (22 November 2005). ^ Duhalde, Eduardo (6 December 2004). "Sudamérica y un viejo sueño." Clarín. ^ "Chávez: presidentes acordaron llamar Unasur a integración política regional" (in Spanish). Terra Networks. 17 April 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2011. [dead link] ^ Entrada em vigor do Tratado Constitutivo da UNASUL Archived 1 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Brasil. Access in 14 February 2014. ^ "Reunião Extraordinária do Conselho de Ministras e Ministros das Relações Exteriores da UNASUL". Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Brasil. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.  ^ "Brasil e Chile
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reafirmam aposta na integração sul-americana". UOL. 30 May 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2014.  ^ a b " Argentina
Argentina
insta a Ecuador
Ecuador
a solucionar crisis en UNASUR". Vistazo (in Spanish). 2018-03-02. Retrieved 2018-03-21.  ^ "Ernesto Samper, secretario de Unasur, se despide de Ecuador". El Comercio (in Spanish). 31 January 2017. Retrieved 2018-03-22.  ^ "Presidency Pro Tempore". Unasul. Retrieved 5 December 2014.  ^ Cámara de Diputados de Brasil aprueba el tratado constitutivo de la Unasur ANDES[dead link] ^ "Eumednet". www.eumed.net.  ^ :: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas :: UNASUR ::. TRATADO CONSTITUTIVO DE LA UNIÓN DE NACIONES SURAMERICANAS Archived 25 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Consejos Sectoriales Archived 27 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ministros da Unasul querem ampliar comércio sem dólar. Estadão, 12 de agosto de 2011. ^ "Conselho de defesa não prevê ação militar em conflitos, diz Jobim". BBC Brasil. 15 April 2008.  Retirado em 15 de abril de 2008. ^ a b "Unasul aprova criação do Conselho Sul-americano de Defesa". G1. 16 December 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2014.  ^ "Cúpula aprova criação do Conselho de Defesa Sul-Americano". Agência Brasil. 16 December 2008.  ^ "Quatro cúpulas de presidentes latino-americanos reúnem-se esta semana na Bahia". Agência Brasil. 14 December 2008.  ^ "Chefes de Estado sul-americanos se encontram hoje, em Brasília, para uma reunião de cúpula extraordinária da União de Nações Sul-americanas – Unasul". Agência Brasil. 23 May 2008. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008.  ^ "Unasul aprova criação do Conselho Sul-Americano de Defesa - 16/12/2008 - UOL Últimas Notícias - Internacional". noticias.uol.com.br.  ^ "ISAGS - South American Institute of Governance in Health".  ^ "Sobre o ISAGS". ISAGS. Retrieved 25 January 2018.  ^ "Presidentes de Unasur llegan a Chile
Chile
para tratar crisis boliviana". Emol.com. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2014.  ^ "Unasur da su más irrestricto apoyo a Gobierno de Evo Morales". Emol.com. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2014.  ^ "Surinam asume la presidencia pro témpore de la Unasur — teleSUR".  ^ jm-JR, teleSUR/ fmf- och- cf-. "Lo más destacado de la VIII cumbre de la Unasur".  ^ "Cumbre de Unasur acordó anoche en Lima
Lima
respaldar al electo Nicolás Maduro" (in Spanish). La República. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.  ^ "The Languages spoken in Guyana". Studylands. Retrieved 2016-04-12.  ^ Karam, John Tofik (2013). "On the Trail and Trial of a Palestinian Diaspora: Mapping South America in the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1967–1972". Journal of Latin American Studies. 45 (4): 751–777. doi:10.1017/S0022216X13001156.  ^ "Christians". 18 December 2012.  ^ "UNASUL: Uma grande nação!". Superior Tribunal de Justiça. Retrieved 7 February 2015.  ^ a b c "Iniciativa para a Integração da Infraestrutura Regional Sul-Americana (IIRSA)". Ministério da Integração Nacional. Retrieved 5 December 2014.  ^ "South American leaders sign agreement creating South Bank". MercoPress. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.  ^ " Venezuela
Venezuela
summit criticises West". BBC News. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.  ^ Peruvian president calls for single currency in South America. People's Daily
People's Daily
Online (17/01/07). Retirado em 22 de setembro de 2007. ^ Evo propõe criação de moeda única para a Unasul. Retirado em 21 de Janeiro de 2008. ^ La industria bancaria latinoamericana contemplará más inversiones, dice un nuevo reporte de Economist Intelligence Unit Strategica Comunicación Global, 9 June 2008. Accessadate 18 February 2015. ^ "Uribe anuncia que Colombia
Colombia
ingresará al Consejo de Seguridad de Suramérica (Unasur)". El Economista (in Spanish). 20 July 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2011.  ^ " Colombia
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refuses to join regional defense council". People's Daily Online. 24 May 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2011.  ^ "The Paradox of South American Integration: The Founding of a Defense Council". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2011.  ^ "La Unasur ya tiene oficina en Haití". Página/12
Página/12
(in Spanish). 1 September 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011.  ^ Protocolo Adicional ao Tratado Constitutivo da Unasul sobre Compromisso com a Democracia. ^ a b c "Protocolo adicional Tratado Constitutivo UNASUL compromisso democracia". Unasul. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2014.  ^ S American 12 cut travel red tape, BBC News (November 25, 2006). ^ ¿Puedo residir o trabajar libremente en otros Estados Partes del MERCOSUR? "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.  ^ " UNASUR
UNASUR
Moves toward Continental Freedom of Movement, Venezuela Makes "Equality" Call". 5 December 2014.  ^ Main, Alex. "Obama in Cartagena: No change, dwindling hope". www.aljazeera.com.  ^ "Historia". Secretary General of UNASUR. Archived from the original on 9 July 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.  ^ " Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
government – organisation". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.  ^ Foundation, Internet Memory. "[ARCHIVED CONTENT] Internet Memory - PRONI Web Archive". webarchive.proni.gov.uk.  ^ See Sovereignty of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
and Sovereignty of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. ^ Johnlall, Raphael (18 July 2013). " Venezuela
Venezuela
President Maduro talked energy, transport while in T&T". Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Guardian. Guardian Media. Retrieved 29 September 2013. Apart from Mercosur, Maduro also invited T&T to be "incorporated" into Union of South American Nations (Unasur) because of its geographical proximity to the South American mainland (11 Kilometres)." Maduro said.  ^ "Working papers" (PDF). cadmus.eui.eu. 

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Topics

Regional integration Regional organizations by population Regionalism (international relations)

Coordinates: 0°0′16″S 78°27′14″W / 0.00444°S 78.45389°W / -

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