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The Union of Lublin
Lublin
(Polish: unia lubelska; Lithuanian: Liublino unija) was signed July 1, 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. In addition, the autonomy of Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
was largely abandoned. The Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania
Lithuania
in real union since the Union of Grodno (1566), became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium.[1] The Commonwealth was ruled by a single elected monarch who carried out the duties of King of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and governed with a common Senate
Senate
and parliament (the Sejm). The Union was an evolutionary stage in the Polish–Lithuanian alliance and personal union, necessitated also by Lithuania's dangerous position in wars with Russia.[2][3][4] Constituting a crucial event in the history of several nations, the Union of Lublin
Lublin
has been viewed quite differently by many historians. Sometimes identified as the moment at which the szlachta (including Lithuanians/Ruthenians) rose to the height of their power, establishing a democracy of noblemen as opposed to absolute monarchy. Some historians concentrate on its positive aspects, emphasizing its peaceful, voluntary creation, inclusive character and its role in spreading of economical welfare and good laws; others see there a possible cause of social and political instability that led to the Partitions of Poland
Poland
about 200 years later. Some Lithuanian historians are more critical of the Union, concluding it was an effect of domination by Polish nobles.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Sejm
Sejm
of 1569

2 Attempts to modernise the state 3 Aftermath

3.1 Cultural 3.2 Economic 3.3 Geographical 3.4 Legal 3.5 Military 3.6 Political

4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Background[edit]

The Union of Lublin, painting by Jan Matejko

There were long discussions before signing the union treaty. Lithuanian magnates were afraid of losing much of their powers, since the union would make their legal status equal to that of the much more numerous Polish lower nobility. Lithuania
Lithuania
had been increasingly on the losing side of the Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars, however, and by the second half of the 16th century it faced the threat of total defeat in the Livonian war
Livonian war
and incorporation into Russia. The Polish nobility (the szlachta), on the other hand, were reluctant to offer help to Lithuania
Lithuania
without receiving anything in exchange. Nevertheless, the Polish and Lithuanian elite strengthened personal bonds and had opportunities to plan their united futures during increased military cooperation in the 1560s.[5] Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania, seeing the threat to Lithuania
Lithuania
and eventually to Poland, pressed for the union, gradually gaining more followers until he felt enough support to forcibly evict landowners who opposed transition of territory from Lithuania
Lithuania
to Poland.[6] A clear motivation for Sigismund was that he was the last Jagiello and had no children nor brothers who could inherit the throne. So the Union was an attempt to preserve the continuity of his dynasty's work since the personal (but not constitutional) union of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
at the marriage of Jadwiga of Poland
Poland
and Wladyslaw II Jagiello. The Union was one of the constitutional changes required to establish a formal elected monarchy that would simultaneously reign over the two domains.[6] Sejm
Sejm
of 1569[edit] The Sejm
Sejm
met in January 1569, near the Polish town of Lublin, but did not reach an agreement. One of the points of contention was the right of Poles to settle and own land in the Grand Duchy. After most of the Lithuanian delegation under the leadership of Vilnius Voivodeship's Mikołaj "Rudy" Radziwiłł
Mikołaj "Rudy" Radziwiłł
left Lublin
Lublin
on 1 March, the king announced the incorporation into the Crown of Podlachia, Volhynia
Volhynia
and the Kiev palatinate (on 6 June), with wide approval from the local gentry.[7][8] Bratslav
Bratslav
and eastern Podolia
Podolia
were also transferred to Poland. These historic lands of Rus' comprise over half of modern Ukraine, and were at that time a substantial portion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania's territory. The Rus' nobles there were eager to capitalize on the economic and political opportunities offered by the Polish sphere, and by and large wanted their lands to become a part of the Polish Crown.[9] The Lithuanians were forced to return to the Sejm
Sejm
under the leadership of Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz
Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz
(father of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz) and to continue negotiations, using slightly different tactics than Radziwiłł. Though the Polish szlachta wanted full incorporation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
into the Crown, the Lithuanians continued to oppose this and agreed only to a federal state. On 28 June 1569, the last objections were overcome, and on 4 July an act was accordingly signed by the King at Lublin
Lublin
Castle.[7] Attempts to modernise the state[edit] The Union of Lublin
Lublin
was superseded by the Constitution of May 3, 1791, under which the federal Commonwealth was to be transformed into a unitary state by King Stanisław August Poniatowski. The status of semi-federal state was restored by the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The constitution was not fully implemented, however, and the Commonwealth was ended with the Partitions of Poland
Poland
in 1795. Aftermath[edit] Cultural[edit]

Religions in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1750: mostly Roman Catholic in the west and Eastern Catholic (Byzantine rite) in the east (orange color)

Union of Lublin, by Marcello Bacciarelli

After the Union, the Lithuanian nobles had the same formal rights as the Polish to rule the lands and subjects under their control. However, political advancement in the Catholic-dominated Commonwealth was a different matter. By the late 15th century, the Polish language
Polish language
was already making rapid inroads among the Lithuanian and Rus' elites.[7] The Lublin
Lublin
Union accelerated the process of Polonization. In culture and social life, both the Polish language
Polish language
and Catholicism became dominant for the Ruthenian nobility, most of whom were initially Ruthenian-speaking and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
by religion. However the commoners, especially the peasants, continued to speak their own languages and after the Union of Brest converted to Eastern Catholicism. This eventually created a significant rift between the lower social classes and the nobility in the Lithuanian and Ruthenian areas of the Commonwealth.[9] Some Ruthenian magnates resisted Polonization
Polonization
(like the Ostrogskis) by adhering to Orthodox Christianity, giving generously to the Ruthenian Orthodox Churches and to the Ruthenian schools. However, the pressure of Polonization
Polonization
was harder to resist with each subsequent generation and eventually almost all of the Ruthenian nobility was Polonized. The Cossack uprisings
Cossack uprisings
and foreign interventions led to the partitions of the Commonwealth by Russia, Prussia
Prussia
and Austria
Austria
in 1772, 1793, and 1795. The Union of Lublin
Lublin
was also temporarily inactive while the Union of Kėdainiai
Union of Kėdainiai
was in effect. Many historians like Krzysztof Rak consider the Union of Lublin
Lublin
to have created a state similar to the present-day European Union,[10] thus considering the Union (along with the Kalmar Union, the several Acts of Union in the British Isles and other similar treaties) to be a predecessor of the Maastricht treaty. The former, however, created a state of countries more deeply linked than the present-day European Union. Economic[edit] The union brought about the Polish colonization of Ruthenian lands and increasing enserfment of Ruthenian peasantry by the szlachta.[11][12][13][14] Although the conditions for peasants in the Commonwealth was pretty dire compared to the West (see second serfdom), the peasants in the Commonwealth had more freedom than those in Russia; hence peasants (as well as to a lesser extent nobility and merchants) escaping from Russia
Russia
to the Commonwealth became a major concern for the Russian government, and was one of the factors ultimately leading to the partitions of Poland.[15] A common coin, the złoty, was introduced. Execution of crown lands was not extended to the Grand Duchy. Geographical[edit] The Union created one of the largest and most populous states in 17th-century
17th-century
Europe (excluding the states not completely in Europe, i.e. the Russian and Ottoman Empires).[16] Within the Union, Lithuania
Lithuania
accepted the loss of Podlaskie, Volhynia, Podolia
Podolia
and the Kiev
Kiev
regions, former territories of the Grand Duchy that were transferred to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. Legal[edit]

Coat of arms of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Under the Union, the legal systems of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
were to be unified, but this never happened. The drafters of the Union of Lublin
Lublin
expected that Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland would be linked together more closely than they actually were.[citation needed] The 1566 Second Statute of Lithuania
Second Statute of Lithuania
had not lost its power, and some of its provisions substantially differed from the acts of the Union of Lublin.[citation needed] Eventually the Third Statute of Lithuania
Lithuania
was adopted in 1588, but this still contradicted the Union of Lublin
Lublin
on many points.[citation needed] The Polish nobility viewed the Statutes of Lithuania
Statutes of Lithuania
as unconstitutional,[citation needed] because at the signing of the Union of Lublin
Lublin
it was said that no law could conflict with the law of Union. The Statutes, however, declared the laws of the Union that conflicted with them to be unconstitutional. The First Statute of Lithuania
Lithuania
was also used in the territories of Lithuania
Lithuania
that were annexed by Poland
Poland
shortly before the Union of Lublin
Lublin
(except for Podlaskie). These conflicts between statutory schemes in Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland
Poland
persisted for many years, and the Third Statute of Lithuania remained in force in territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
even after partitions, until 1840. Attempts to limit the power of Lithuanian magnates (especially the Sapieha
Sapieha
family) and unify the laws of the Commonwealth led to the koekwacja praw movement, culminating in the koekwacja reforms of the Election Sejm
Sejm
of 1697 (May–June), confirmed in the General Sejm
Sejm
of 1698 (April) in the document Porządek sądzenia spraw w Trybunale Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskego.[17] Military[edit] Poland
Poland
provided military aid in the wars after the union of the two entities, which was crucial for the survival of the Grand Duchy.[3] Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy were to have separate military but common defense policies. Political[edit] The Union of Lublin
Lublin
provided for merger of the two states, though each retained substantial autonomy, with their own army, treasury, laws and administration.[8] Though the countries were in theory equal, the larger Poland
Poland
became the dominant partner. Due to population differences, Polish deputies outnumbered Lithuanians in the Sejm
Sejm
by 3:1.[8] There was to be a single ruler for both Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy, freely elected by the nobility of both nations, and crowned as King of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
in Wawel Cathedral, Kraków. A common parliament, the Sejm, held its sessions in Warsaw; it had 114 deputies from the Polish lands and 48 from Lithuania. The Senate
Senate
had 113 Polish and 27 Lithuanian senators. Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy were to have a common foreign policy. Legacy[edit]

Memory of the union lasted long. Painting commemorating Polish–Lithuanian union; circa 1861. The motto reads "Eternal union."

The Union of Lublin
Lublin
was Sigismund's greatest achievement and his greatest failure. Although it created one of the largest states in contemporary Europe, one that endured for over 200 years,[18] Sigismund failed to push through the reforms that would have established a workable political system. He hoped to strengthen the monarchy with the support of the lesser nobility, and to balance the power of lesser nobility and magnates. However, while all the nobility in the Commonwealth was in theory equal under the law, the political power of the magnates was not weakened significantly, and in the end they could too often bribe or coerce their lesser brethren.[7] In addition, the royal power continued to wane, and while the neighbouring states continued to evolve into strong, centralized absolute monarchies, the Commonwealth slid with its Golden Liberty into a political anarchy that eventually cost it its very existence.[19] Today's Republic of Poland
Poland
considers itself a successor to the Commonwealth,[20] whereas the pre- World War II
World War II
Republic of Lithuania saw the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
mostly in a negative light.[21] See also[edit]

Union of Kėdainiai Union of Lublin
Lublin
Mound

References[edit]

^ Dybaś, Bogusław (2006). "Livland und Polen-Litauen nach dem Frieden von Oliva (1660)". In Willoweit, Dietmar; Lemberg, Hans. Reiche und Territorien in Ostmitteleuropa. Historische Beziehungen und politische Herrschaftslegitimation. Völker, Staaten und Kulturen in Ostmitteleuropa (in German). 2. Munich: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. pp. 51–72,109. ISBN 3-486-57839-1.  ^ Dvornik, Francis, The Slavs in European History and Civilization, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 0-8135-0799-5, Google Print, p.254 ^ a b Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland
Poland
in Two Volumes, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925339-0, Google Print, p.50 ^ W. H. Zawadzki, A Man of Honour: Adam Czartoryski as a Statesman of Russia
Russia
and Poland, 1795-1831, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-820303-9, Google Print, p.1 ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland
Poland
in Two Volumes, Oxford University Press, p.151 ^ a b Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland
Poland
in Two Volumes, Oxford University Press, p.153. Two Podlasian officers were deprived of their lands and offices. ^ a b c d Lukowski, Jerzy; Zawadzki, Hubert (2001). A Concise History of Poland
Poland
(1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 9780521559171.  ^ a b c Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. (1999). A History of Russia
Russia
(6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195121797.  ^ a b Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine
Ukraine
(1st ed.). Toronto University Press. p. 149. ISBN 9780295975801.  ^ Federalism or Force: A Sixteenth-Century Project for Eastern and Central Europe ^ Ukraine, Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Nataliia Polonska-Vasylenko, History of Ukraine, "Lybid", (1993), ISBN 5-325-00425-5, Section: Evolution of Ukrainian lands in the 15th-16th centuries ^ Natalia Iakovenko, Narys istorii Ukrainy s zaidavnishyh chasic do kincia XVIII stolittia, Kiev, 1997, Section: 'Ukraine-Rus, the "odd man out" in Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodow ^ Orest Subtelny. Ukraine: A History, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-8390-0, pp. 79-81 ^ Jerzy Czajewski, "Zbiegostwo ludności Rosji w granice Rzeczypospolitej" (Russian population exodus into the Rzeczpospolita), Promemoria journal, October 2004 nr. (5/15), ISSN 1509-9091 , Table of Content online, Polish language ^ Heritage: Interactive Atlas: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, accessed on 19 March 2006: At it. apogee, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth comprised some 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million. For population comparisons, see also those maps: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2015. , "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2015. . ^ Jerzy Malec, Szkice z dziejów federalizmu i myśli federalistycznych w czasach nowożytnych, "Unia Troista", Wydawnictwo UJ, 1999, Kraków, ISBN 83-233-1278-8, Part II, Chapter I Koewkwacja praw. ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ As stated, for instance, in the preamble of the 1997 Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ^ Eidintas, Alfonsas; Žalys, Vytautas (1999). Tuskenis, Edvardas, ed. Lithuania
Lithuania
in European Politics: The Years of the First Republic, 1918–1940. Afterward by Alfred Erich (1st pbk. ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-312-22458-3. 

External links[edit]

Full text of the Union of Lublin
Lublin
(in Polish) (archive) Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures: Poland's Heritage The Influence of Historical, Political, and Social Ideas, on the Politics of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the Cossack Officers Between 1648 and 1657[permanent dead link] — Ph.D. thesis of S. Velychenko. Central European Superpower, Henryk Litwin, BUM Magazine, October 2016.

v t e

Acts of the Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569)

Krewo (1385) Vilnius and Radom (1401) Horodło (1413) Grodno (1432) Kraków
Kraków
and Vilna (1499) Mielnik (1501) Lublin
Lublin
(1569)

See also: 3 May 1791 Constitution (Reciprocal Guarant

.