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The term Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
(Malay: Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu) was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay peninsula in the first half of the twentieth century. These states were Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu. In contrast with the four adjoining Federated Malay States of Selangor, Perak, Pahang, and Negri Sembilan, the five Unfederated Malay States lacked common institutions, and did not form a single state in international law; they were in fact standalone British protectorates. In 1946
1946
the British colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved. Penang
Penang
and Malacca
Malacca
which had formed a part of the Straits Settlements were then grouped with the Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
and the Federated Malay States to form the Malayan Union. In 1948, the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
was reconstituted as a federation of eleven states known as the Federation of Malaya. Nine of the states of the new Federation of Malaya continued as British Protected States, while two of them, Penang
Penang
and Malacca
Malacca
remained as British colonies. The Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
gained full independence from the UK in August 1957. History[edit] Johor
Johor
accepted a treaty of protection with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1885, and eventually succumbed to British pressure to accept a resident "Advisor" in 1914. Unlike the other Malay states under British protection, however, Johor
Johor
remained outside of the Federated Malay States (formed in 1895). Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909, Siam transferred its rights over some of the northern Malay states (Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah, and Perlis) to the United Kingdom.[1] These states then became British Protected States. With the assistance of Japan, they temporarily returned to Thai jurisdiction for the latter part of the Second World War. Administration and language[edit] The chief officer of the British colonial administration was the "Advisor". In contrast with the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
enjoyed greater autonomy. The de facto official language of the Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
was Malay (written with the Jawi script).

Evolution of Malaysia

References[edit]

^ John Haywood (2002). Historical Atlas of the 19th Century World 1783 - 1914. Barnes and Noble. p. 22. ISBN 0-7607-3203-5. 

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Governors, Civil Commissioners and Administrators of British dependencies

Overseas territories

Governor of Anguilla Governor of Bermuda Commissioner for the British Antarctic Territory Commissioner for the British Indian Ocean Territory Governor of the Virgin Islands Governor of the Cayman Islands Governor of the Falkland Islands Governor of Gibraltar Governor of Montserrat Governor of Pitcairn

Administrator of the Pitcairn Islands

Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Governor of Saint Helena

Governor of Ascension

Administrator of Ascension

Governor of Tristan da Cunha

Administrator of Tristan da Cunha

Governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands

Crown dependencies

Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man Lieutenant Governor of Jersey

Former (Africa)

Governor of British Mauritius Governor of British Cameroons Governor of Cape Colony Governor of the Gambia Governor of Gold Coast Lieutenant Governor of Griqualand West Governor of Kenya Governor of Lagos Colony Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Nyasaland

Governor of Northern Rhodesia Governor of Nyasaland Governor of Southern Rhodesia

Governor of Natal Governor of Nigeria Governor of Senegal Governor of the Seychelles Governor of Sierra Leone Governor-General of the Union of South Africa High Commissioner for Southern Africa Governor of British Somaliland Governors of Tanganyika Governor of Uganda Resident in Zanzibar

Former (Americas)

Governor of the Bahamas Governor of Barbados

Lieutenant Governor of Grenada

Lieutenant-Governor of Berbice Governor of British Guiana Governor of British Honduras Governor of Cuba Governor of Dominica Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara-Essequibo Governor of Grenada Governor of Jamaica Governor of the Leeward Islands Governor of St. Lucia Governor of St. Vincent Governor of Trinidad and Tobago Lieutenant governors of Tobago Governor of Trinidad Governor of Newfoundland Governor General of Canada Governor of British Columbia Governor of New Brunswick Governor of Nova Scotia Governor of Prince Edward Island Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Governor of Saint Christopher, Nevis
Nevis
and Anguilla Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands Governor-General of the West Indies Federation Colonial Governors of Connecticut Colonial governors of Delaware Colonial Governors of Florida Colonial Governors of Georgia Colonial Governors of Maryland Colonial Governors of Massachusetts Colonial Governors of New Hampshire Colonial Governors of New Jersey Colonial Governor of New York Colonial Governors of North Carolina Colonial Governors of Pennsylvania Colonial Governors of Rhode Island Colonial Governors of South Carolina Colonial Governors of Virginia

Former (Asia)

Governor of Aden Governor of Burma Governor of Ceylon High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States

Senior British representatives in the constituent protected states Senior British representatives in the neighbouring Malayan protected states

General Adviser to the Government of Johore Adviser to the Sultan of Kedah Adviser to the Government of Kelantan Adviser to the Government of Perlis Adviser, Trengganu

Governor of Hong Kong Viceroy and Governor-General of India

Heads of the provinces of British India

Governor of Aden Governor of Bengal Governor of Bombay Governor of Madras Governor of Sind

Senior British representatives in neighbouring protected states

Resident of Gwalior

High Commissioner for Iraq Governor of Labuan High Commissioner for Malaya Governor of the Malayan Union Governor of North Borneo Resident Minister in Nepal High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan Governor of Penang Governor of Sarawak Governor of Singapore

Former (Australasia)

Governor-General of Australia

Government Resident of Central Australia Governor of New South Wales Government Resident of North Australia Governor of Queensland Governor of South Australia Governor of Tasmania Governor of Victoria Governor of Western Australia

Lieutenant Governor of the Swan River Colony Governor-General of New Zealand Governor-General of Papua New Guinea Consul in Tonga

Former (Europe)

Governor of Cyprus Lieutenant Governor of Heligoland High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands Governor of the Isle of Wight Governor of Malta Governor of Minorca Governor of Northern Ireland

Former (Oceania)

Governor of Fiji Governor of the Solomon Islands High Commissioner for the Western Pacific

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British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786– 1946
1946
Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826– 1946
1946
Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841– 1946
1946
Sarawak 1848– 1946
1946
Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885– 1946
1946
Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895– 1946
1946
Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921– 1946
1946
Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945– 1946
1946
South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901– 1942
1942
*Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919– 1942
1942
and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

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Protectorates and Crown colonies of British Malaya
British Malaya
and Borneo

Malaya

Straits Settlements (1826–1946) Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
(1895–1946) Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
(1800s–1946) Crown Colony of Malacca
Malacca
(1946–1957) Crown Colony of Penang
Penang
(1946–1957)

Borneo

Kingdom of Sarawak
Kingdom of Sarawak
(1841–1946) Crown Colony of Sarawak
Crown Colony of Sarawak
(1946–1963) Crown Colony of Labuan
Crown Colony of Labuan
(1848–1946) North Borneo
North Borneo
(1882–1946) Crown Colony of North Borneo
North Borneo
(1946–1963)

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Malaysia articles

History

Timeline Prehistoric Portuguese Malacca Dutch Malacca British Malaya

Straits Settlements Federated Malay States Unfederated Malay States

British Borneo

Kingdom of Sarawak Crown Colony of Labuan North Borneo

Japanese occupation of Malaya
Japanese occupation of Malaya
/ Borneo British Military Administration (Malaya / Borneo) Malayan Union Federation of Malaya

Independence

Malayan Emergency Crown Colony of Singapore

Self-government

Crown Colony of Sarawak

Self-government

Crown Colony of North Borneo

Self-government

Malaysia
Malaysia
Agreement 1962 Singapore referendum Cobbold Commission

18-point agreement 20-point agreement

Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation Sarawak Communist Insurgency Proclamation

Malaysia
Malaysia
Day

PAP–UMNO relations 1964 race riots Singapore in Malaysia Second Malayan Emergency 13 May Incident 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis 1997 Asian financial crisis

Geography

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