The term UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES (Malay : _Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu_) was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay peninsula in the first half of the twentieth century. These states were Johor , Kedah , Kelantan , Perlis , and Terengganu . In contrast with the four adjoining Federated Malay States of Selangor , Perak , Pahang , and Negri Sembilan , the five Unfederated Malay States lacked common institutions, and did not form a single state in international law; they were in fact standalone British protectorates. British Malaya in 1922 ------------------------- UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES Federated Malay States Straits Settlements
In 1946 the British colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved. Penang and Malacca which had formed a part of the Straits Settlements were then grouped with the Unfederated Malay States and the Federated Malay States to form the Malayan Union . In 1948, the Malayan Union was reconstituted as a federation of eleven states known as the Federation of Malaya . Nine of the states of the new Federation of Malaya continued as British Protected States , while two of them, Penang and Malacca remained as British colonies. The Federation of Malaya gained full independence from the UK in August 1957.
Johor accepted a treaty of protection with the United Kingdom in 1885, and eventually succumbed to British pressure to accept a resident "Advisor" in 1914. Unlike the other Malay states under British protection, however, Johor remained outside of the Federated Malay States (formed in 1895).
Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909 , Siam transferred its rights over some of the northern Malay states ( Kelantan , Terengganu , Kedah , and Perlis ) to the United Kingdom . These states then became British Protected States . With the assistance of Japan , they temporarily returned to Thai jurisdiction for the latter part of the Second World War . Evolution of Malaysia
ADMINISTRATION AND LANGUAGE
The chief officer of the British colonial administration was the "Advisor". In contrast with the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States enjoyed greater autonomy. The _de facto_ official language of the Unfederated Malay States was Malay (written with the Jawi script ).
* ^ John Haywood (2002). _Historical Atlas of the 19th Century World 1783 - 1914_. Barnes and Noble. p. 22. ISBN 0-7607-3203-5 .
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Governors, Civil Commissioners and Administrators of British dependencies
* Governor of Anguilla * Governor of Bermuda * Commissioner for the British Antarctic Territory * Commissioner for the British Indian Ocean Territory * Governor of the Virgin Islands * Governor of the Cayman Islands * Governor of the Falkland Islands * Governor of Gibraltar * Governor of Montserrat
* Governor of British Mauritius * Governor of British Cameroons * Governor of Cape Colony * Governor of the Gambia * Governor of Gold Coast * Lieutenant Governor of Griqualand West * Governor of Kenya * Governor of Lagos Colony
* Governor of Natal * Governor of Nigeria * Governor of Senegal * Governor of the Seychelles * Governor of Sierra Leone * Governor-General of the Union of South Africa * High Commissioner for Southern Africa * Governor of British Somaliland * Governors of Tanganyika * Governor of Uganda * Resident in Zanzibar
* Lieutenant-Governor of Berbice * Governor of British Guiana * Governor of British Honduras * Governor of Cuba * Governor of Dominica * Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara-Essequibo * Governor of Grenada * Governor of Jamaica * Governor of the Leeward Islands * Governor of St. Lucia * Governor of St. Vincent * Governor of Trinidad and Tobago * Lieutenant governors of Tobago * Governor of Trinidad * Governor of Newfoundland * Governor General of Canada * Governor of British Columbia * Governor of New Brunswick * Governor of Nova Scotia * Governor of Prince Edward Island * Lieutenant Governor of Quebec * Governor of Saint Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla * Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands * Governor-General of the West Indies Federation * Colonial Governors of Connecticut * Colonial governors of Delaware * Colonial Governors of Florida * Colonial Governors of Georgia * Colonial Governors of Maryland * Colonial Governors of Massachusetts * Colonial Governors of New Hampshire * Colonial Governors of New Jersey * Colonial Governor of New York * Colonial Governors of North Carolina * Colonial Governors of Pennsylvania * Colonial Governors of Rhode Island * Colonial Governors of South Carolina * Colonial Governors of Virginia
* Governor of Aden * Governor of Burma * Governor of Ceylon
* High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States
* Senior British representatives in the constituent protected states
* Senior British representatives in the neighbouring Malayan protected states
* Viceroy and Governor-General of India
* Heads of the provinces of British India
* Senior British representatives in neighbouring protected states
* High Commissioner for Iraq * Governor of Labuan * High Commissioner for Malaya * Governor of the Malayan Union * Governor of North Borneo * Resident Minister in Nepal * High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan * Governor of Penang * Governor of Singapore
* Governor-General of Australia
* Government Resident of Central Australia * Governor of New South Wales * Government Resident of North Australia * Governor of Queensland * Governor of South Australia * Governor of Tasmania * Governor of Victoria * Governor of Western Australia
* Governor of Cyprus * Lieutenant Governor of Heligoland * High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands * Governor of the Isle of Wight * Governor of Malta * Governor of Minorca * Governor of Northern Ireland
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* 1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) * 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca * Since 1713 Gibraltar * 1800–1813 _Malta (Protectorate) _ * 1813–1964 _Malta (Colony) _ * 1807–1890 Heligoland * 1809–1864 Ionian Islands * 1878–1960 _ Cyprus _ * 1921–1937 Irish Free State
17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century
* 1579 New Albion * 1583–1907 Newfoundland * 1605–1979 *_Saint Lucia _ * 1607–1776 Virginia * Since 1619 Bermuda * 1620–1691 Plymouth * 1623–1883 Saint Kitts * 1624–1966 *_Barbados _ * 1625–1650 Saint Croix * 1627–1979 *_Saint Vincent and the Grenadines _ * 1628–1883 Nevis * 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay * 1632–1776 Maryland * since 1632 Montserrat * 1632–1860 Antigua * 1636–1776 Connecticut * 1636–1776 Rhode Island * 1637–1662 New Haven
* 1643–1860 Bay Islands * Since 1650 Anguilla * 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast * 1655–1962 *_Jamaica _ * 1663–1712 Carolina * 1664–1776 New York * 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey * Since 1666 Virgin Islands * Since 1670 Cayman Islands * 1670–1973 *_Bahamas _ * 1670–1870 Rupert\'s Land * 1671–1816 Leeward Islands * 1674–1702 East Jersey * 1674–1702 West Jersey * 1680–1776 New Hampshire * 1681–1776 Pennsylvania * 1686–1689 New England * 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay
* 1701–1776 Delaware * 1712–1776 North Carolina * 1712–1776 South Carolina * 1713–1867 Nova Scotia * 1733–1776 Georgia * 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island * 1762–1974 *_Grenada _ * 1763–1978 _Dominica _ * 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island * 1763–1791 Quebec * 1763–1783 East Florida * 1763–1783 West Florida * 1784–1867 New Brunswick * 1791–1841 Lower Canada * 1791–1841 Upper Canada * Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands
* 1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country 1 * 1833–1960 Windward Islands * 1833–1960 Leeward Islands * 1841–1867 Canada * 1849–1866 Vancouver Island * 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands * 1858–1866 British Columbia * 1859–1870 North-Western Territory * 1860–1981 *_British Antigua and Barbuda _ * 1862–1863 Stickeen * 1866–1871 British Columbia * 1867–1931 *_ Dominion of Canada _2 * 1871–1964 Honduras * 1882–1983 *_ Saint Kitts and Nevis _ * 1889–1962 _Trinidad and Tobago _ * 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3 * 1958–1962 West Indies Federation
* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. * 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster . See Name of Canada . * 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a _de jure _ Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.
* 1631–1641 Providence Island * 1651–1667 Willoughbyland * 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4 * 1831–1966 _Guiana _ * Since 1833 Falkland Islands 5 * Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 5
* 4. Now a department of Colombia . * 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982.
17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century
* Since 1815 Ascension Island 14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope * 1807–1808 Madeira * 1810–1968 _ Mauritius _ * 1816–1965 The Gambia * 1856–1910 Natal * 1862–1906 Lagos * 1868–1966 Basutoland * 1874–1957 Gold Coast * 1882–1922 Egypt
* 1884–1900 Niger Coast * 1884–1966 Bechuanaland * 1884–1960 Somaliland * 1887–1897 Zululand * 1890–1962 _Uganda _ * 1890–1963 Zanzibar * 1891–1964 Nyasaland * 1891–1907 Central Africa * 1893–1968 _Swaziland _ * 1895–1920 East Africa * 1899–1956 Sudan
* 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria * 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria * 1900–1910 Orange River * 1900–1910 Transvaal * 1903–1976 _ Seychelles _ * 1910–1931 _South Africa _ * 1914–1960 Nigeria * 1915–1931 South-West Africa * 1919–1961 Cameroons 6 * 1920–1963 _Kenya _ * 1922–1961 Tanganyika 6 * 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia 7 * 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia
* 6. League of Nations mandate . * 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia ) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement . After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.
17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century
* 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton * 1819–1826 Malaya * 1826–1946 Straits Settlements * 1839–1967 Aden * 1839–1842 Afghanistan * 1841–1997 Hong Kong * 1841–1946 Sarawak * 1848–1946 Labuan * 1858–1947 India * 1874–1963 Borneo
* 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) * 1882–1963 North Borneo * 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States * 1888–1984 _Brunei _ * 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman * 1892–1971 Trucial States * 1895–1946 Federated Malay States * 1898–1930 Weihai * 1878–1960 _ Cyprus _
* 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) * 1918–1961 Kuwait * 1920–1932 Mesopotamia 8 * 1921–1946 Transjordan 8 * 1923–1948 Palestine 8 * 1945–1946 South Vietnam * 1946–1963 North Borneo * 1946–1963 Sarawak * 1946–1963 _Singapore _ * 1946–1948 Malayan Union * 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya * Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus ) * Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles )
18th and 19th centuries 20th century
* 1788–1901 New South Wales * 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania * 1807–1863 Auckland Islands 9 * 1824–1980 New Hebrides * 1824–1901 Queensland * 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia * 1836–1901 South Australia * since 1838 Pitcairn Islands
* 1841–1907 New Zealand * 1851–1901 Victoria * 1874–1970 _Fiji _10 * 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories * 1884–1949 Papua * 1888–1901 Rarotonga /Cook Islands 9 * 1889–1948 Union Islands 9 * 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands 11 * 1893–1978 Solomon Islands 12
* 1900–1970 Tonga * 1900–1974 Niue 9 * 1901–1942 *_Australia _ * 1907–1953 *_New Zealand _ * 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru * 1919–1949 New Guinea * 1949–1975 _Papua and New Guinea _13
ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC
* Since 1658 Saint Helena 14 * Since 1815 Ascension Island 14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 15 * 1841–1933 _ Australian Antarctic Territory _ (transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia ) * 1841–1947 _ Ross Dependency _ (transferred to the Realm of New Zealand )
* 14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ; Ascension Island (1922–) and Tristan da Cunha (1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. * 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).
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Protectorates and Crown colonies of British Malaya and Borneo
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