HOME
The Info List - Umberto II



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

UMBERTO II (Italian : Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 1904 – 18 March 1983), was the last King
King
of Italy . He reigned for 34 days, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946, although he had been de facto head of state since 1944, and was nicknamed the MAY KING (Italian : RE DI MAGGIO).

Umberto was the only son of the five children of King
King
Victor Emmanuel III and Queen Elena . In an effort to repair the monarchy's image after the fall of Benito Mussolini 's regime, Victor Emmanuel transferred his powers to Umberto in 1944 while retaining the title of king. As a referendum was in preparation on the abolition of the monarchy in 1946 , Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in favour of Umberto in the hope his exit might bolster the monarchy. However, the referendum passed, Italy was declared a republic, and Umberto lived out the rest of his life in exile in Cascais
Cascais
, Portugal.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Marriage and issue

* 3 Career as Prince of Piedmont

* 3.1 State visit to South America, 1924 * 3.2 Military positions and attempted assassination * 3.3 Visit to Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
* 3.4 During the Second World War * 3.5 Regency

* 4 King of Italy * 5 Private life * 6 In exile

* 7 Titles, styles and honours

* 7.1 Titles and styles

* 7.2 Honours

* 7.2.1 National honours * 7.2.2 Foreign honours

* 8 Ancestry

* 8.1 Patrilineal ancestry

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Additional reading * 12 External links

EARLY LIFE

Photo of Umberto, Prince of Piedmont, prior to the First World War

Umberto was born at the Castle of Racconigi
Castle of Racconigi
in Piedmont . He was the third child, and the only son, of King
King
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and his wife, Elena of Montenegro . As such, he became heir apparent upon his birth, since the Italian throne was limited to male-line descendants only. He was the first cousin of King
King
Alexander I of Yugoslavia . He was accorded the title of Prince of Piedmont , which was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September.

MARRIAGE AND ISSUE

Umberto was married in Rome on 8 January 1930 to Marie José of Belgium
Belgium
(1906–2001), daughter of King
King
Albert I of Belgium
Albert I of Belgium
and his wife Queen Elisabeth , née Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria.

They had four children:

* Princess Maria Pia (born 1934) * Prince Vittorio Emanuele (born 1937) * Princess Maria Gabriella (born 1940) * Princess Maria Beatrice (born 1943)

CAREER AS PRINCE OF PIEDMONT

STATE VISIT TO SOUTH AMERICA, 1924

Prince Umberto during his visit to Chile, in 1924

As Prince of Piedmont, Umberto visited South America, between July and September 1924. With his preceptor , Bonaldi, he went to Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. This trip was part of the political plan of Fascism to link the Italian people living outside of Italy with their mother country and the interests of the regime. The Prince and the Princess of Piedmont in 1930

MILITARY POSITIONS AND ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION

The Prince of Piedmont was educated for a military career and in time became the commander in chief of the Northern Armies, and then of the Southern ones. However, his role was merely formal, the de facto command belonging to Benito Mussolini . By mutual agreement, Umberto and Mussolini always kept a distance.

An attempted assassination of the prince took place in Brussels
Brussels
on 24 October 1929, the day of the announcement of his betrothal to Princess Marie José. The prince was about to lay a wreath on the Tomb of the Belgian Unknown Soldier at the foot of the Colonne du Congrès . With a cry of 'Down with Mussolini!', the culprit, Fernando de Rosa , fired a single shot that missed the Prince of Piedmont.

De Rosa was arrested and, under interrogation, claimed to be a member of the Second International
Second International
, who had fled Italy to avoid arrest for his political views. His trial became a major political event, and although he was found guilty of attempted murder, he was given a light sentence of five years in prison. This sentence caused a political uproar in Italy and a brief rift in Belgian-Italian relations. However, Prince Umberto himself in March 1932 took the step of asking for a pardon for his would-be assassin, who was released after having served slightly less than half of his sentence and was eventually killed in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
.

Following the Savoyards' tradition ("Only one Savoy reigns at a time"), he kept apart from active politics until he was finally named Lieutenant General of the Realm . He made an exception when Adolf Hitler asked for a meeting. This action was not considered proper, given the international situation; thereafter Umberto was more rigorously excluded from political events. King
King
Umberto II of Italy visiting Cairo
Cairo

VISIT TO ITALIAN SOMALILAND

In 1928, after the colonial authorities in Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
built the Mogadishu Cathedral (Cattedrale di Mogadiscio), Umberto made his first publicized visit to Mogadishu
Mogadishu
, the territory's capital. Umberto would make his second publicized visit to Italian Somaliland in October 1934.

DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR

At the beginning of World War II, Umberto commanded Army Group West, made up of the First , Fourth and the Seventh Army (kept in reserve), which attacked French forces during the Italian invasion of France
Italian invasion of France
.

After the capitulation of France, Umberto was kept inactive as Army commander by Mussolini. Nevertheless, on 29 October 1942, he was awarded the rank of Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia).

In 1943, the Crown Princess Marie José involved herself in vain attempts to arrange a separate peace treaty between Italy and the United States, and her interlocutor from the Vatican was Monsignor Giovanni Battista Montini, a senior diplomat who later became Pope Paul VI . Her attempts were not sponsored by the king and Umberto was not (directly, at least) involved in them. After her failure – she never met the American agents – she was sent with her children to Sarre , in Aosta Valley , and isolated from the political life of the Royal House.

REGENCY

As the Allies freed more and more of Italy from the Salò regime , it became apparent that Victor Emmanuel was too tainted by his previous support of Fascism to have any further role. Accordingly, in April 1944, he transferred most of his powers to Umberto. This status was formalized after Rome was liberated in June, when Victor Emmanuel transferred his remaining constitutional powers to Umberto, naming his son Lieutenant General of the Realm . However, Victor Emmanuel retained the title of King
King
.

KING OF ITALY

Umberto earned widespread praise for his role in the following three years. In hopes of influencing public opinion ahead of a referendum on the continuation of the monarchy , Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated in favour of Umberto on 9 May 1946.

Many Italian monarchists expressed doubts about the legitimacy of the referendum, claiming that millions of voters, many of them pro-monarchist, were unable to vote because they had not yet been able to return to their own local areas to register. Nor had the issue of Italy's borders been settled definitively, so the voting rights of those in disputed areas had not been satisfactorily clarified. Other allegations were made about voter manipulation, and even the issue of how to interpret the votes became controversial, as it appeared that not just a majority of those validly voting but of those votes cast (including spoiled votes), was needed to reach an outcome in the event the monarchy lost by a tight margin.

In the 2 June referendum, a decisive majority voted to make Italy a republic. The republic was formally proclaimed four days later, ending Umberto's brief 34-day reign as king. Many observers believe that had Victor Emmanuel abdicated sooner, the monarchy might have survived.

Having promised to accept the election results, Umberto accepted deposition , urging his now former subjects to serve the new republic. The monarchy of the House of Savoy formally ended on 12 June 1946, and Umberto left the country. Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi assumed office as Italy's interim Head of State.

PRIVATE LIFE

Umberto and Marie José separated in exile; it had been an arranged marriage of state , following a long tradition of royal families. However, they never divorced, partly for political reasons.

Some academics have explored Umberto's possible homosexuality . As early as the 1920s, Mussolini had collected a dossier on his private life for purposes of blackmail. Certainly during the war, newspapers asserted that Umberto was homosexual, and information continued to be spread in the lead-up to the post-war referendum on the monarchy in the hope of influencing the outcome. It is, however, unclear to what extent such rumours could be substantiated. Umberto's custom of giving a fleur-de-lis made of precious stones to favoured young officials in his entourage was well known, and Umberto's lovers may have included Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
and Jean Marais ; there was a former army lieutenant who published details of Umberto's advances to him. Except for public appearances, Umberto and Maria José generally lived apart.

IN EXILE

Umberto II lived for 37 years in exile, in Cascais
Cascais
, Portugal
Portugal
. He never set foot in his native land again; the 1948 constitution of the Italian Republic not only forbade amending the constitution to restore the monarchy, but until 2002 barred all male heirs to the defunct Italian throne from ever returning to Italian soil. Female members of the Savoy family were not barred, except queens consort .

He traveled extensively during exile, and was often to be seen in Mexico visiting his daughter Maria Beatrice .

At the time when Umberto was dying, in 1983, President Sandro Pertini wanted the Italian Parliament to allow Umberto to return to his native country. Ultimately, however, Umberto died in Geneva
Geneva
and was interred in Hautecombe Abbey , for centuries the burial place of the members of the House of Savoy . No representative of the Italian government attended his funeral.

TITLES, STYLES AND HONOURS

Styles of KING UMBERTO II

REFERENCE STYLE His Majesty
Majesty

SPOKEN STYLE Your Majesty

ALTERNATIVE STYLE Sir

TITLES AND STYLES

* 15 SEPTEMBER 1904 – 29 SEPTEMBER 1904: His Royal Highness Prince Umberto of Savoy * 29 SEPTEMBER 1904 – 9 MAY 1946: His Royal Highness The Prince of Piedmont * 9 MAY 1946 – 12 JUNE 1946: His Majesty
Majesty
The King
King
of Italy * 12 JUNE 1946 – 18 MARCH 1983: His Majesty
Majesty
King
King
Umberto II of Italy

At birth, Umberto was granted the traditional title of Prince of Piedmont. This was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September 1904.

HONOURS

National Honours

* House of Savoy : Sovereign Knight Grand Collar of the Royal Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
* House of Savoy : Sovereign Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
* House of Savoy : Sovereign Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of the Crown * House of Savoy : Sovereign Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Military Order of Savoy
Military Order of Savoy
* House of Savoy : Sovereign Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Civil Order of Savoy * House of Savoy : Sovereign Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of the Star of Italy * House of Savoy : Sovereign Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit for Labour

* House of Savoy : Sovereign Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of the Roman Eagle

* Vatican : Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre

* Holy See : Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Christ

* Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
: Bailiff Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Special
Special
Class * Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit * Two Sicilian Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Saint Januarius
Order of Saint Januarius
* Two Sicilian Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross with Collar of Justice of the Two Sicilian Royal Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George * Tuscan Grand Ducal Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Saint Stephen * Tuscan Grand Ducal Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Saint Joseph
Order of Saint Joseph

Foreign Honours

* Belgium
Belgium
: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold I * Bulgarian Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius * Bulgarian Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Saint Alexander * Knight of the Order of the Elephant

* German Imperial and Royal Family : Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Imperial and Royal Order of the Black Eagle

* Hessian Grand Ducal Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of the Golden Lion

* Thailand
Thailand
: Knight of the Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri * Greek Royal Family
Greek Royal Family
: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Redeemer * Greek Royal Family
Greek Royal Family
: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Saints George and Constantine * Portuguese Royal Family
Portuguese Royal Family
: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of the Tower and Sword
Order of the Tower and Sword
* Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
: Knight Grand Officer of the Order of Michael the Brave, 1st Class * Romanian Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Carol I * Spain
Spain
: Knight of the Spanish Royal Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece

* Russian Imperial Family : Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Imperial Order of Saint Andrew

* Georgian Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Eagle of Georgia

* Spain
Spain
: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Charles III * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
: Recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain

* Yugoslavian Royal Family : Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of the Star of Karađorđe

* Montenegrin Royal Family : Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Prince Danilo I, Special
Special
Class

ANCESTRY

ANCESTORS OF UMBERTO II OF ITALY

16. Charles Albert of Sardinia

8. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

17. Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria

4. Umberto I of Italy
Umberto I of Italy

18. Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria

9. Archduchess Adelaide of Austria

19. Princess Elisabeth of Savoy
Princess Elisabeth of Savoy

2. Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

20. Charles Albert of Sardinia (= 16)

10. Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa

21. Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (= 17)

5. Princess Margherita of Savoy
Margherita of Savoy

22. John of Saxony

11. Princess Elisabeth of Saxony
Princess Elisabeth of Saxony

23. Princess Amalie Auguste of Bavaria

1. UMBERTO II OF ITALY

24. Serdar Sava Petrović-Njegoš

12. Mirko Petrović-Njegoš, Veliki Vojvoda of Grahovo

25. Angelika Radamović

6. Nicholas I of Montenegro

26. Serdar Drago Martinović

13. Anastasija Martinović

27. Anastasia Ludović

3. Princess Elena of Montenegro

28. Serdar Petar Perkov Vukotić

14. Vojvoda Petar Vukotić
Petar Vukotić

29. Stania Milić

7. Milena Vukotić
Milena Vukotić

30. Tadija Voivodić

15. Jelena Voivodić

31. Milica Pavićević

PATRILINEAL ANCESTRY

* Humbert I of Savoy
Humbert I of Savoy
, 980–1047 * Otto of Savoy
Otto of Savoy
, 1015–1057 * Amadeus II of Savoy , 1039–1080 * Humbert II of Savoy
Humbert II of Savoy
, 1070–1103 * Amadeus III of Savoy , 1095–1148 * Humbert III of Savoy
Humbert III of Savoy
, 1135–1189 * Thomas I of Savoy
Thomas I of Savoy
, 1176–1233 * Thomas II, Count of Piedmont , 1199–1259 * Amadeus V, Count of Savoy , 1251–1323 * Aimone, Count of Savoy , 1291–1343 * Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy , 1334–1383 * Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy , 1360–1391 * Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy , 1383–1451 * Louis, Duke of Savoy
Louis, Duke of Savoy
, 1402–1465 * Philip II, Duke of Savoy
Philip II, Duke of Savoy
, 1438–1497 * Charles III, Duke of Savoy , 1486–1553 * Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy , 1528–1580 * Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
, 1562–1630 * Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano
Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano
, 1596–1656 * Emmanuel Philibert, Prince of Carignano
Emmanuel Philibert, Prince of Carignano
, 1628–1709 * Victor Amadeus I, Prince of Carignano
Victor Amadeus I, Prince of Carignano
, 1690–1741 * Louis Victor, Prince of Carignano , 1721–1778 * Victor Amadeus II, Prince of Carignano
Victor Amadeus II, Prince of Carignano
, 1743–1780 * Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano
Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano
, 1770–1800 * Charles Albert of Sardinia , 1798–1849 * Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
, 1820–1878 * Umberto I of Italy
Umberto I of Italy
, 1844–1900 * Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
, 1869–1947 * Umberto II of Italy, 1904–1983

SEE ALSO

* Benito Mussolini * Italian constitutional referendum, 1946 * List of shortest reigning monarchs of all time

REFERENCES

* ^ "Magnificent Monarchs" (Fact Attack series) p. 16 by Ian Locke ; published by MacMillan in 1999; ISBN 978-0330-374965 * ^ A B http://augusto.agid.gov.it/gazzette/index/download/id/1904243_PM * ^ A B R. J. B. Bosworth. Mussolini\'s Italy: Life Under the Fascist Dictatorship, 1915-1945. p. 48. Retrieved 2014-04-06. * ^ Peter Bridges. Safirka: An American Envoy. p. 71. Retrieved 2014-04-06. * ^ Burke\'s Royal Families of the World: Europe and Latin America (1977) * ^ Giovanni Dall'Orto in Aldrich, Robert; Wotherspoon, Garry Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History: From World War II to the Present Day, Routledge, London 2001, p452 * ^ A. Petacco, Regina: La vita e i segreti di Maria Jose, Milan, 1997 * ^ Enrico Montanari, La lotta di liberazione, cited in: Silvio Rossi, Il vizio segreto di Umberto di Savoia, Extra, I 1971 n. 4 (25 March), pp. 1–4. * ^ S. Bertoldi, L'ultimo re, l'ultima regina, Milan, 1992 * ^ http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-MJHQZYnEbbQ/UUWtzIAgH4I/AAAAAAAAEYw/qq4bg4uLnso/s1600/umberto-II.jpg * ^ A B C D Pinterest.com, King
King
Umberto wearing 4 Italian Orders * ^ http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-MJHQZYnEbbQ/UUWtzIAgH4I/AAAAAAAAEYw/qq4bg4uLnso/s1600/umberto-II.jpg * ^ A B C D gettyimages.com, King
King
Umberto as heir wearing 4 Italian Orders * ^ A B C D E F King
King
Umberto wearing 5 Italian and 1 Belgian Order(s) * ^ A B C D E alamy.com, King
King
Umberto wearing 5 Italian orders * ^ https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-A1_abnsfJqc/V4YsW39Fk7I/AAAAAAAAiMU/g71TzOuYNIEqEtcGGCAR0Sb8t6VbYdoiQCLcB/s1600/16-visit-T.M.%2BQueen%2BMaria%2BJose%2Band%2BKing%2BUmberto%2BII%2Bof%2BItaly.jpg * ^ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/fd/86/bf/fd86bf4acef804d02d3d203937894b36--royal-house.jpg * ^ http://c7.alamy.com/comp/J4TXGW/umberto-ii-J4TXGW.jpg * ^ http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7166/6737168935_d210d3a43c_o.jpg * ^ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/fd/b5/28/fdb528bc0c6ee9e7ff6ae80974ab888d.jpg * ^ http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-1ddd3knZ440/TmUUv31EK-I/AAAAAAAABEo/24CFsJRakGQ/s1600/img164.jpg * ^ http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3377/4641849242_ff3bb19a9c_o.jpg * ^ A B http://www.constantinian.org.uk/the-constantinian-orders-relationship-with-the-savoy-dynasty-of-italy/ * ^ http://c7.alamy.com/comp/H3WR51/photograph-of-umberto-ii-of-italy-1904-1983-the-last-king-of-italy-H3WR51.jpg * ^ A B C Pinterest.com, King
King
Umberto wearing Bulgarian, Yugoslavian and British Orders * ^ A B C D tumblr.com, King
King
Umberto wearing Greek and Spanish Orders * ^ http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-0pADmFOistw/UyOQySwB3NI/AAAAAAAADEo/d7xP_WZi3Gk/s1600/Zita+Imperatrice+d%60Austria.jpg * ^ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/ab/82/5b/ab825b6ca66ed96d332c760d43cc34a5.jpg * ^ http://i022.radikal.ru/0909/d9/5992db040178.jpg * ^ "Umberto I Biancamano, conte di Savoia".

ADDITIONAL READING

* Smith, Denis Mack (1 March 1992). Italy and Its Monarchy. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300051322 . * Katz, Robert (31 August 1972). The Fall of the House of Savoy (1st ed.). George Allen & Unwin Ltd. ISBN 978-0049450110 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to UMBERTO II OF ITALY .

* Genealogy of

.