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AL-HAJJ UMAR IBN SA\'ID AL-FUTI TAL (Arabic : حاج عمر بن سعيد طعل‎), (c. 1794–1864 CE ), Umar Saidou Tall, born in Futa Tooro , Senegambia, was a West African political leader, Islamic scholar, Tijani Sufi
Sufi
and Toucouleur military commander who founded a brief empire encompassing much of what is now Guinea
Guinea
, Senegal, and Mali
Mali
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Early life * 3 Initial conquests * 4 Conqueror of the Bambara * 5 Death and legacy * 6 Lineage of kingship * 7 References * 8 External links

NAME

Umar Tall's name is spelled variously: in particular, his first name is commonly transliterated in French as Omar; the patronymic , ibn Sa'id, is often omitted; and the final element of his name, Tall (Arabic: طعل‎), is spelt variously as Taal or Tal.

The honorific El Hadj (also al- Hajj
Hajj
or el-Hadj), reserved for a Muslim who has successfully made the Hajj
Hajj
to Mecca
Mecca
, almost always precedes Umar Tall's name. He also later took the honorifics Amir al-Mu\'minin , Khalifa
Khalifa
, Qutb
Qutb
(pole of the universe), vizier of the Mahdi
Mahdi
, Khalifat Khatim al-Awliya (successor of the seal of saints), and Almami (Imam).

EARLY LIFE

Umar bin Sa'id was born approximately in 1794 in Halwar in the Imamate of Futa Toro (present-day Senegal
Senegal
), Umar was the 10th of 12 children. His father was Saidou Tall, from the torodbe tribe, and his mother was Sokhna Adama Thiam. Umar Tall attended a madrassa before embarking on the Hajj
Hajj
in 1828, returning in 1830 as a marabout with the title El Hadj and was initiated into the Tijaniyya , and then assumed the khalifa of the Tijaniyya sufi brotherhood in the Sudan . El-Hadj took the Tijani honorific Khalifat Khatim al-Awliya. This authority would become the basis of his personal authority necessary to lead Africans.

When returning from the Hajj
Hajj
he camped near Damascus
Damascus
there he met Ibrahim Pasha
Pasha
, Umar Tal befriended the Pasha
Pasha
healed his son from a deadly fever, Umar Tal was highly inspired by the trends set by the Pasha. Settling in Sokoto from 1831-1837, he took several wives, one of whom was a daughter of the Fula Caliph of the Sokoto Caliphate , Muhammed Bello son of Uthman Dan Fodio . In 1836, El Hajj
Hajj
Umar Tall moved to the Imamate of Futa Jallon and then to Dinguiraye in 1840, in present-day Guinea
Guinea
, where he began preparations for his jihad . There he organized his followers into a professional army equipped with French weapons. In 1852 he proclaimed a jihad against pagans, lapsed Muslims, European intruders, and the backsliding rulers of Futa Toro and Futa Jallon.

El- Hajj
Hajj
Umar claimed a transcendental personal authority. He denied the important of adherence to a Madhhab
Madhhab
and favoured Ijtihad or personal religious judgment. He taught that a believer should follow the guidance of a Sufi
Sufi
Shaykh who has immediate personal knowledge of the divine truth. Even though Umar never took the title of either Mujaddid or Mahdi
Mahdi
, he was regarded as such by his followers. He became the torodbe ideal of religious revival and conquest of pagans.

INITIAL CONQUESTS

Umar appealed to the populace of Futa Toro on the basis of local grievances against the military elites. His community also appealed to rootless individuals of mixed ethnic background who found new social identity and opportunities for conquest under the aegis of Islam. His Jihad
Jihad
begain with the conquest of Futa Toro and by 1862 his empire included Timbuktu
Timbuktu
, Masina , Hamdallahi , and Segu .

In 1848, El Hajj
Hajj
Umar Tall's Toucouleur army, equipped with French weapons, invaded several neighboring, pagan, Malinké
Malinké
regions and met with immediate success. Umar Tall pressed on into what is today the region of Kayes in Mali, conquering a number of cities and building a tata (fortification ) near the city of Kayes that is today a popular tourist destination.

In April 1857, Umar Tall declared war on the Khasso
Khasso
kingdom. He came into conflict with the French who were attempting to establish their commercial supremacy along the Senegal
Senegal
river. Umar besieged the French colonial army at Medina Fort . The siege failed on July 18 of the same year when Louis Faidherbe , French governor of Senegal, arrived with relief forces. In 1860 Umar made a treaty with the French that recognized Umar and his followers sphere of influence in Futa Toro and assigned them the Bambara states of Kaarta
Kaarta
and Segu .

CONQUEROR OF THE BAMBARA

After his failure to defeat the French, El Hadj Umar Tall launched a series of assaults on the Bambara kingdoms of Kaarta
Kaarta
and Segu . The Kaarta
Kaarta
capital of Nioro du Sahel fell quickly to Umar Tall's mujahideen , followed by Ségou
Ségou
on March 10, 1861.

While Umar Tall's wars thus far had been against the animist Bambara or the Christian French, he now turned his attention to the smaller Islamic states of the region. Installing his son Ahmadu Tall
Ahmadu Tall
as imam of Segu, Umar Tall marched down the Niger , on the Massina imamate of Hamdullahi . More than 70,000 died in the three battles that followed until the final fall and destruction of Hamdullahi on March 16, 1862.

DEATH AND LEGACY

In quest of new territory, Umar and his followers invaded Masina . His enemies were lead by Ahmad al-Bakkai al-Kunti of the Qadari Sufi order. Ahmad denounced this as an illegitimate war of Muslims on Muslims and promoted a coalition of local states, including Masina and Timbuktu
Timbuktu
, to resist. Now controlling the entire Middle Niger, Umar Tall moved against Timbuktu
Timbuktu
, only to be repulsed in 1863 by combined forces of Tuaregs , Moors
Moors
, and Fulas . Meanwhile, a rebellion broke out in Hamdullahi under Ba Lobbo , cousin of executed Massina monarch Amadu III ; in 1864, Balobo's combined force of Fulas and Kountas drove Umar Tall's army from the city and into Bandiagara
Bandiagara
, where Umar Tall died in an explosion of his gunpowder reserves on February 12. His followers captured Hamdallahi and established a state that lasted until 1893. His nephew Tidiani Tall succeeded him as the Toucouleur emperor, though his son Ahmadu Tall
Ahmadu Tall
did much of the work to keep the empire intact from Ségou. However, the French continued to advance, finally entering Ségou
Ségou
itself in 1890. The Jihad
Jihad
state was simply absorbed into the growing French West African empire.

El Hadj Umar Tall remains a prominent figure in Senegal, Guinea, and Mali, though his legacy varies by country. Where many Senegalese tend to remember him as a hero of anti-French resistance, Malian sources tend to describe him as an invader who prepared the way for the French by weakening West Africa. Umar Tall also figures prominently in Maryse Condé 's historical novel Segu. He remains to this day an influential figure in the Tijaniyya and other reformist movements, which stressed the importance of Muslim orthopraxy. Umar's state forbade dancing, the use of tobacco, alcohol, charms, pagan ceremonies, and the worship of idols. Many un-Islamic practices were banned. These laws were also very strictly enforced, especially the ban on alcohol. Umar abolished uncanonical taxes and replaced them with zakat , land taxes, and jizya . Polygamists were restricted to only four wives. Umar, however, was uninterested in the logistical aspects of inculcating Islam such as building courts, madrassahs, and mosques. The primary function of Umar's state was predatory warfare, slaving, the accumulation of booty, and the reform of morals.

LINEAGE OF KINGSHIP

Preceded by none LEADER OF THE TOUCOULEUR EMPIRE 1850–1864 Succeeded by Ahmadu Tall
Ahmadu Tall

Preceded by Bamana Empire FAAMA OF SéGOU 1861–1864 Succeeded by Ahmadu Tall
Ahmadu Tall

REFERENCES

This article is based on a translation of the corresponding article from the French, retrieved on July 1, 2005, which in turn cites the following sources:

* David Robinson, The Holy War of Umar Tal (Oxford University Press) * Le temps des marabouts Itinéraires et stratégies islamiques en Afrique occidentale française (collectif) (Editions Karthala).

ENGLISH LANGUAGE SOURCE:

* Davidson, Basil. Africa in History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. * Robinson, David, The Holy War of Umar Tal. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985 * B. O. Oloruntimeehin. The Segu Tukulor Empire. New York: Humanities Press (1972). SBN 391002066 * Lapidus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Societies. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014. pg 472-473 * Wise, Christopher. The Desert Shore: Literatures of the Sahel. Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner, 2001. * Wise, Christopher. Yambo Ouologuem: Postcolonial Writer, Islamic Militant. Boulder ">

* ^ Lapidus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Socities. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014. pg 472-473 * ^ Malise Ruthven (1997). Islam: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-19-285389-9 . * ^ Lapidus * ^ Robinson, David (1985). The Holy War of Umar Tal: The Western Sudan in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. pp. 67–71. * ^ Robinson, David (1987). "The Umarian Emigration of the Late Nineteenth Century". The International Journal of African Historical Studies . 20 (2): 97–99. * ^ Lapidus * ^ Lapidus * ^ Lapidus * ^ Lapidus * ^ Fula : Fulɓe; French : Peul * ^ Lapidus * ^ Lapidus

EXTERNAL LINKS

* African Legends page