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Patron Saints: Finnian of Moville[1] Columba a. ^ The Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Statistics and Research Agency[2] for 2011 combined with the preliminary results of Census of Ireland 2011 for Ulster
Ulster
(part of).[3] b. ^ Ulster
Ulster
contains all of the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
constituency (3 MEPs) as well as part of the Midlands–North-West constituency (4 MEPs); the counties of Cavan, Monaghan and Donegal contain 17.5% of the population of this constituency.[4]

Ulster
Ulster
(/ˈʌlstər/; Irish: Ulaidh pronounced [ˈul̪ˠəi] or Cúige Uladh pronounced [ˈkuːɟə ˈul̪ˠə], Ulster
Ulster
Scots: Ulstèr[5][6][7] or Ulster)[8][9][10] is a former province in the north of the island of Ireland. It was made up of nine counties, six of which are in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(a part of the United Kingdom) and three of which are in the Republic of Ireland. It is the second largest (after Munster) and second most populous (after Leinster) of Ireland's four provinces, with Belfast
Belfast
being its biggest city. Unlike the other provinces, Ulster
Ulster
has a high percentage of Protestants. English is the main language and Ulster English
Ulster English
the main dialect. Lough Neagh, in the east, is the largest lake in the British Isles, while Lough Erne
Lough Erne
in the west is one of its largest lake networks. The main mountain ranges are the Mournes, Sperrins, Croaghgorms and Derryveagh Mountains. Historically, Ulster
Ulster
lay at the heart of the Gaelic world made up of Gaelic Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man. According to tradition, in ancient Ireland
Ireland
it was one of the fifths (Irish: cúige) ruled by a rí ruirech, or "king of over-kings". It is named after the overkingdom of Ulaid, in the east of the province, which was in turn named after the Ulaid
Ulaid
folk. The other overkingdoms in Ulster
Ulster
were Airgíalla
Airgíalla
and Ailech. After the Norman invasion of Ireland
Ireland
in the 12th century, eastern Ulster
Ulster
was conquered by the Anglo-Normans
Anglo-Normans
and became the Earldom of Ulster. By the late 14th century the Earldom had collapsed and the O'Neill dynasty
O'Neill dynasty
had come to dominate most of Ulster, claiming the title King of Ulster. Ulster
Ulster
became the most thoroughly Gaelic and independent of Ireland's provinces. Its rulers resisted English encroachment but were defeated in the Nine Years' War (1594–1603). King James I then colonized Ulster
Ulster
with English-speaking Protestant
Protestant
settlers from Britain, in the Plantation of Ulster. This led to the founding of many of Ulster's towns. The inflow of Protestant
Protestant
settlers and migrants also led to bouts of sectarian violence with Catholics, notably during the 1641 rebellion and the Armagh
Armagh
disturbances. Along with the rest of Ireland, Ulster became part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1801. In the early 20th century, moves towards Irish self-rule were opposed by many Ulster
Ulster
Protestants, sparking the Home Rule Crisis. This, and the subsequent Irish War of Independence, led to the partition of Ireland. Six Ulster
Ulster
counties became Northern Ireland, a self-governing territory within the United Kingdom, while the rest of Ireland
Ireland
became the Irish Free State, now the Republic of Ireland. Ulster
Ulster
has no official function for local government purposes in either country. However, for the purposes of ISO 3166-2, Ulster
Ulster
is used to refer to the three counties of Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan only, which are given country sub-division code "IE-U".[11]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Geography and political sub-divisions

2.1 County-based sub-divisions 2.2 Council-based sub-divisions 2.3 Largest settlements

3 Economy 4 Physical geography 5 Transport

5.1 Air 5.2 Rail

6 Languages and dialects 7 History

7.1 Early history 7.2 Plantations and civil wars 7.3 Emigration 7.4 Republicanism, rebellion and communal strife 7.5 Industrialisation, Home Rule and partition 7.6 1920 to present

8 Wildlife

8.1 History

9 Sport 10 Further reading 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Terminology[edit] The name Ulster
Ulster
has several possible derivations: from the Norse name "Uladztir", which is an adaptation of Ulaidh and tir, the Irish for "land";[12] or similarly it may be derived from Ulaidh plus the Norse genitive s followed by the Irish tir.[13] It has also been suggested to have derived from Uladh plus the Norse suffix ster (meaning place), which was common in the Shetland Islands
Shetland Islands
and Norway.[14][15] The Irish name, Cúige Uladh, means the "province of the Ulaid" (Ulaidh in modern Irish), with the term cúige formerly referring to a fifth. The Ulaidh were a group of tribes who dwelt in the region. Ulaidh has historically been anglicised as Ulagh or Ullagh[16] and Latinised as Ulidia or Ultonia.[17] The latter two have yielded the terms Ulidian and Ultonian. The Irish word for someone or something from Ulster
Ulster
is Ultach, and this can be found in the surnames MacNulty, MacAnulty, and Nulty, which all derive from Mac an Ultaigh, meaning "son of the Ulsterman".[18] Words that have been used in English are Ullish and Ulsterman/Ulsterwoman. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is often referred to as Ulster,[19] despite including only six of Ulster's nine counties. This usage is most common amongst people in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
who are unionist,[20] although it is also used by the media throughout the United Kingdom.[21][22] Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster
Ulster
in this context.[20] Geography and political sub-divisions[edit]

Ulster
Ulster
(coloured), showing Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in orange and the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
part in green

Ulster
Ulster
has a population of just over 2 million people and an area of 21,552 square kilometres (8,321 sq mi). About 62% of the area of Ulster
Ulster
is in the UK while the remaining 38% is in the Republic of Ireland. Ulster's biggest city, Belfast, has an urban population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city on the island of Ireland
Ireland
and the 10th largest urban area in the UK. Six of Ulster's nine counties, Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone, including the former parliamentary boroughs of Belfast
Belfast
and Londonderry, form Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
which remained part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
after the partition of Ireland
Ireland
in 1921. Three Ulster
Ulster
counties – Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland. About half of Ulster's population lives in counties Antrim and Down. Across the nine counties, according to the aggregate UK 2011 Census for Northern Ireland, and the ROI 2011 Census for counties Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan, there is a Roman Catholic majority over Protestant
Protestant
of 50.8% to 42.7%.[23] While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland, this is no longer the case in Northern Ireland. Since 1974, the traditional counties have a ceremonial role only. Local government in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is today demarcated by 11 districts. County-based sub-divisions[edit]

County Population Area

County Antrim
County Antrim
(Contae Aontroma; Coontie Anthrim/Antrìm/Antrim/Entrim) 618,108 3,046 km2 (1,176 sq mi)

County Armagh
County Armagh
(Contae Ard Mhacha; Coontie Airmagh/Armagh) 174,792 1,254 km2 (484 sq mi)

County Cavan
County Cavan
(Contae an Chabháin) 73,183 1,931 km2 (746 sq mi)

County Donegal
County Donegal
(Contae Dhún na nGall/Thír Chonaill; Coontie Dunnygal/Dinnygal) 161,137 4,861 km2 (1,877 sq mi)

County Down
County Down
(Contae an Dúin; Coontie Doon/Doun) 531,665 2,466 km2 (952 sq mi)

County Fermanagh
County Fermanagh
(Contae Fhear Manach; Coontie Fermanagh/Fermanay) 61,170 1,691 km2 (653 sq mi)

County Londonderry
County Londonderry
(Contae Dhoire; Coontie Loonenderrie) 247,132 2,075 km2 (801 sq mi)

County Monaghan
County Monaghan
(Contae Mhuineacháin) 60,483 1,295 km2 (500 sq mi)

County Tyrone
County Tyrone
(Contae Thír Eoghain; Coontie Tyrone/Owenslann) 177,986 3,263 km2 (1,260 sq mi)

Grand Total 2,105,656 21,882 km2 (8,449 sq mi)

Counties shaded in grey are in the Republic of Ireland. Counties shaded in pink are in Northern Ireland. Council-based sub-divisions[edit]

District Council

County Cavan Cavan County Council

County Donegal Donegal County Council

County Monaghan Monaghan County Council

Fermanagh and Omagh Fermanagh and Omagh
Fermanagh and Omagh
District Council

Derry
Derry
and Strabane Derry and Strabane
Derry and Strabane
District Council

Mid-Ulster Mid-Ulster District
Mid-Ulster District
Council

Causeway Coast and Glens Causeway Coast and Glens
Causeway Coast and Glens
District Council

Mid and East Antrim Mid and East Antrim
Mid and East Antrim
District Council

Antrim and Newtownabbey Antrim and Newtownabbey
Antrim and Newtownabbey
Borough Council

Ards and North Down Ards and North Down
Ards and North Down
Borough Council

Armagh, Banbridge
Banbridge
and Craigavon Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon
Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon
District Council

Lisburn
Lisburn
and Castlereagh Lisburn and Castlereagh
Lisburn and Castlereagh
City Council

Newry, Mourne and Down Newry, Mourne and Down
Newry, Mourne and Down
District Council

Belfast Belfast
Belfast
City Council

Largest settlements[edit] Settlements in Ulster
Ulster
with at least 14,000 inhabitants, listed in order of population:

Belfast
Belfast
(480,000) Derry
Derry
(105,000) Lisburn
Lisburn
(75,000) Craigavon
Craigavon
(65,000) Bangor (58,400) Ballymena
Ballymena
(28,700) Newtownards
Newtownards
(27,800) Newry
Newry
(27,400) Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus
(27,200) Coleraine
Coleraine
(25,000) Antrim (20,000) Omagh
Omagh
(19,800) Letterkenny
Letterkenny
(19,600) Larne
Larne
(18,200) Banbridge
Banbridge
(14,700) Armagh
Armagh
(14,500)

Economy[edit] The GDP of the province of Ulster
Ulster
is around €50 billion. Salary levels are the lowest on the island of Ireland.

Area Population Country Largest settlement GDP € GDP per person €

Greater Belfast 720,000 NI Belfast €20.9 bn €33,550

Border Region (includes three non- Ulster
Ulster
counties) 430,000 (roughly half in Ulster) ROI Letterkenny €10.7 bn €21,100

East of Northern Ireland 430,000 NI Ballymena €9.5 bn €20,300

North of Northern Ireland 280,000 NI Derry €5.5 bn €18,400

West and South of Northern Ireland 400,000 NI Newry €8.4 bn €19,300

[24] Physical geography[edit] The biggest lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, lies in eastern Ulster. The province's highest point, Slieve Donard
Slieve Donard
(848 metres (2,782 ft)), stands in County Down. The most northerly point in Ireland, Malin Head, is in County Donegal, as are the sixth-highest (601 metres (1,972 ft)) sea cliffs in Europe, at Slieve League, and the province's largest island, Arranmore. The most easterly point in Ireland
Ireland
is also in Ulster, in County Down, and the most westerly point in the UK is in County Fermanagh. The longest river in the British Isles, the Shannon, rises at the Shannon Pot
Shannon Pot
in County Cavan with underground tributaries from County Fermanagh. Volcanic activity in eastern Ulster
Ulster
led to the formation of the Antrim Plateau
Antrim Plateau
and the Giant's Causeway, one of Ireland's three UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. Ulster
Ulster
also has a significant drumlin belt. The geographical centre of Ulster
Ulster
lies between the villages of Pomeroy and Carrickmore
Carrickmore
in County Tyrone. In terms of area, County Donegal
County Donegal
is the largest county in all of Ulster.

At White Park Bay

Countryside west of Ballynahinch

Mourne country cottage

Downshire Bridge Crossing the bay to Murlough

Cattle near Six Road Ends Seen from the Kirkistown to Ballyeaseborough Road

The Twelve Arches near Dundrum

The track of the County Donegal
County Donegal
Railways Joint Committee (CDRJC) restored next to Lough Finn, near Fintown station.

Wild Goats on Binnein Fithich

The approach of autumn, Tardree forest

Transport[edit] Air[edit] The province's main airport is Belfast
Belfast
International Airport (popularly called Aldergrove Airport), which is located at Aldergrove, 11.5 miles northwest of Belfast
Belfast
near Antrim. George Best Belfast
Belfast
City Airport (sometimes referred to as "the City Airport" or "the Harbour Airport") is another, smaller airport which is located at Sydenham in Belfast. The City of Derry
Derry
Airport is located at Eglinton, 13 kilometres (8 mi) east of the city of Derry. There is also Donegal Airport
Donegal Airport
(Irish: Aerfort Dhún na nGall), popularly known as Carrickfinn Airport, which is located in The Rosses. Rail[edit] Railway lines are run by Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Railways (NIR). Belfast
Belfast
to Bangor and Belfast
Belfast
to Lisburn
Lisburn
are strategically the most important routes on the network with the greatest number of passengers and largest profit margins. The Belfast- Derry
Derry
railway line connecting Londonderry railway station, via Coleraine, Ballymoney, Ballymena
Ballymena
and Antrim, with Belfast
Belfast
Central and Belfast
Belfast
Great Victoria Street is a noted scenic route. Belfast
Belfast
is also connected with Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus
and Larne
Larne
Harbour, Portadown, Newry
Newry
and onwards, via the Enterprise service jointly operated by NIR and Iarnród Éireann, to Dublin Connolly. The main railway lines linking to and from Belfast
Belfast
Great Victoria Street and Belfast
Belfast
Central are:

The Derry
Derry
Line and the Portrush Branch The Larne
Larne
Line The Bangor Line The Portadown Line

Only five Irish counties, all in Southern and Western Ulster, currently have no mainline railway. The historic Great Northern Railway of Ireland
Ireland
connected them. They are Cavan, Monaghan, Fermanagh, Tyrone and Donegal. A plan to re-link Sligo
Sligo
and Derry through Donegal has been postponed until at least 2030.[25] Languages and dialects[edit] Main articles: Ulster
Ulster
Irish, Mid Ulster
Ulster
English, and Ulster
Ulster
Scots dialects Most people in Ulster
Ulster
speak English. English is taught in all schools in the province; Irish (Gaeilge) is taught in all schools in the counties that are part of the Republic, and in schools in Northern Ireland, almost exclusively in the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Irish-medium sectors. In responses to the 2001 census in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
10% of the population had "some knowledge of Irish"[26] and 4.7% could "speak, read, write and understand" Irish.[26] Large parts of County Donegal are Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
areas where Irish is the first language and some people in west Belfast
Belfast
also speak Irish, especially in the "Gaeltacht Quarter".[27] The dialect of Irish most commonly spoken in Ulster (especially throughout Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and County Donegal) is Gaeilge Thír Chonaill or Donegal Irish, also known as Gaeilge Uladh or Ulster Irish. Donegal Irish has many similarities to Scottish Gaelic. Polish is the third most common language. Ulster
Ulster
Scots dialects, sometimes known by the neologism Ullans, are also spoken in Counties Down, Antrim, Londonderry and Donegal.[28]

History[edit] Early history[edit] Further information: History of Ireland

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Ulster
Ulster
is one of the four Irish provinces. Its name derives from the Irish language
Irish language
Cúige Uladh (pronounced "Kooi-gah UH-loo"), meaning "fifth of the Ulaidh", named for the ancient inhabitants of the region. The province's early story extends further back than written records and survives mainly in legends such as the Ulster
Ulster
Cycle. The archaeology of Ulster, formerly called Ulandia, gives examples of "ritual enclosures", such as the "Giant's Ring" near Belfast, which is an earth bank about 590 feet (180 m) in diameter and 15 feet (4.5 m) high, in the centre of which there is a dolmen.[29] In 637, the Battle of Moira, known archaically as the Battle of Magh Rath, was fought by the Gaelic High King of Ireland
Ireland
Domhnall II against his foster son King Conghal of Ulster, supported by his ally Domhnall the Freckled (Domhnall Brecc) of Dalriada. The battle was fought near the Woods of Killultagh, just outside the village of Moira in what would become County Down. It was allegedly the largest battle ever fought on the island of Ireland, and resulted in the death of Conghal and the retreat of Domhnall Brecc. In early medieval Ireland, a branch of the Northern Uí Néill, the Cenél nEógain of the province of Ailech, gradually eroded the territory of the province of Ulaidh until it lay east of the River Bann. The Cenél nEógain would make Tír Eóghain (most of which forms modern County Tyrone) their base. Among the High Kings of Ireland
Ireland
were Áed Findliath (died 879), Niall Glúndub (died 919), and Domnall ua Néill (died 980), all of the Cenél nEógain. The province of Ulaidh would survive restricted to the east of modern Ulster
Ulster
until the Norman invasion in the late 12th century. It would only once more become a province of Ireland
Ireland
in the mid-14th century after the collapse of the Norman Earldom of Ulster, when the O'Neills who had come to dominate the Northern Uí Néill
Northern Uí Néill
stepped into the power vacuum and staked a claim for the first time the title of "king of Ulster" along with the Red Hand of Ulster
Red Hand of Ulster
symbol. It was then that the provinces of Ailech, Airgialla, and Ulaidh would all merge largely into what would become the modern province of Ulster.

A bronze statue commemorating The Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
at Rathmullan
Rathmullan
in north County Donegal.

Domnall Ua Lochlainn
Domnall Ua Lochlainn
(died 1121) and Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn (died 1166) were of this dynasty. The Meic Lochlainn were in 1241 overthrown by their kin, the clan Ó Néill (see O'Neill
O'Neill
dynasty). The Ó Néill's were from then on established as Ulster's most powerful Gaelic family. The Ó Domhnaill (O'Donnell) dynasty were Ulster's second most powerful clan from the early thirteenth-century through to the beginning of the seventeenth-century. The O'Donnells ruled over Tír Chonaill (most of modern County Donegal) in West Ulster. After the Norman invasion of Ireland
Ireland
in the twelfth century, the east of the province fell by conquest to Norman barons, first De Courcy (died 1219), then Hugh de Lacy (1176–1243), who founded the Earldom of Ulster
Ulster
based on the modern counties of Antrim and Down. In the 1600s Ulster
Ulster
was the last redoubt of the traditional Gaelic way of life, and following the defeat of the Irish forces in the Nine Years War (1594–1603) at the battle of Kinsale (1601), Elizabeth I's English forces succeeded in subjugating Ulster
Ulster
and all of Ireland. The Gaelic leaders of Ulster, the O'Neills and O'Donnells, finding their power under English suzerainty limited, decamped en masse in 1607 (the Flight of the Earls) to Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Europe. This allowed the English Crown
English Crown
to plant Ulster
Ulster
with more loyal English and Scottish planters, a process which began in earnest in 1610. Plantations and civil wars[edit] The Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
(Irish: Plandáil Uladh) was the organised colonisation (or plantation) of Ulster
Ulster
by people from Great Britain (especially Presbyterians
Presbyterians
from Scotland). Private plantation by wealthy landowners began in 1606,[30][31][32] while the official plantation controlled by King James I of England
James I of England
(who was also King James VI of Scots) began in 1609. All land owned by Irish chieftains, the Ó Neills and Ó Donnells (along with those of their supporters), who fought against the English Crown
English Crown
in the Nine Years War, were confiscated and used to settle the colonists. The Counties Tyrconnell, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan, Coleraine
Coleraine
and Armagh
Armagh
comprised the official Colony.[33] However, most of the counties, including the most heavily colonised Counties Antrim and Down, were privately colonised.[30][31][32] These counties, though not officially designated as subject to Plantation, had suffered violent depopulation during the previous wars and proved attractive to Private Colonialists from nearby Britain. The official reason for the Plantation
Plantation
is said to have been to pay for the costly Nine Years' War,[34] but this view was not shared by all in the English government of the time, most notably the English Crown-appointed Attorney-General for Ireland
Ireland
in 1609, Sir John Davies:

A barbarous country must be first broken by a war before it will be capable of good government ; and when it is fully subdued and conquered, if it be not well planted and governed after the conquest, it will eftsoons return to the former barbarism.[35]

The Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
continued well into the 18th century, interrupted only by the Irish Rebellion of 1641. This Rebellion was initially led by Sir Phelim O'Neill
O'Neill
(Irish: Sir Féilim Ó Néill), and was intended to overthrow British rule rapidly, but quickly degenerated into attacks on colonists, in which dispossessed Irish slaughtered thousands of the colonists. In the ensuing wars (1641–1653, fought against the background of civil war in England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland), Ulster
Ulster
became a battleground between the Colonialists
Colonialists
and the native Irish. In 1646, an Irish army under command by Owen Roe O'Neill
O'Neill
(Irish: Eoghan Ruadh Ó Néill) inflicted a defeat on a Scottish Covenanter
Covenanter
army at Benburb in County Tyrone, but the native Irish forces failed to follow up their victory and the war lapsed into stalemate. The war in Ulster
Ulster
ended with the defeat of the native army at the Battle of Scarrifholis, near Newmills on the western outskirts of Letterkenny, County Donegal, in 1650, as part of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Ireland
conducted by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and the New Model Army, the aim of which was to expel all native Irish to the Province of Connaught.[36] Forty years later, in 1688–1691, the Williamite
Williamite
War was fought, the belligerents of which were the Williamites and Jacobites. The war was partly due to a dispute over who was the rightful claimant to the British Throne, and thus the supreme monarch of the nascent British Empire. However, the war was also a part of the greater War of the Grand Alliance, fought between King Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
and his allies, and a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance, led by Prince William of Orange and Emperor Leopold I of the Holy Roman Empire, supported by the Vatican and many other states. The Grand Alliance was a cross-denominational alliance designed to stop French eastward colonialist expansion under Louis XIV, with whom King James II was allied. The majority of Irish people were "Jacobites" and supported James II due to his 1687 Declaration of Indulgence or, as it is also known, The Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, that granted religious freedom to all denominations in England and Scotland
Scotland
and also due to James II's promise to the Irish Parliament of an eventual right to self-determination.[37][38] However, James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution, and the majority of Ulster
Ulster
Colonialists (Williamites) backed William of Orange. It is of note that both the Williamite
Williamite
and Jacobite armies were religiously mixed; William of Orange's own elite forces, the Dutch Blue Guards had a papal banner with them during the invasion, many of them being Dutch Roman Catholics.[39] At the start of the war, Irish Jacobites controlled most of Ireland for James II, with the exception of the Williamite
Williamite
strongholds at Derry
Derry
and at Enniskillen
Enniskillen
in Ulster. The Jacobites besieged Derry
Derry
from December 1688 to July 1689, ending when a Williamite
Williamite
army from Britain relieved the city. The Williamites based in Enniskillen
Enniskillen
defeated another Jacobite army at the battle of Newtownbutler on 28 July 1689. Thereafter, Ulster
Ulster
remained firmly under Williamite
Williamite
control and William's forces completed their conquest of the rest of Ireland
Ireland
in the next two years. The war provided Protestant
Protestant
loyalists with the iconic victories of the Siege of Derry, the Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne
(1 July 1690) and the Battle of Aughrim
Battle of Aughrim
(12 July 1691), all of which the Orange Order
Orange Order
commemorate each year. The Williamites' victory in this war ensured British rule in Ireland for over 200 years. The Protestant
Protestant
Ascendancy in Ireland
Ireland
excluded most of Ulster's population from having any Civil power on religious grounds. Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
(descended from the indigenous Irish) and Presbyterians
Presbyterians
(mainly descended from Scottish colonists) both suffered discrimination under the Penal Laws, which gave full political rights only to Anglican
Anglican
Protestants (mostly descended from English settlers). In the 1690s, Scottish Presbyterians
Presbyterians
became a majority in Ulster, due to a large influx of them into the Province. Emigration[edit] Considerable numbers of Ulster-Scots emigrated to the North American colonies throughout the 18th century (160,000 settled in what would become the United States between 1717 and 1770 alone). Disdaining (or forced out of) the heavily English regions on the Atlantic coast, most groups of Ulster-Scots settlers crossed into the "western mountains," where their descendants populated the Appalachian regions and the Ohio Valley. Here they lived on the frontiers of America, carving their own world out of the wilderness. The Scots-Irish soon became the dominant culture of the Appalachians from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to Georgia. Author (and US Senator) Jim Webb
Jim Webb
puts forth a thesis in his book Born Fighting to suggest that the character traits he ascribes to the Scots-Irish such as loyalty to kin, mistrust of governmental authority, and a propensity to bear arms, helped shape the American identity. In the United States Census, 2000, 4.3 million Americans claimed Scots-Irish ancestry. Interestingly, the areas where the most Americans reported themselves in the 2000 Census only as "American" with no further qualification (e.g. Kentucky, north-central Texas, and many other areas in the Southern US) are largely the areas where many Scots-Irish settled, and are in complementary distribution with the areas which most heavily report Scots-Irish ancestry. According to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, 400,000 people in the US were of Irish birth or ancestry in 1790 when the first US Census counted 3,100,000 white Americans. According to the encyclopaedia, half of these Irish Americans were descended from Ulster, and half from the other three provinces of Ireland.[citation needed] Republicanism, rebellion and communal strife[edit]

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Most of the 18th century saw a calming of sectarian tensions in Ulster. The economy of the province improved, as small producers exported linen and other goods. Belfast
Belfast
developed from a village into a bustling provincial town. However, this did not stop many thousands of Ulster
Ulster
people from emigrating to British North America
British North America
in this period, where they became known as "Scots Irish" or "Scotch-Irish".[citation needed] Political tensions resurfaced, albeit in a new form, towards the end of the 18th century. In the 1790s many Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
and Presbyterians, in opposition to Anglican
Anglican
domination and inspired by the American and French revolutions joined together in the United Irishmen movement. This group (founded in Belfast) dedicated itself to founding a non-sectarian and independent Irish republic. The United Irishmen had particular strength in Belfast, Antrim and Down. Paradoxically however, this period also saw much sectarian violence between Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
and Protestants, principally members of the Church of Ireland
Ireland
(Anglicans, who practised the British state religion and had rights denied to both Presbyterians
Presbyterians
and Roman Catholics), notably the "Battle of the Diamond" in 1795, a faction fight between the rival "Defenders" (Roman Catholic) and "Peep O'Day Boys" (Anglican), which led to over 100 deaths and to the founding of the Orange Order. This event, and many others like it, came about with the relaxation of the Penal Laws and Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
began to be allowed to purchase land and involve themselves in the linen trade (activities which previously had involved many onerous restrictions). Protestants, including some Presbyterians, who in some parts of the province had come to identify with the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
community, used violence to intimidate Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
who tried to enter the linen trade. Estimates suggest that up to 7000 Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
suffered expulsion from Ulster
Ulster
during this violence. Many of them settled in northern Connacht. These refugees' linguistic influence still survives in the dialects of Irish spoken in Mayo, which have many similarities to Ulster Irish
Ulster Irish
not found elsewhere in Connacht. Loyalist militias, primarily Anglicans, also used violence against the United Irishmen and against Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Protestant
Protestant
republicans throughout the province. In 1798 the United Irishmen, led by Henry Joy McCracken, launched a rebellion in Ulster, mostly supported by Presbyterians. But the British authorities swiftly put down the rebellion and employed severe repression after the fighting had ended. In the wake of the failure of this rebellion, and following the gradual abolition of official religious discrimination after the Act of Union in 1800, Presbyterians came to identify more with the State and with their Anglican neighbours, due to their civil rights now being respected by both the state and their Anglican
Anglican
neighbours. The 1859 Ulster Revival was a major Christian revival
Christian revival
that spread throughout Ulster. Industrialisation, Home Rule and partition[edit]

Royal Avenue, Belfast. Photochrom
Photochrom
print circa 1890–1900.

In the 19th century, Ulster
Ulster
had the only large-scale industrialisation and became the most prosperous province on the island. In the latter part of the century, Belfast
Belfast
briefly overtook Dublin
Dublin
as the island's largest city. Belfast
Belfast
became famous in this period for its huge dockyards and shipbuilding — and notably for the construction of the RMS Titanic. Sectarian
Sectarian
divisions in Ulster
Ulster
became hardened into the political categories of unionist (supporters of the Union with Britain; mostly, but not exclusively, Protestant) and nationalist (advocates of repeal of the 1800 Act of Union, usually, though not exclusively, Roman Catholic). Northern Ireland's current politics originate from these late 19th century disputes over Home Rule that would have devolved some powers of government to Ireland, and which Ulster
Ulster
Protestants usually opposed—fearing for their religious rights calling it "Rome Rule" in an autonomous Roman Catholic-dominated Ireland
Ireland
and also not trusting politicians from the agrarian south and west to support the more industrial economy of Ulster. This lack of trust, however, was largely unfounded as during the 19th and early 20th century important industries in the southern most region of Cork included brewing, distilling, wool and like Belfast, shipbuilding.[40]

Thousands of unionists, led by the Dublin-born barrister Sir Edward Carson and James Craig, signed the " Ulster
Ulster
Covenant" of 1912 pledging to resist Home Rule. This movement also set up the Ulster
Ulster
Volunteer Force (UVF). In April 1914, the UVF assisted with the landing of 30,000 German rifles with 3,000,000 rounds at Larne
Larne
by blockading authorities. (See Larne
Larne
gunrunning). The Curragh Incident showed it would be difficult to use the British army to enforce home rule from Dublin
Dublin
on Ulster's unionist minority. In response, Irish republicans created the Irish Volunteers, part of which became the forerunner of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) — to seek to ensure the passing of the Home Rule Bill. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, 200,000 Irishmen, both Southern and Northern, of all religious sects volunteered to serve in the British Army. This had the effect of interrupting the armed stand-off in Ireland. As the war progressed, in Ireland, opposition to the War grew stronger, reaching its peak in 1918 when the British government proposed laws to extend conscription to all able bodied Irishmen during the Conscription Crisis. In the aftermath of World War I, the political party Sinn Féin ("Ourselves") won the majority of votes in the Irish general election, 1918, this political party pursued a policy of complete independent self-determination for the island of Ireland
Ireland
as outlined in the Sinn Féin campaign Manifesto of 1918, a great deal more than the devolved government/ Home Rule advocated by the (I.P.P)Irish Parliamentary Party. Following the Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
victory in these elections the Irish Declaration of Independence was penned and Irish republicans launched a guerrilla campaign against British rule in what became the Irish War of Independence (January 1919 – July 1921). The fighting in Ulster during the Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
generally took the form of street battles between Protestants and Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
in the city of Belfast. Estimates suggest that about 600 civilians died in this communal violence, the majority of them (58%) Roman Catholics. The IRA remained relatively quiescent in Ulster, with the exception of the south Armagh
Armagh
area, where Frank Aiken
Frank Aiken
led it. A lot of IRA activity also took place at this time in County Donegal
County Donegal
and the City of Derry, where one of the main Republican leaders was Peadar O'Donnell. Hugh O'Doherty, a Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
politician, was elected mayor of Derry
Derry
at this time. In the First Dáil, which was elected in late 1918, Prof. Eoin Mac Néill served as the Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
T.D. for Derry
Derry
city. 1920 to present[edit] Main article: History of Northern Ireland See also: Demographics and politics of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and Politics of the Republic of Ireland Partition of Ireland, first mooted in 1912, was introduced with the enactment of the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1920, which gave a form of "Home rule" self-government to two areas, Southern Ireland, with its capital at Dublin, and "Northern Ireland", consisting of six of Ulster's central and eastern counties, both within a continuing United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Dissatisfaction with this led to the Irish War of Independence, which formally ceased on 11 July 1921. Low-level violence, however, continued in Ulster, causing Michael Collins in the south to order a boycott of Northern products in protest at attacks on the Nationalist community there. The Partition was effectively confirmed by the Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
of 6 December 1921. One of the primary stipulations of the treaty was the transformation of Ireland
Ireland
into a self-governing British dominion called the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(which later became the sovereign Republic of Ireland), but with the option of a continuation of the home rule institution of Northern Ireland, still within the United Kingdom, if the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Parliament (already in existence) chose to opt out of the Irish Free State. All parties knew that this was certain to be the choice of the Ulster
Ulster
Unionists who had a majority in the parliament, and immediately on the creation of the Free State they resolved to leave it. Following the Anglo Irish treaty, the exact border between the new dominion of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and the future Northern Ireland, if it chose to opt out, was to be decided by the Irish Boundary Commission. This did not announce its findings until 1925, when the line was again drawn around six of Ulster's nine counties, with no change from the partition of 1920. Electorally, voting in the six Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
counties of Ulster tends to follow religious or sectarian lines; noticeable religious demarcation does not exist in the South Ulster
Ulster
counties of Cavan and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland. County Donegal
County Donegal
is largely a Roman Catholic county, but with a large Protestant
Protestant
minority. Generally, Protestants in Donegal vote for the political party Fine Gael("Family of the Irish").[41] However, religious sectarianism in politics has largely disappeared from the rest of the Republic of Ireland. This was illustrated when Erskine H. Childers, a Church of Ireland
Ireland
member and Teachta Dála (TD, a member of the lower house of the National Parliament) who had represented Monaghan, won election as President after having served as a long-term minister under Fianna Fáil Taoisigh Éamon de Valera, Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
and Jack Lynch. The Orange Order
Orange Order
freely organises in counties Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan, with several Orange parades taking place throughout County Donegal each year. The only major Orange Order
Orange Order
march in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
takes place every July in the village of Rossnowlagh, near Ballyshannon, in the south of County Donegal. As of 2017[update], Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
has seven Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
members of parliament, all members of Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
(of a total of 18 from the whole of Northern Ireland) in the British House of Commons
British House of Commons
at Westminster; and the other three counties have one Protestant
Protestant
T.D. of the ten it has elected to Dáil Éireann, the Lower House of the Oireachtas, the parliament of the Republic of Ireland. At present (August 2007) County Donegal
County Donegal
sends six T.D.'s to Dáil Éireann. The county is divided into two constituencies: Donegal North-East and Donegal South-West, each with three T.D.'s. County Cavan
County Cavan
and County Monaghan form the one constituency called Cavan-Monaghan, which sends five T.D.'s to the Dáil (one of whom is a Protestant). The historic Flag of Ulster
Flag of Ulster
served as the basis for the Ulster
Ulster
Banner (often referred to as the Flag of Northern Ireland), which was the flag of the Government of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
until the proroguing of the Stormont parliament in 1973. Wildlife[edit] History[edit] William Sherard (1659-1728) was the first biologist in Ulster.[42][43] Sport[edit] In Gaelic games
Gaelic games
(which include Gaelic football
Gaelic football
and hurling), Ulster counties play the Ulster Senior Football Championship
Ulster Senior Football Championship
and Ulster Senior Hurling
Hurling
Championship. In football, the main competitions in which they compete with the other Irish counties are the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship and National Football League, while the Ulster
Ulster
club champions represent the province in the All- Ireland
Ireland
Senior Club Football Championship. Hurling
Hurling
teams play in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling
Hurling
Championship, National Hurling
Hurling
League and All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling
Hurling
Championship. The whole province fields a team to play the other provinces in the Railway Cup
Railway Cup
in both football and hurling. Gaelic Football is by far the most popular of the GAA sports in Ulster
Ulster
but hurling is also played, especially in Antrim, Armagh, Derry, and Down. The border has divided association football teams since 1921.[44] The Irish Football Association
Irish Football Association
(the I.F.A.) oversees the sport in N.I., while the Football Association of Ireland
Ireland
(the F.A.I.) oversees the sport in the Republic. As a result, separate international teams are fielded and separate championships take place (Irish Football League in Northern Ireland, League of Ireland
Ireland
in the rest of Ulster
Ulster
and Ireland). Anomalously, Derry
Derry
City F.C. has played in the League of Ireland
Ireland
since 1985 due to crowd trouble at some of their Irish League matches prior to this. The other major Ulster
Ulster
team in the League of Ireland
Ireland
is Finn Harps
Finn Harps
of Ballybofey, County Donegal. When Derry
Derry
City F.C. and Finn Harps
Finn Harps
play against each other, the game is usually referred to as a 'North-West Derby'. There have been cup competitions between I.F.A. and F.A.I. clubs, most recently the Setanta Sports Cup. In Rugby union, the professional rugby team representing the province and the IRFU Ulster
Ulster
Branch, Ulster
Ulster
Rugby, compete in the Pro14
Pro14
along with teams from Wales, Scotland, Italy, South Africa and the other Irish Provinces (Leinster, Munster
Munster
and Connacht). They also compete in Europe's main club rugby tournament, the European Rugby Champions Cup, which they won (as the Heineken Cup) back in 1999. Notable Ulster rugby players include Willy John McBride, Jack Kyle
Jack Kyle
and Mike Gibson. The former is the most capped British and Irish Lion of all time, having completed four tours with the Lions in the sixties and seventies. At international level players from Ulster
Ulster
join with those from the other 3 provinces to form the Irish national team. They do not sing the Irish national anthem but do sing a special song which has been written celebrating the "4 proud provinces" before matches start. Cricket
Cricket
is also played in Ulster, especially in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and East Donegal.[45] Golf is, however, by far the most high-profile sport and the sport that Ulster
Ulster
has succeeded at more than any other. Ulster
Ulster
has produced many great players over the years, from Fred Daly winning The Open Championship in 1947 at the Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake to most recently Rory McIlroy
Rory McIlroy
winning the US Open and Darren Clarke
Darren Clarke
winning The Open Championship in 2011. Ulster
Ulster
also has another Major winner in Graeme McDowell, who also won the US Open in 2010. In horse racing, specifically National Hunt, Ulster
Ulster
has produced the most dominant jockey of all time, Tony McCoy. The Circuit of Ireland
Ireland
Rally is an annual automobile rally held in Ulster
Ulster
since 1931. Further reading[edit] Braidwood, J. 1964. Ulster
Ulster
Dialects, An Introductory Symposium Ulster Folk Museum. See also[edit]

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
portal Ireland
Ireland
portal

Ulster
Ulster
nationalism Kings of Ulster Ulster-Scots people Plantations of Ireland Culture of Ulster Ulster
Ulster
GAA Red Hand of Ulster Ulidia (kingdom)

Notes[edit]

^ Challoner, Richard. A Memorial of Ancient British Piety: or, a British Martyrology, p. 128. W. Needham, 1761. Accessed 14 March 2013. ^ "estimate".  ^ "Table 1. Population of each Province, County and City and actual and percentage change, 2006 and 2011" (PDF). Census of Population 2011: Preliminary Results. Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 7 January 2012.  ^ Census of Ireland
Ireland
2016: 296,120 out of 1,684,250 total. ^ Ulster
Ulster
Scots – Ulstèr-Scotch Archived 25 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. NI Department for Regional Development. ^ Ulster's Hiddlin Swaatch – Culture Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Dr Clifford Smyth ^ Guide to Monea Castle – Ulster-Scots version Archived 30 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Department of the Environment. ^ North-South Ministerial Council: 2010 Annual Report in Ulster
Ulster
Scots Archived 27 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ North-South Ministerial Council: 2009 Annual Report in Ulster
Ulster
Scots Archived 1 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tourism Ireland: 2008 Yearly Report in Ulster
Ulster
Scots Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1, 19 February 2010, which gives "Ulster" as the official English name and "Ulaidh" as the official Irish name of the province, citing "Ordnance Survey Office, Dublin
Dublin
1993" as its source – http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_3166-2_newsletter_ii-1_corrected_2010-02-19.pdf ^ Jonathan Bardon; A History of Ulster, page 27. The Blackstaff Press, 2005. ISBN 0-85640-764-X ^ Seán Duffy; Brian Boru and the Battle of Clontarf, page 26. Gill & Macmillan, 2014. ISBN 978-0-7171-6207-9 ^ Rev. Isaac Taylor (1865). "Words and Places: Or, Etymological Illustrations of History, Ethnology, and Geography". Macmillan & Co. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ Richard Froggatt. "Professor Sir John Byers (1853 - 1920)". Ulster History Circle. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ County Down, A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland
Ireland
(1837) ^ "Publications". 26 March 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Robert Bell; The book of Ulster
Ulster
Surnames, page 180. The Blackstaff Press, 2003. ISBN 0-85640-602-3 ^ "the definition of Ulster". Dictionary.com.  ^ a b Melaugh, Dr Martin. "CAIN: Glossary of Terms on Northern Ireland Conflict". cain.ulst.ac.uk.  ^ Ulster
Ulster
Facts, information, pictures Encyclopedia.com articles about Ulster. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 23 July 2013. ^ Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (7 April 2009). " Ireland
Ireland
imposes emergency cuts". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ "Community Background", 2011 Census, for NI, and "Religion", 2011 Census, for RoI ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ "DERRY-SLIGO TRAIN LINK "RAILED OUT" Derry
Derry
Daily". Retrieved 26 August 2016.  ^ a b Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Statistics and Research Agency Census 2001 Output ^ Melaugh, Dr Martin. "CAIN: Key Issue: Language: Pritchard, R.M.O. (2004) Protestants and the Irish Language: Historical Heritage and Current Attitudes in Northern Ireland." cain.ulst.ac.uk.  ^ Gregg, R. J. (1972). "The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster". In Wakelin, Martyn F. (ed). Patterns in the Folk Speech of the British Isles. London: Athlone Press. ISBN 0-485-11128-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ Riordain, S. O. (1966). Antiquities of the Irish Countryside. University Paperbacks (reprint ed.). London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.  ^ a b Stewart, A. T. Q. (1989). The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster
Ulster
(Rev. ed.). London: Faber and Faber Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-571-15485-9.  ^ a b Falls, Cyril (1996). The Birth of Ulster. London: Constable and Company Ltd. pp. 156–157. ISBN 0-09-476610-X.  ^ a b Perceval-Maxwell, M. (1999). The Scottish Migration to Ulster
Ulster
in the Reign of James I. Belfast: Ulster
Ulster
Historical Foundation. p. 89. ISBN 0-901905-44-5.  ^ T. A. Jackson, p. 51. ^ Wars and Conflicts – Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
– English and Scottish Planters – 1641 Rebellion BBC History ^ Davies, John (1890). Morley, Henry, ed. A Discovery of the True Cause Why Ireland
Ireland
Was Never Entirely Subdued Nor Brought Under Obedience of the Crown of England Until the Beginning of His Majesty's Happy Reign. London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd. pp. 218–219.  ^ BBC Short History ^ Harris, Tim (2006). Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685–1720. London: Allen Lane. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-7139-9759-0.  ^ Magennis, Eoin (1998). "A 'Beleaguered Protestant'?: Walter Harris and the Writing of Fiction Unmasked in Mid-18th-Century Ireland". Eighteenth-Century Ireland. 13: 6–111. Retrieved 16 March 2012.  ^ Rabushka, Alvin (2008). Taxation in Colonial America, 1607–1775. Princeton University Press. p. 279. ISBN 978-0-691-13345-4.  ^ https://www.scribd.com/doc/32717516/1919-Cork-Its-Trade-and-Commerce%7C pg 168 ^ "The Future's Bright For Donegal's Orangemen". Independent News And Media. 11 July 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Deane, C.D. 1983. The Ulster
Ulster
Countryside. p.81 Century Books ^ Hackney, P. (ed) Stewart and Corry's Flora of the North- east of Ireland. Third edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast.p.3 - 10 ISBN 0-85389-446-9 ^ "Football Association of Ireland". www.fai.ie.  ^ McGarry, John; O'Leary, Brendan (8 June 1995). "Explaining Northern Ireland: Broken Images". Wiley – via Google Books. 

References[edit]

Deane, C. Douglas (1983). The Ulster
Ulster
Countryside. Century Books. ISBN 0-903152-17-7.

Further reading[edit]

Faulkner, J. and Thompson, R. 2011. The Natural History of Ulster. National Museums of Northern Ireland. Publication No. 026. ISBN 0-900761-49-0 Morton, O. 1994. Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. Ulster
Ulster
Museum, Belfast. ISBN 0-900761-28-8 Stewart and Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland. Third edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ulster.

Census 2011 – Ulster
Ulster
Irish language
Irish language
stats "Inconvenient Peripheries: Ethnic Identity and the United Kingdom Estate" (PDF).  (96.8 KB) The cases of "Protestant Ulster" and Cornwall, by Professor Philip Payton  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ulster". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

v t e

Counties of Ireland

The counties are listed per province

 Connacht

Galway Leitrim Mayo Roscommon Sligo

 Leinster

Carlow Dublin

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown Fingal South Dublin

Kildare Kilkenny Laois Longford Louth Meath Offaly Westmeath Wexford Wicklow

 Munster

Clare Cork Kerry Limerick Tipperary Waterford

 Ulster

Antrim† Armagh† Cavan Donegal Down† Fermanagh† Londonderry† Monaghan Tyrone†

Italics denote non-administrative counties. Brackets denote non-traditional counties. †denotes non-administrative counties of Northern Ireland

Coordinates: 54°24′N 7°00′W / 54.4°N 7.0°W

.