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Patron Saints: Finnian of Moville Columba
Columba
a. ^ The Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Statistics and Research Agency for 2011 combined with the preliminary results of Census of Ireland 2011 for Ulster
Ulster
(part of). b. ^ Ulster
Ulster
contains all of the Northern Ireland constituency (3 MEPs) as well as part of the Midlands–North-West constituency (4 MEPs); the counties of Cavan, Monaghan and Donegal contain 17.5% of the population of this constituency.

ULSTER (/ˈʌlstər/ ; Irish : _Ulaidh_ pronounced or _Cúige Uladh_ pronounced , Ulster
Ulster
Scots : _Ulstèr_ or _Ulster_) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland
Ireland
. In ancient Ireland
Ireland
, it was one of the fifths (Irish : _cúige_) ruled by a _rí ruirech _, or "king of over-kings".

The definition of the province was fluid from early to medieval times. It took a definitive shape in the reign of King James I of England when all the counties of Ireland
Ireland
were eventually shired . This process of evolving conquest had been under way since the Norman invasion of Ireland
Ireland
, particularly as advanced by the Cambro-Norman magnates Hugh de Lacy and John de Courcy . Ulster
Ulster
was a central topic role in the parliamentary debates that eventually resulted in the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1920 . Under the terms of the Act, Ireland was divided into two territories, Southern Ireland
Ireland
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
, with the border passing through the province. "Southern Ireland" was to be all of Ireland
Ireland
except for "the parliamentary counties of Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone, and the parliamentary boroughs of Belfast
Belfast
and Londonderry " which were to constitute "Northern Ireland". The area of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
was seen as the maximum area within which Ulster
Ulster
Protestants /unionists could be expected to have a safe majority, despite counties Fermanagh and Tyrone having slight Roman Catholic/ Irish nationalist majorities. While these six counties and two parliamentary boroughs were all in the province of Ulster, three other counties of the province – Cavan , Donegal and Monaghan – were assigned to the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
.

Ulster
Ulster
has no official function for local government purposes in either country. However, for the purposes of ISO-3166-2 , Ulster
Ulster
is used to refer to the three counties of Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan only, which are given country sub-division code "IE-U".

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology

* 2 Geography and political sub-divisions

* 2.1 County-based sub-divisions * 2.2 Council-based sub-divisions * 2.3 Largest settlements

* 3 Economy * 4 Physical geography

* 5 Transport

* 5.1 Air * 5.2 Rail

* 6 Languages and dialects

* 7 History

* 7.1 Early history * 7.2 Plantations and civil wars * 7.3 Emigration * 7.4 Republicanism, rebellion and communal strife * 7.5 Industrialisation, Home Rule
Home Rule
and partition * 7.6 1920 to present

* 8 Wildlife

* 8.1 History

* 9 Sport * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

TERMINOLOGY

The name Ulster
Ulster
has several possible derivations: from the Norse name "Uladztir", which is an adaptation of _Ulaidh_ and _tir_, the Irish for "land"; or similarly it may be derived from _Ulaidh_ plus the Norse genitive _s_ followed by the Irish _tir_. It has also been suggested to have derived from _Uladh_ plus the Norse suffix _ster_ (meaning place), which was common in the Shetland Islands and Norway
Norway
.

The Irish name, _Cúige Uladh_, means the "province of the Ulaid " (_Ulaidh_ in modern Irish), with the term cúige formerly referring to a fifth. The Ulaidh were a group of tribes who dwelt in the region.

_Ulaidh_ has historically been anglicised as _Ulagh_ or _Ullagh_ and Latinised as _Ulidia_ or _Ultonia_. The latter two have yielded the terms _Ulidian_ and _Ultonian_. The Irish word for someone or something from Ulster
Ulster
is _Ultach_, and this can be found in the surnames MacNulty, MacAnulty, and Nulty, which all derive from _Mac an Ultaigh_, meaning "son of the Ulsterman". Words that have been used in English are _Ullish_ and _Ulsterman_/_Ulsterwoman_.

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is often referred to as _Ulster_, despite including only six of Ulster's nine counties. This usage is most common amongst people in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
who are unionist , although it is also used by the media throughout the United Kingdom. Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster
Ulster
in this context.

GEOGRAPHY AND POLITICAL SUB-DIVISIONS

Ulster
Ulster
(coloured), showing Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in orange and the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
part in green

Ulster
Ulster
has a population of just over 2 million people and an area of 21,552 square kilometres (8,321 sq mi). About 62% of the area of Ulster
Ulster
is in the UK while the remaining 38% is in the Republic of Ireland. Ulster's biggest city, Belfast
Belfast
, has an urban population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city on the island of Ireland
Ireland
and the 10th largest urban area in the UK. Six of Ulster's nine counties , Antrim , Armagh
Armagh
, Down , Fermanagh , Londonderry and Tyrone , including the former parliamentary boroughs of Belfast
Belfast
and Londonderry , form Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
which remained part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
after the partition of Ireland
Ireland
in 1921. Three Ulster
Ulster
counties – Cavan , Donegal and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
. About half of Ulster's population lives in counties Antrim and Down. Across the nine counties, according to the aggregate UK 2011 Census for Northern Ireland, and the ROI 2011 Census for counties Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan, there is a Roman Catholic majority over Protestant
Protestant
of 50.8% to 42.7%.

While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
, this is no longer the case in Northern Ireland. Since 1974, the traditional counties have a ceremonial role only. Local government in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is today demarcated by 11 districts.

COUNTY-BASED SUB-DIVISIONS

COUNTY POPULATION AREA

County Antrim
County Antrim
(_Contae Aontroma_; _Coontie Anthrim/Antrìm/Antrim/Entrim_) 618,108 3,046 square kilometres (1,176 sq mi)

County Armagh
County Armagh
(_Contae Ard Mhacha_; _Coontie Airmagh/Armagh_) 174,792 1,254 square kilometres (484 sq mi)

County Cavan (_Contae an Chabháin_) 73,183 1,931 square kilometres (746 sq mi)

County Donegal
County Donegal
(_Contae Dhún na nGall/Thír Chonaill_; _Coontie Dunnygal/Dinnygal_) 161,137 4,861 square kilometres (1,877 sq mi)

County Down
County Down
(_Contae an Dúin_; _Coontie Doon/Doun_) 531,665 2,466 square kilometres (952 sq mi)

County Fermanagh (_Contae Fhear Manach_; _Coontie Fermanagh/Fermanay_) 61,170 1,691 square kilometres (653 sq mi)

County Londonderry
County Londonderry
(_Contae Dhoire_; _Coontie Lunnonderrie_) 247,132 2,075 square kilometres (801 sq mi)

County Monaghan
County Monaghan
(_Contae Mhuineacháin_) 60,483 1,295 square kilometres (500 sq mi)

County Tyrone
County Tyrone
(_Contae Thír Eoghain_; _Coontie Tyrone/Owenslann_) 177,986 3,263 square kilometres (1,260 sq mi)

GRAND TOTAL 2,105,656 21,882 SQUARE KILOMETRES (8,449 SQ MI)

Counties shaded in grey are in the Republic of Ireland. Counties shaded in pink are in Northern Ireland.

COUNCIL-BASED SUB-DIVISIONS

DISTRICT COUNCIL

County Cavan Cavan County Council

County Donegal
County Donegal
Donegal County Council

County Monaghan
County Monaghan
Monaghan County Council

Fermanagh and Omagh Fermanagh and Omagh District Council

Derry
Derry
and Strabane Derry
Derry
and Strabane District Council

Mid- Ulster
Ulster
Mid-Ulster District Council

Causeway Coast and Glens Causeway Coast and Glens District Council

Mid and East Antrim Mid and East Antrim District Council

Antrim and Newtownabbey Antrim and Newtownabbey Borough Council

Ards and North Down Ards and North Down Borough Council

Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon District Council

Lisburn and Castlereagh Lisburn and Castlereagh City Council

Newry, Mourne and Down Newry, Mourne and Down District Council

Belfast
Belfast
Belfast
Belfast
City Council

LARGEST SETTLEMENTS

Settlements in Ulster
Ulster
with at least 14,000 inhabitants, listed in order of population:

* Belfast
Belfast
(480,000) * Derry
Derry
(105,000) * Lisburn
Lisburn
(75,000) * Craigavon
Craigavon
(65,000) * Bangor (58,400) * Ballymena (28,700) * Newtownards (27,800) * Newry
Newry
(27,400) * Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus
(27,200) * Coleraine
Coleraine
(25,000) * Antrim (20,000) * Omagh
Omagh
(19,800) * Letterkenny (19,600) * Larne
Larne
(18,200) * Banbridge (14,700) * Armagh
Armagh
(14,500)

ECONOMY

The GDP of the province of Ulster
Ulster
is around €50 billion. Salary levels are the lowest on the island of Ireland.

AREA POPULATION COUNTRY LARGEST SETTLEMENT GDP € GDP PER PERSON €

Greater Belfast 720,000 NI Belfast €20.9 bn €33,550

Border Region (includes three non- Ulster
Ulster
counties) 430,000 (roughly half in Ulster) ROI Letterkenny €10.7 bn €21,100

East of Northern Ireland 430,000 NI Ballymena €9.5 bn €20,300

North of Northern Ireland 280,000 NI Derry €5.5 bn €18,400

West and South of Northern Ireland 400,000 NI Newry €8.4 bn €19,300

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

The biggest lake in the British Isles
British Isles
, Lough Neagh
Lough Neagh
, lies in eastern Ulster. The province's highest point, Slieve Donard (848 metres (2,782 ft)), stands in County Down. The most northerly point in Ireland, Malin Head , is in County Donegal, as are the sixth-highest (601 metres (1,972 ft)) sea cliffs in Europe, at Slieve League , and the province's largest island, Arranmore . The most easterly point in Ireland
Ireland
is also in Ulster, in County Down
County Down
, and the most westerly point in the UK is in County Fermanagh . The longest river in the British Isles, the Shannon , rises at the Shannon Pot in County Cavan with underground tributaries from County Fermanagh. Volcanic activity in eastern Ulster
Ulster
led to the formation of the Antrim Plateau
Antrim Plateau
and the Giant\'s Causeway , one of Ireland's three UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites . Ulster
Ulster
also has a significant drumlin belt. The geographical centre of Ulster
Ulster
lies between the villages of Pomeroy and Carrickmore
Carrickmore
in County Tyrone. In terms of area, County Donegal
County Donegal
is the largest county in all of Ulster.

*

At White Park Bay *

Countryside west of Ballynahinch *

Mourne country cottage *

Downshire Bridge Crossing the bay to Murlough *

Cattle near Six Road Ends Seen from the Kirkistown to Ballyeaseborough Road *

The Twelve Arches near Dundrum *

The track of the County Donegal
County Donegal
Railways Joint Committee (CDRJC) restored next to Lough Finn
Lough Finn
, near Fintown station . *

Wild Goats on Binnein Fithich *

The approach of autumn, Tardree forest

TRANSPORT

AIR

The province's main airport is Belfast
Belfast
International Airport (popularly called Aldergrove Airport), which is located at Aldergrove , 11.5 miles northwest of Belfast
Belfast
near Antrim . George Best Belfast City Airport (sometimes referred to as "the City Airport" or "the Harbour Airport") is another, smaller airport which is located at Sydenham in Belfast. The City of Derry
Derry
Airport is located at Eglinton , 13 kilometres (8 mi) east of the city of Derry
Derry
. There is also Donegal Airport (Irish : _Aerfort Dhún na nGall_), popularly known as Carrickfinn Airport, which is located in The Rosses .

RAIL

Railway lines are run by Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Railways (NIR). Belfast
Belfast
to Bangor and Belfast
Belfast
to Lisburn
Lisburn
are strategically the most important routes on the network with the greatest number of passengers and largest profit margins. The Belfast- Derry
Derry
railway line connecting Londonderry railway station , via Coleraine
Coleraine
, Ballymoney , Ballymena and Antrim , with Belfast
Belfast
Central and Belfast
Belfast
Great Victoria Street is a noted scenic route. Belfast
Belfast
is also connected with Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus
and Larne
Larne
Harbour , Portadown , Newry
Newry
and onwards, via the Enterprise service jointly operated by NIR and Iarnród Éireann , to Dublin Connolly .

The main railway lines linking to and from Belfast
Belfast
Great Victoria Street and Belfast
Belfast
Central are:

* The Derry
Derry
Line and the Portrush Branch * The Larne
Larne
Line * The Bangor Line * The Portadown Line

Only five Irish counties, all in Southern and Western Ulster, currently have no mainline railway. The historic Great Northern Railway of Ireland
Ireland
connected them. They are Cavan, Monaghan, Fermanagh, Tyrone and Donegal. A plan to re-link Sligo
Sligo
and Derry through Donegal has been postponed until at least 2030.

LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS

Main articles: Ulster Irish , Mid Ulster English , and Ulster
Ulster
Scots dialects

Most people in Ulster
Ulster
speak English. English is taught in all schools in the province, and Irish is taught in all schools in the counties that are part of the Republic, and in schools in Northern Ireland, almost exclusively in the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Irish-medium sectors. In responses to the 2001 census in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
10% of the population had "some knowledge of Irish" and 4.7% could "speak, read, write and understand" Irish. Large parts of County Donegal
County Donegal
are Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
areas where Irish is the first language and some people in west Belfast
Belfast
also speak Irish, especially in the " Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Quarter". The dialect of Irish _(Gaeilge)_ most commonly spoken in Ulster
Ulster
(especially throughout Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and County Donegal) is _Gaeilge Thír Chonaill_ or Donegal Irish, also known as _Gaeilge Uladh_ or Ulster Irish . Donegal Irish has many similarities to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
. Polish forms the third most common language. Ulster Scots dialects , sometimes known by the neologism _Ullans_, are also spoken in Counties Down, Antrim, Londonderry and Donegal.

Some 5,339 pupils attend the 44 Gaelscoileanna (Irish language primary schools) and seven Gaelcholáiste ( Irish language secondary schools) across the province.

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY

Further information: History of Ireland
Ireland

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Ulster
Ulster
is one of the four Irish provinces . Its name derives from the Irish language _Cúige Uladh_ (pronounced "Kooi-gah UH-loo"), meaning "fifth of the Ulaidh ", named for the ancient inhabitants of the region.

The province's early story extends further back than written records and survives mainly in legends such as the Ulster Cycle . The archaeology of Ulster, formerly called Ulandia, gives examples of "ritual enclosures", such as the "Giant's Ring" near Belfast, which is an earth bank about 590 feet (180 m) in diameter and 15 feet (4.5 m) high, in the centre of which there is a dolmen .

In 637, the Battle of Moira , known archaically as the Battle of Magh Rath, was fought by the Gaelic High King of Ireland
Ireland
Domhnall II against his foster son King Conghal of Ulster, supported by his ally Domhnall the Freckled (Domhnall Brecc) of Dalriada
Dalriada
. The battle was fought near the Woods of Killultagh, just outside the village of Moira in what would become County Down. It was allegedly the largest battle ever fought on the island of Ireland, and resulted in the death of Conghal and the retreat of Domhnall Brecc.

In early medieval Ireland, a branch of the Northern Uí Néill , the Cenél nEógain of the province of Ailech , gradually eroded the territory of the province of Ulaidh until it lay east of the River Bann . The Cenél nEógain would make Tír Eóghain (most of which forms modern County Tyrone
County Tyrone
) their base. Among the High Kings of Ireland
Ireland
were Áed Findliath (died 879), Niall Glúndub (died 919), and Domnall ua Néill (died 980), all of the Cenél nEógain. The province of Ulaidh would survive restricted to the east of modern Ulster
Ulster
until the Norman invasion in the late 12th century. It would only once more become a province of Ireland
Ireland
in the mid-14th century after the collapse of the Norman Earldom of Ulster
Earldom of Ulster
, when the O\'Neills who had come to dominate the Northern Uí Néill stepped into the power vacuum and staked a claim for the first time the title of "king of Ulster" along with the Red Hand of Ulster symbol. It was then that the provinces of Ailech, Airgialla, and Ulaidh would all merge largely into what would become the modern province of Ulster. A bronze statue commemorating The Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
at Rathmullan in north County Donegal
County Donegal
.

Domnall Ua Lochlainn
Domnall Ua Lochlainn
(died 1121) and Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn (died 1166) were of this dynasty. The Meic Lochlainn were in 1241 overthrown by their kin, the clan Ó Néill (see O\'Neill dynasty ). The Ó Néill's were from then on established as Ulster's most powerful Gaelic family.

The Ó Domhnaill (O\'Donnell ) dynasty were Ulster's second most powerful clan from the early thirteenth-century through to the beginning of the seventeenth-century. The O'Donnells ruled over Tír Chonaill (most of modern County Donegal) in West Ulster.

After the Norman invasion of Ireland
Ireland
in the twelfth century, the east of the province fell by conquest to Norman barons, first De Courcy (died 1219), then Hugh de Lacy (1176–1243), who founded the Earldom of Ulster
Ulster
based on the modern counties of Antrim and Down.

However, by the end of the 14th century the Earldom had collapsed and Ulster
Ulster
had become the only Irish province completely outside of English control.

In the 1600s Ulster
Ulster
was the last redoubt of the traditional Gaelic way of life, and following the defeat of the Irish forces in the Nine Years War (1594–1603) at the battle of Kinsale (1601), Elizabeth I 's English forces succeeded in subjugating Ulster
Ulster
and all of Ireland.

The Gaelic leaders of Ulster, the O\'Neills and O\'Donnells , finding their power under English suzerainty limited, decamped _en masse_ in 1607 (the Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
) to Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Europe. This allowed the English Crown
English Crown
to plant Ulster
Ulster
with more loyal English and Scottish planters , a process which began in earnest in 1610.

PLANTATIONS AND CIVIL WARS

The Plantation of Ulster (Irish : _Plandáil Uladh_) was the organised colonisation (or plantation ) of Ulster
Ulster
by people from Great Britain (especially Presbyterians
Presbyterians
from Scotland
Scotland
). Private plantation by wealthy landowners began in 1606, while the official plantation controlled by King James I of England
James I of England
(who was also King James VI of Scots) began in 1609. All land owned by Irish chieftains, the Ó Neills and Ó Donnells (along with those of their supporters), who fought against the English Crown
English Crown
in the Nine Years War , were confiscated and used to settle the colonists. The Counties Tyrconnell , Tyrone , Fermanagh , Cavan , Coleraine
Coleraine
and Armagh
Armagh
comprised the official Colony. However, most of the counties, including the most heavily colonised Counties Antrim and Down , were privately colonised. These counties, though not officially designated as subject to Plantation
Plantation
, had suffered violent depopulation during the previous wars and proved attractive to Private Colonialists from nearby Britain.

The official reason for the Plantation
Plantation
is said to have been to pay for the costly Nine Years\' War , but this view was not shared by all in the English government of the time, most notably the English Crown -appointed Attorney-General for Ireland
Ireland
in 1609, Sir John Davies :

A barbarous country must be first broken by a war before it will be capable of good government ; and when it is fully subdued and conquered, if it be not well planted and governed after the conquest, it will eftsoons return to the former barbarism.

The Plantation of Ulster continued well into the 18th century, interrupted only by the Irish Rebellion of 1641 . This Rebellion was initially led by Sir Phelim O\'Neill (Irish: _Sir Féilim Ó Néill_), and was intended to overthrow British rule rapidly, but quickly degenerated into attacks on colonists, in which dispossessed Irish slaughtered thousands of the colonists. In the ensuing wars (1641–1653, fought against the background of civil war in England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland), Ulster
Ulster
became a battleground between the Colonialists and the native Irish. In 1646, an Irish army under command by Owen Roe O\'Neill (Irish: _Eoghan Ruadh Ó Néill_) inflicted a defeat on a Scottish Covenanter
Covenanter
army at Benburb in County Tyrone, but the native Irish forces failed to follow up their victory and the war lapsed into stalemate. The war in Ulster
Ulster
ended with the defeat of the native army at the Battle of Scarrifholis , near Newmills on the western outskirts of Letterkenny , County Donegal
County Donegal
, in 1650, as part of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Ireland
conducted by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and the New Model Army
New Model Army
, the aim of which was to expel all native Irish to the Province of Connaught .

Forty years later, in 1688–1691, the Williamite War was fought, the belligerents of which were the Williamites and Jacobites . The war was partly due to a dispute over who was the rightful claimant to the British Throne , and thus the supreme monarch of the nascent British Empire . However, the war was also a part of the greater War of the Grand Alliance , fought between King Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
and his allies, and a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance , led by Prince William of Orange and Emperor Leopold I of the Holy Roman Empire , supported by the Vatican and many other states. The Grand Alliance was a cross-denominational alliance designed to stop French eastward colonialist expansion under Louis XIV, with whom King James II was allied.

The majority of Irish people were "Jacobites" and supported James II due to his 1687 Declaration of Indulgence or, as it is also known, The Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, that granted religious freedom to all denominations in England and Scotland
Scotland
and also due to James II's promise to the Irish Parliament of an eventual right to self-determination. However, James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution , and the majority of Ulster
Ulster
Colonialists (Williamites ) backed William of Orange . It is of note that both the Williamite and Jacobite armies were religiously mixed; William of Orange's own elite forces, the Dutch Blue Guards had a papal banner with them during the invasion, many of them being Dutch Roman Catholics.

At the start of the war, Irish Jacobites controlled most of Ireland for James II, with the exception of the Williamite strongholds at Derry
Derry
and at Enniskillen in Ulster. The Jacobites besieged Derry
Derry
from December 1688 to July 1689, ending when a Williamite army from Britain relieved the city. The Williamites based in Enniskillen defeated another Jacobite army at the battle of Newtownbutler on 28 July 1689. Thereafter, Ulster
Ulster
remained firmly under Williamite control and William's forces completed their conquest of the rest of Ireland
Ireland
in the next two years. The war provided Protestant
Protestant
loyalists with the iconic victories of the Siege of Derry
Derry
, the Battle of the Boyne (1 July 1690) and the Battle of Aughrim (12 July 1691), all of which the Orange Order
Orange Order
commemorate each year.

The Williamites' victory in this war ensured British rule in Ireland for over 200 years. The Protestant
Protestant
Ascendancy in Ireland
Ireland
excluded most of Ulster's population from having any Civil power on religious grounds. Roman Catholics (descended from the indigenous Irish) and Presbyterians
Presbyterians
(mainly descended from Scottish colonists) both suffered discrimination under the Penal Laws , which gave full political rights only to Anglican
Anglican
Protestants (mostly descended from English settlers). In the 1690s, Scottish Presbyterians
Presbyterians
became a majority in Ulster, due to a large influx of them into the Province.

EMIGRATION

Considerable numbers of Ulster-Scots emigrated to the North American colonies throughout the 18th century (160,000 settled in what would become the United States between 1717 and 1770 alone).

Disdaining (or forced out of) the heavily English regions on the Atlantic coast, most groups of Ulster-Scots settlers crossed into the "western mountains," where their descendants populated the Appalachian regions and the Ohio Valley . Here they lived on the frontiers of America, carving their own world out of the wilderness. The Scots-Irish soon became the dominant culture of the Appalachians from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to Georgia . Author (and US Senator) Jim Webb puts forth a thesis in his book _Born Fighting_ to suggest that the character traits he ascribes to the Scots-Irish such as loyalty to kin, mistrust of governmental authority, and a propensity to bear arms, helped shape the American identity.

In the United States Census, 2000 , 4.3 million Americans claimed Scots-Irish ancestry. Interestingly, the areas where the most Americans reported themselves in the 2000 Census only as "American" with no further qualification (e.g. Kentucky
Kentucky
, north-central Texas
Texas
, and many other areas in the Southern US ) are largely the areas where many Scots-Irish settled, and are in complementary distribution with the areas which most heavily report Scots-Irish ancestry.

According to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, 400,000 people in the US were of Irish birth or ancestry in 1790 when the first US Census counted 3,100,000 white Americans. According to the encyclopaedia, half of these Irish Americans were descended from Ulster, and half from the other three provinces of Ireland.

REPUBLICANISM, REBELLION AND COMMUNAL STRIFE

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Most of the 18th century saw a calming of sectarian tensions in Ulster. The economy of the province improved, as small producers exported linen and other goods. Belfast
Belfast
developed from a village into a bustling provincial town. However, this did not stop many thousands of Ulster
Ulster
people from emigrating to British North America in this period, where they became known as "Scots Irish " or "Scotch-Irish ".

Political tensions resurfaced, albeit in a new form, towards the end of the 18th century. In the 1790s many Roman Catholics and Presbyterians
Presbyterians
, in opposition to Anglican
Anglican
domination and inspired by the American and French revolutions joined together in the United Irishmen movement. This group (founded in Belfast) dedicated itself to founding a non-sectarian and independent Irish republic. The United Irishmen had particular strength in Belfast
Belfast
, Antrim and Down . Paradoxically however, this period also saw much sectarian violence between Roman Catholics and Protestants, principally members of the Church of Ireland
Ireland
(Anglicans, who practised the British state religion and had rights denied to both Presbyterians
Presbyterians
and Roman Catholics), notably the " Battle of the Diamond " in 1795, a faction fight between the rival "Defenders " (Roman Catholic) and "Peep O\'Day Boys " (Anglican), which led to over 100 deaths and to the founding of the Orange Order
Orange Order
. This event, and many others like it, came about with the relaxation of the Penal Laws and Roman Catholics began to be allowed to purchase land and involve themselves in the linen trade (activities which previously had involved many onerous restrictions). Protestants, including some Presbyterians, who in some parts of the province had come to identify with the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
community, used violence to intimidate Roman Catholics who tried to enter the linen trade. Estimates suggest that up to 7000 Roman Catholics suffered expulsion from Ulster
Ulster
during this violence. Many of them settled in northern Connacht . These refugees' linguistic influence still survives in the dialects of Irish spoken in Mayo , which have many similarities to Ulster Irish not found elsewhere in Connacht. Loyalist militias, primarily Anglicans , also used violence against the United Irishmen and against Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Protestant
Protestant
republicans throughout the province.

In 1798 the United Irishmen, led by Henry Joy McCracken , launched a rebellion in Ulster, mostly supported by Presbyterians. But the British authorities swiftly put down the rebellion and employed severe repression after the fighting had ended. In the wake of the failure of this rebellion , and following the gradual abolition of official religious discrimination after the Act of Union in 1800, Presbyterians came to identify more with the State and with their Anglican neighbours, due to their civil rights now being respected by both the state and their Anglican
Anglican
neighbours.

The 1859 Ulster Revival was a major Christian revival
Christian revival
that spread throughout Ulster.

INDUSTRIALISATION, HOME RULE AND PARTITION

Royal Avenue, Belfast
Belfast
. Photochrom print circa 1890–1900.

In the 19th century, Ulster
Ulster
had the only large-scale industrialisation and became the most prosperous province on the island. In the latter part of the century, Belfast
Belfast
briefly overtook Dublin
Dublin
as the island's largest city. Belfast
Belfast
became famous in this period for its huge dockyards and shipbuilding — and notably for the construction of the RMS _Titanic_ . Sectarian divisions in Ulster became hardened into the political categories of _unionist _ (supporters of the Union with Britain; mostly, but not exclusively, Protestant) and _nationalist _ (advocates of repeal of the 1800 Act of Union, usually, though not exclusively, Roman Catholic). Northern Ireland's current politics originate from these late 19th century disputes over Home Rule
Home Rule
that would have devolved some powers of government to Ireland, and which Ulster
Ulster
Protestants usually opposed—fearing for their religious rights calling it "Rome Rule" in an autonomous Roman Catholic-dominated Ireland
Ireland
and also not trusting politicians from the agrarian south and west to support the more industrial economy of Ulster. This lack of trust, however, was largely unfounded as during the 19th and early 20th century important industries in the southern most region of Cork included brewing, distilling, wool and like Belfast, shipbuilding.

Thousands of unionists, led by the Dublin-born barrister Sir Edward Carson and James Craig , signed the " Ulster Covenant
Ulster Covenant
" of 1912 pledging to resist Home Rule. This movement also set up the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). In April 1914, the UVF assisted with the landing of 30,000 German rifles with 3,000,000 rounds at Larne
Larne
by blockading authorities. (See Larne
Larne
gunrunning ). The Curragh Incident showed it would be difficult to use the British army to enforce home rule from Dublin
Dublin
on Ulster's unionist minority.

In response, Irish republicans created the Irish Volunteers , part of which became the forerunner of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) — to seek to ensure the passing of the Home Rule
Home Rule
Bill . Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, 200,000 Irishmen, both Southern and Northern, of all religious sects volunteered to serve in the British Army
British Army
. This had the effect of interrupting the armed stand-off in Ireland. As the war progressed, in Ireland, opposition to the War grew stronger, reaching its peak in 1918 when the British government proposed laws to extend conscription to all able bodied Irishmen during the Conscription
Conscription
Crisis .

In the aftermath of World War I, the political party Sinn Féin ("Ourselves") won the majority of votes in the Irish general election, 1918 , this political party pursued a policy of complete independent self-determination for the island of Ireland
Ireland
as outlined in the Sinn Féin campaign Manifesto of 1918 , a great deal more than the devolved government/ Home Rule
Home Rule
advocated by the (I.P.P)Irish Parliamentary Party . Following the Sinn Féin victory in these elections the Irish Declaration of Independence was penned and Irish republicans launched a guerrilla campaign against British rule in what became the Irish War of Independence (January 1919 – July 1921). The fighting in Ulster during the Irish War of Independence generally took the form of street battles between Protestants and Roman Catholics in the city of Belfast. Estimates suggest that about 600 civilians died in this communal violence, the majority of them (58%) Roman Catholics. The IRA remained relatively quiescent in Ulster, with the exception of the south Armagh
Armagh
area, where Frank Aiken led it. A lot of IRA activity also took place at this time in County Donegal
County Donegal
and the City of Derry
Derry
, where one of the main Republican leaders was Peadar O\'Donnell . Hugh O'Doherty, a Sinn Féin politician, was elected mayor of Derry
Derry
at this time. In the First Dáil , which was elected in late 1918, Prof. Eoin Mac Néill served as the Sinn Féin T.D. for Derry
Derry
city .

1920 TO PRESENT

Main article: History of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
See also: Demographics and politics of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and Politics of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland

Partition of Ireland
Ireland
, first mooted in 1912, was introduced with the enactment of the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1920 , which gave a form of "Home rule" self-government to two areas, Southern Ireland
Ireland
, with its capital at Dublin
Dublin
, and " Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
", consisting of six of Ulster's central and eastern counties, both within a continuing United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
. Dissatisfaction with this led to the Irish War of Independence , which formally ceased on 11 July 1921. Low-level violence, however, continued in Ulster, causing Michael Collins in the south to order a boycott of Northern products in protest at attacks on the Nationalist community there. The Partition was effectively confirmed by the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 6 December 1921. One of the primary stipulations of the treaty was the transformation of Ireland
Ireland
into a self-governing British dominion called the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(which later became the sovereign Republic of Ireland
Ireland
), but with the option of a continuation of the home rule institution of Northern Ireland, still within the United Kingdom, if the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Parliament (already in existence) chose to opt out of the Irish Free State. All parties knew that this was certain to be the choice of the Ulster
Ulster
Unionists who had a majority in the parliament, and immediately on the creation of the Free State they resolved to leave it.

Following the Anglo Irish treaty, the exact border between the new dominion of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and the future Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, if it chose to opt out, was to be decided by the Irish Boundary Commission . This did not announce its findings until 1925, when the line was again drawn around six of Ulster's nine counties, with no change from the partition of 1920.

Electorally, voting in the six Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
counties of Ulster tends to follow religious or sectarian lines; noticeable religious demarcation does not exist in the South Ulster
Ulster
counties of Cavan and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
. County Donegal
County Donegal
is largely a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
county, but with a large Protestant
Protestant
minority. Generally, Protestants in Donegal vote for the political party Fine Gael ("Family of the Irish"). However, religious sectarianism in politics has largely disappeared from the rest of the Republic of Ireland. This was illustrated when Erskine H. Childers , a Church of Ireland
Ireland
member and Teachta Dála (TD, a member of the lower house of the National Parliament) who had represented Monaghan, won election as President after having served as a long-term minister under Fianna Fáil Taoisigh Éamon de Valera , Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
and Jack Lynch .

The Orange Order
Orange Order
freely organises in counties Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan, with several Orange parades taking place throughout County Donegal each year. The only major Orange Order
Orange Order
march in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
takes place every July in the village of Rossnowlagh , near Ballyshannon , in the south of County Donegal.

As of 2017 , Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
has seven Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
members of parliament, all members of Sinn Féin (of a total of 18 from the whole of Northern Ireland) in the British House of Commons at Westminster ; and the other three counties have one Protestant
Protestant
T.D. of the ten it has elected to Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
, the Lower House of the Oireachtas, the parliament of the Republic of Ireland. At present (August 2007) County Donegal sends six T.D.'s to Dáil Éireann. The county is divided into two constituencies: Donegal North-East and Donegal South-West, each with three T.D.'s. County Cavan and County Monaghan
County Monaghan
form the one constituency called Cavan-Monaghan, which sends five T.D.'s to the Dáil (one of whom is a Protestant).

The historic Flag of Ulster
Flag of Ulster
served as the basis for the Ulster
Ulster
Banner (often referred to as the Flag of Northern Ireland), which was the flag of the Government of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
until the proroguing of the Stormont parliament in 1973.

WILDLIFE

HISTORY

William Sherard (1659-1728) was the first biologist in Ulster.

SPORT

In Gaelic games (which include Gaelic football
Gaelic football
and hurling ), Ulster counties play the Ulster Senior Football Championship and Ulster Senior Hurling
Hurling
Championship . In football, the main competitions in which they compete with the other Irish counties are the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship and National Football League , while the Ulster
Ulster
club champions represent the province in the All- Ireland
Ireland
Senior Club Football Championship . Hurling
Hurling
teams play in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling
Hurling
Championship , National Hurling
Hurling
League and All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling
Hurling
Championship . The whole province fields a team to play the other provinces in the Railway Cup in both football and hurling. Gaelic Football is by far the most popular of the GAA sports in Ulster
Ulster
but hurling is also played, especially in Antrim , Armagh
Armagh
, Derry
Derry
, and Down .

The border has divided association football teams since 1921. The Irish Football Association (the I.F.A.) oversees the sport in N.I., while the Football Association of Ireland
Ireland
(the F.A.I.) oversees the sport in the Republic. As a result, separate international teams are fielded and separate championships take place (Irish Football League in Northern Ireland, League of Ireland
Ireland
in the rest of Ulster
Ulster
and Ireland). Anomalously, Derry
Derry
City F.C. has played in the League of Ireland
Ireland
since 1985 due to crowd trouble at some of their Irish League matches prior to this. The other major Ulster
Ulster
team in the League of Ireland
Ireland
is Finn Harps of Ballybofey , County Donegal. When Derry
Derry
City F.C. and Finn Harps play against each other, the game is usually referred to as a 'North-West Derby'. There have been cup competitions between I.F.A. and F.A.I. clubs, most recently the Setanta Sports Cup .

In Rugby union
Rugby union
, the professional rugby team representing the province and the IRFU Ulster
Ulster
Branch, Ulster Rugby , compete in the Guinness PRO12 along with teams from Wales
Wales
, Scotland
Scotland
, Italy and the other Irish Provinces ( Leinster
Leinster
, Munster
Munster
and Connacht ). They also compete in Europe's main club rugby tournament, the Heineken Cup , which they won back in 1999. Notable Ulster
Ulster
rugby players include Willy John McBride, Jack Kyle and Mike Gibson . The former is the most capped British and Irish Lion of all time, having completed four tours with the Lions in the sixties and seventies. At international level players from Ulster
Ulster
join with those from the other 3 provinces to form the Irish national team. They do not sing the Irish national anthem but do sing a special song which has been written celebrating the "4 proud provinces" before matches start.

Cricket
Cricket
is also played in Ulster, especially in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and East Donegal.

Golf is, however, by far the most high-profile sport and the sport that Ulster
Ulster
has succeeded at more than any other. Ulster
Ulster
has produced many great players over the years, from Fred Daly winning The Open Championship in 1947 at the Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake to most recently Rory McIlroy winning the US Open and Darren Clarke winning The Open Championship in 2011. Ulster
Ulster
also has another Major winner in Graeme McDowell , who also won the US Open in 2010.

In horse racing, specifically National Hunt, Ulster
Ulster
has produced the most dominant jockey of all time, Tony McCoy.

The Circuit of Ireland
Ireland
Rally is an annual automobile rally held in Ulster
Ulster
since 1931.

SEE ALSO

* Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
portal * Ireland
Ireland
portal

* Ulster nationalism * Kings of Ulster * Ulster-Scots people * Plantations of Ireland
Ireland
* Culture of Ulster * Ulster GAA * Red Hand of Ulster * Ulidia (kingdom)

NOTES

* ^ Challoner, Richard. _A Memorial of Ancient British Piety: or, a British Martyrology_, p. 128. W. Needham, 1761. Accessed 14 March 2013. * ^ estimate * ^ "Table 1. Population of each Province, County and City and actual and percentage change, 2006 and 2011" (PDF). _Census of Population 2011: Preliminary Results_. Central Statistics Office . Retrieved 7 January 2012. * ^ Census of Ireland
Ireland
2016: 296,120 out of 1,684,250 total. * ^ Ulster
Ulster
Scots – Ulstèr-Scotch Archived 25 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine . NI Department for Regional Development. * ^ Ulster\'s Hiddlin Swaatch – Culture Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Dr Clifford Smyth * ^ Guide to Monea Castle – Ulster-Scots version Archived 30 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine . Department of the Environment. * ^ North-South Ministerial Council: 2010 Annual Report in Ulster Scots Archived 27 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ North-South Ministerial Council: 2009 Annual Report in Ulster Scots Archived 1 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Tourism Ireland: 2008 Yearly Report in Ulster
Ulster
Scots Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1, 19 February 2010, which gives "Ulster" as the official English name and "Ulaidh" as the official Irish name of the province, citing "Ordnance Survey Office, Dublin 1993" as its source – http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_3166-2_newsletter_ii-1_corrected_2010-02-19.pdf * ^ Jonathan Bardon; _A History of Ulster_, page 27. The Blackstaff Press, 2005. ISBN 0-85640-764-X * ^ Seán Duffy; _Brian Boru and the Battle of Clontarf_, page 26. Gill & Macmillan, 2014. ISBN 978-0-7171-6207-9 * ^ Rev. Isaac Taylor (1865). "Words and Places: Or, Etymological Illustrations of History, Ethnology, and Geography". Macmillan & Co. Retrieved 5 August 2015. * ^ Richard Froggatt. "Professor Sir John Byers (1853 - 1920)". Ulster
Ulster
History Circle. Retrieved 5 August 2015. * ^ County Down, _A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland_ (1837) * ^ Publications / Irish Archaeological Society, Dublin, Volume 1 * ^ Robert Bell; _The book of Ulster
Ulster
Surnames_, page 180. The Blackstaff Press, 2003. ISBN 0-85640-602-3 * ^ Ulster
Ulster
— Definitions from Dictionary.com * ^ _A_ _B_ CAIN – Glossary of Terms Related to the Northern Ireland
Ireland
Conflict * ^ Ulster
Ulster
Facts, information, pictures Encyclopedia.com articles about Ulster. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 23 July 2013. * ^ Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (7 April 2009). " Ireland
Ireland
imposes emergency cuts". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. * ^ "Community Background", 2011 Census, for NI, and "Religion", 2011 Census, for RoI * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. * ^ "DERRY-SLIGO TRAIN LINK "RAILED OUT" Derry
Derry
Daily". Retrieved 2016-08-26. * ^ _A_ _B_ Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Statistics and Research Agency Census 2001 Output * ^ CAIN: Key Issue: Language: Pritchard, R.M.O. (2004) Protestants and the Irish Language: Historical Heritage and Current Attitudes in Northern Ireland * ^ Gregg, R. J. (1972). "The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster". In Wakelin, Martyn F. (ed). _Patterns in the Folk Speech of the British Isles_. London: Athlone Press. ISBN 0-485-11128-4 . CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ Riordain, S. O. (1966). _Antiquities of the Irish Countryside_. University Paperbacks (reprint ed.). London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stewart, A. T. Q. (1989). _The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster_ (Rev. ed.). London: Faber and Faber Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-571-15485-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Falls, Cyril (1996). _The Birth of Ulster_. London: Constable and Company Ltd. pp. 156–157. ISBN 0-09-476610-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ Perceval-Maxwell, M. (1999). _The Scottish Migration to Ulster
Ulster
in the Reign of James I_. Belfast: Ulster
Ulster
Historical Foundation. p. 89. ISBN 0-901905-44-5 . * ^ T. A. Jackson, p. 51. * ^ Wars and Conflicts – Plantation of Ulster – English and Scottish Planters – 1641 Rebellion BBC History * ^ Davies, John (1890). Morley, Henry, ed. _A Discovery of the True Cause Why Ireland
Ireland
Was Never Entirely Subdued Nor Brought Under Obedience of the Crown of England Until the Beginning of His Majesty's Happy Reign_. London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd. pp. 218–219. * ^ BBC Short History * ^ Harris, Tim (2006). _Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685–1720_. London: Allen Lane. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-7139-9759-0 . * ^ Magennis, Eoin (1998). "A \'Beleaguered Protestant\'?: Walter Harris and the Writing of _Fiction Unmasked_ in Mid-18th-Century Ireland". _Eighteenth-Century Ireland_. 13: 6–111. Retrieved 16 March 2012. * ^ Rabushka, Alvin (2008). _Taxation in Colonial America, 1607–1775_. Princeton University Press. p. 279. ISBN 978-0-691-13345-4 . * ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/32717516/1919-Cork-Its-Trade-and-Commerce%7C pg 168 * ^ "The Future\'s Bright For Donegal\'s Orangemen". Independent News And Media. 11 July 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2008. * ^ Deane, C.D. 1983. _The Ulster
Ulster
Countryside_. p.81 Century Books * ^ Hackney, P. (ed) _Stewart and Corry's Flora of the North- east of Ireland_. Third edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast.p.3 - 10 ISBN 0-85389-446-9 * ^ FAI History * ^ Explaining Northern Ireland: Broken Images

REFERENCES

* Deane, C. Douglas (1983). _The Ulster
Ulster
Countryside_. Century Books. ISBN 0-903152-17-7 .

FURTHER READING

* Faulkner, J. and Thompson, R. 2011. _The Natural History of Ulster._ National Museums of Northern Ireland. Publication No. 026. ISBN 0-900761-49-0 * Morton, O. 1994. _Marine Algae of Northern Ireland._ Ulster Museum, Belfast. ISBN 0-900761-28-8 * _Stewart and Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland._ Third edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ULSTER _.

* BBC Nations History of Ireland * Census 2011 – Ulster Irish language

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