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Ulpian
Ulpian
(/ˈʌlpiən/; Latin: Gnaeus Domitius Annius Ulpianus; c. 170 – 223) was a prominent Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry. He was considered one of the great legal authorities of his time and was one of the five jurists upon whom decisions were to be based according to the Law of Citations of Valentinian III.[1]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Works 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Biography[edit] The exact time and place of his birth are unknown, but the period of his literary activity was between AD 211 and 222. He made his first appearance in public life as assessor in the auditorium of Papinian and member of the council of Septimius Severus; under Caracalla
Caracalla
he was master of the requests (magister libellorum). Elagabalus
Elagabalus
(also known as Heliogabalus) banished him from Rome, but on the accession of Severus Alexander
Severus Alexander
(222) he was reinstated, and finally became the emperor's chief adviser and Praefectus Praetorio. During the Severan dynasty, the position of Praetorian prefect
Praetorian prefect
in Italy
Italy
came increasingly to resemble a general administrative post, and there was a tendency to appoint jurists such as Aemilius Papinianus, who occupied the post from 203 until his elimination and execution at the ascent of Caracalla. Under Severus Alexander
Severus Alexander
the Praetorian prefecture was held by Ulpian
Ulpian
until his assassination by the Guard in the presence of the Emperor himself. His curtailment of the privileges granted to the Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
by Elagabalus
Elagabalus
provoked their enmity, and he narrowly escaped their vengeance; ultimately he was murdered in the palace by the Guard, in the course of a riot between the soldiers and the mob.[2] Works[edit] His works include Ad Sabinum, a commentary on the jus civile, in over 50 books; Ad edictum, a commentary on the Edict, in 83 books; collections of opinions, responses and disputations; books of rules and institutions; treatises on the functions of the different magistrates — one of them, the De officio proconsulis libri x., being a comprehensive exposition of the criminal law; monographs on various statutes, on testamentary trusts, and a variety of other works. His writings altogether have supplied to Justinian's Digest about a third of its contents, and his commentary on the Edict alone about a fifth. As an author, he is characterized by doctrinal exposition of a high order, judiciousness of criticism, and lucidity of arrangement, style and language.[2] He is also credited with the first life table ever.[3] Domitii Ulpiani fragmenta, consisting of 29 titles, were first edited by Tilius (Paris, 1549). Other editions are by Hugo (Berlin, 1834), Booking (Bonn, 1836), containing fragments of the first book of the Institutiones discovered by Endlicher at Vienna in 1835, and in Girard's Textes de droit romain (Paris, 1890).[2] Legacy[edit] It had been assumed for a long time that Ulpian
Ulpian
of Tyre was a model for Athenaeus' Ulpian
Ulpian
in The Deipnosophists — or The Banquet of the Learned. Athenaeus
Athenaeus
makes 'Ulpian' out to be a grammarian and philologist, characterised by his customary interjections: "Where does this word occur in writing?". He is represented as a symposiarch and he occupies a couch alone; his death is passed over in silence in Book XV 686 c. Scholars today agree that Athenaeus's Ulpian
Ulpian
is not the historical Ulpian, but possibly his father. The date of the real Ulpian's death in 223 AD has been wrongly used to estimate the date of completion of The Deipnosophists. In the study of law, he is mostly remembered for the phrase "Juris praecepta sunt haec: honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere (The basic principles of law are: to live honorably, not to harm any other person, to render each his own)".[4] See also[edit]

Praetorian prefect Pandects Aemilius Papinianus Julius Paulus Prudentissimus

Notes[edit]

^ Wolfgang Kaiser (2015). "Justinian and the Corpus Iuris Civilis". In Johnston, David. The Cambridge Companion to Roman Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 120. ISBN 9781139034401.  ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ulpian". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 567.  ^ Frier B., 1982, Roman Life Expectancy: Ulpian's Evidence, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, LXXXVI. ^ Justinian, Digest 1.1.10, in Watson, Alan (ed.) (1985). The Digest of Justinian. Philadelphia: U. Pennsylvania P. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

References[edit]

Tony Honoré, Ulpian: Pioneer of Human Rights; Oxford University Press; 2002.

External links[edit]

Frier, B (1982). "Roman Life Expectancy: Ulpian's Evidence". Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. United States. 86: 213–51. doi:10.2307/311195. ISSN 0073-0688. JSTOR 311195. PMID 16437859.  Hassl, Andreas R (2008). "The Significance of Malaria in the Western Roman Empire: A text passage in the Digesta". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. Austria. 120 (19-20 Suppl 4): 11–14. doi:10.1007/s00508-008-1033-2. ISSN 0043-5325. PMID 19066765. 

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100210035 LCCN: n81125955 ISNI: 0000 0003 5500 022X GND: 118803123 SUDOC: 137563736 BNF:

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