Ulpian (/ˈʌlpiən/; Latin: Gnaeus Domitius Annius Ulpianus; c.
170 – 223) was a prominent Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry. He
was considered one of the great legal authorities of his time and was
one of the five jurists upon whom decisions were to be based according
Law of Citations of Valentinian III.
4 See also
7 External links
The exact time and place of his birth are unknown, but the period of
his literary activity was between AD 211 and 222. He made his first
appearance in public life as assessor in the auditorium of Papinian
and member of the council of Septimius Severus; under
Caracalla he was
master of the requests (magister libellorum).
Elagabalus (also known
as Heliogabalus) banished him from Rome, but on the accession of
Severus Alexander (222) he was reinstated, and finally became the
emperor's chief adviser and Praefectus Praetorio.
During the Severan dynasty, the position of
Praetorian prefect in
Italy came increasingly to resemble a general administrative post, and
there was a tendency to appoint jurists such as Aemilius Papinianus,
who occupied the post from 203 until his elimination and execution at
the ascent of Caracalla. Under
Severus Alexander the Praetorian
prefecture was held by
Ulpian until his assassination by the Guard in
the presence of the Emperor himself.
His curtailment of the privileges granted to the
Praetorian Guard by
Elagabalus provoked their enmity, and he narrowly escaped their
vengeance; ultimately he was murdered in the palace by the Guard, in
the course of a riot between the soldiers and the mob.
His works include Ad Sabinum, a commentary on the jus civile, in over
50 books; Ad edictum, a commentary on the Edict, in 83 books;
collections of opinions, responses and disputations; books of rules
and institutions; treatises on the functions of the different
magistrates — one of them, the De officio proconsulis libri x.,
being a comprehensive exposition of the criminal law; monographs on
various statutes, on testamentary trusts, and a variety of other
works. His writings altogether have supplied to Justinian's Digest
about a third of its contents, and his commentary on the Edict alone
about a fifth. As an author, he is characterized by doctrinal
exposition of a high order, judiciousness of criticism, and lucidity
of arrangement, style and language. He is also credited with the
first life table ever.
Domitii Ulpiani fragmenta, consisting of 29 titles, were first edited
by Tilius (Paris, 1549). Other editions are by Hugo (Berlin, 1834),
Booking (Bonn, 1836), containing fragments of the first book of the
Institutiones discovered by Endlicher at Vienna in 1835, and in
Girard's Textes de droit romain (Paris, 1890).
It had been assumed for a long time that
Ulpian of Tyre was a model
Ulpian in The Deipnosophists — or The Banquet of the
Athenaeus makes 'Ulpian' out to be a grammarian and
philologist, characterised by his customary interjections: "Where does
this word occur in writing?". He is represented as a symposiarch and
he occupies a couch alone; his death is passed over in silence in Book
XV 686 c. Scholars today agree that Athenaeus's
Ulpian is not the
historical Ulpian, but possibly his father.
The date of the real Ulpian's death in 223 AD has been wrongly used to
estimate the date of completion of The Deipnosophists.
In the study of law, he is mostly remembered for the phrase "Juris
praecepta sunt haec: honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique
tribuere (The basic principles of law are: to live honorably, not to
harm any other person, to render each his own)".
Julius Paulus Prudentissimus
^ Wolfgang Kaiser (2015). "Justinian and the Corpus Iuris Civilis". In
Johnston, David. The Cambridge Companion to Roman Law. Cambridge
University Press. p. 120. ISBN 9781139034401.
^ a b c One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates
text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh,
ed. (1911). "Ulpian". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.).
Cambridge University Press. p. 567.
^ Frier B., 1982, Roman Life Expectancy: Ulpian's Evidence, Harvard
Studies in Classical Philology, LXXXVI.
^ Justinian, Digest 1.1.10, in Watson, Alan (ed.) (1985). The Digest
of Justinian. Philadelphia: U. Pennsylvania P. CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link)
Tony Honoré, Ulpian: Pioneer of Human Rights; Oxford University
Frier, B (1982). "Roman Life Expectancy: Ulpian's Evidence". Harvard
Studies in Classical Philology. United States. 86: 213–51.
doi:10.2307/311195. ISSN 0073-0688. JSTOR 311195.
Hassl, Andreas R (2008). "The Significance of Malaria in the Western
Roman Empire: A text passage in the Digesta". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
Austria. 120 (19-20 Suppl 4): 11–14. doi:10.1007/s00508-008-1033-2.
ISSN 0043-5325. PMID 19066765.
ISNI: 0000 0003 5500 022X