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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates : 1°N 32°E / 1°N 32°E / 1; 32

Republic
Republic
of Uganda
Uganda

Flag Coat of arms

MOTTO: "For God and My Country"

ANTHEM: " Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty"

Location of Uganda
Uganda
(dark green)

– in Africa
Africa
(light blue "> (light blue)

Capital and largest city Kampala
Kampala

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES English ("the official language"), Swahili ("the second official language")

VERNACULAR LANGUAGES

* Ateso /Akaramojong * Kakwa/Kuku * Kinyarwanda , * Kumam * Luganda * Lugbara (which also includes Madi ) * Lugwere/Lumasaba/Lugisu * Lunyoli * Luo (covering Lango , Acholi and Alur ) * Lusamia * Lusoga * Rukonjo * Runyankole/ Rukiga * Runyoro/Rutooro * Sebei

DEMONYM Ugandan

GOVERNMENT Dominant-partysemi-presidential republic

• PRESIDENT Yoweri Museveni

• VICE PRESIDENT Edward Kiwanuka Ssekandi

• PRIME MINISTER Ruhakana Rugunda

LEGISLATURE Parliament

INDEPENDENCE

• FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM 9 October 1962

• CURRENT CONSTITUTION 8 October 1995

AREA

• TOTAL 241,038 km2 (93,065 sq mi) (81st )

• WATER (%) 15.39

POPULATION

• ESTIMATE 37,873,253 (35th )

• 2014 CENSUS 34,634,650

• DENSITY 157.1/km2 (406.9/sq mi)

GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $91.212 billion

• PER CAPITA $2,155

GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $27.174 billion

• PER CAPITA $642

GINI (2012) 41.01 medium

HDI (2015) 0.493 low · 163rd

CURRENCY Ugandan shilling(UGX )

TIME ZONE EAT (UTC +3)

DRIVES ON THE left

CALLING CODE +256a

ISO 3166CODE UG

INTERNET TLD .ug
.ug

* +006 from Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania
Tanzania
.

UGANDA (/juːˈɡændə/ _yew-GAN-də_ or /juːˈɡɑːndə/ _yew-GAHN-də_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF UGANDA, is a landlocked country in East Africa
Africa
. It is bordered to the east by Kenya
Kenya
, to the north by South Sudan
South Sudan
, to the west by the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo , to the south-west by Rwanda
Rwanda
, and to the south by Tanzania
Tanzania
. The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
, shared with Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania. Uganda
Uganda
is in the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region. Uganda
Uganda
also lies within the Nile
Nile
basin , and has a varied but generally a modified equatorial climate.

Uganda
Uganda
takes its name from the Buganda
Buganda
kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country, including the capital Kampala
Kampala
. The people of Uganda
Uganda
were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu -speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country.

Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the British, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda
Uganda
gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962. The period since then has been marked by intermittent conflicts, including a lengthy civil war against the Lord\'s Resistance Army in the Northern Region , which has caused hundreds of thousands of casualties.

The official languages are English and Swahili , although "any other language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law." Luganda, a central language, is widely spoken across the country, and several other languages are also spoken including Runyoro, Runyankole, Rukiga, and Luo . The president of Uganda
Uganda
is Yoweri Museveni, who came to power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Uganda Protectorate
Uganda Protectorate
(1894–1962) * 1.2 Independence (1962 to 1965) * 1.3 1966–1971 (before the coup) * 1.4 1971 (after the coup) –1979 (end of Amin regime) * 1.5 1986–present

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Lakes and rivers

* 3 Environment and conservation

* 4 Government and politics

* 4.1 Corruption * 4.2 Political divisions * 4.3 Foreign relations and military

* 5 Human rights

* 5.1 LGBT rights

* 6 Economy and infrastructure

* 6.1 Poverty * 6.2 Communications * 6.3 Energy * 6.4 Water supply and sanitation * 6.5 Education * 6.6 Health * 6.7 Crime and law enforcement

* 7 Science and technology

* 8 Demographics

* 8.1 Languages * 8.2 Religion * 8.3 Largest cities

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Sport

* 9.1.1 Basketball * 9.1.2 Baseball

* 9.2 Media

* 9.2.1 Cinema

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading

* 13 External links

* 13.1 Overview * 13.2 Maps * 13.3 Government and economy * 13.4 Humanitarian issues * 13.5 Tourism

HISTORY

Main articles: Early history of Ugandaand History of Uganda

The ancestors of the Ugandans were hunter-gatherers until 1,700-2,300 years ago. Bantu -speaking populations, who were probably from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country.

According to oral tradition , the Empire of Kitaracovered an important part of the great lakes area , from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika . Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the Buganda
Buganda
, Toro , Ankole, and Busogakingdoms. Flag of the Uganda Protectorate
Uganda Protectorate

Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoroand assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama (ruler) of Bunyoro-Kitara.

Arab
Arab
traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s. They were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile
Nile
. :151 British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda
Buganda
in 1877 (a situation which gave rise to the death of the Uganda Martyrs
Uganda Martyrs
) and were followed by French Catholic
Catholic
missionaries in 1879. The British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa
Africa
Company (IBEAC) to negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. :51–58 From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda, initially between Muslims
Muslims
and Christians and then, from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics. Because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region. British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annex Buganda
Buganda
and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate
Uganda Protectorate
in 1894. :3–4

UGANDA PROTECTORATE (1894–1962)

Main article: Uganda Protectorate
Uganda Protectorate

In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India
India
were recruited to East Africa
Africa
under indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda Railway . Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa
Africa
after the line's completion. Subsequently, some became traders and took control of cotton ginning and sartorial retail.

From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than 250,000 people.

INDEPENDENCE (1962 TO 1965)

Uganda
Uganda
gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962 as a Commonwealth realm with Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
as head of state. In October 1963, Uganda
Uganda
became a republic but maintained its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
.

The first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda
Uganda
People\'s Congress (UPC) and Kabaka Yekka (KY). UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote
Milton Obote
as executive prime minister, with the Buganda
Buganda
Kabaka (King) Edward Muteesa II holding the largely ceremonial position of president. Construction of the Owen Falls Dam in Jinja . The Uganda
Uganda
Printers Building on Kampala
Kampala
Road, Kampala, Uganda
Uganda

1966–1971 (BEFORE THE COUP)

In 1966, following a power struggle between the Obote-led government and King Muteesa, Obote suspended the constitution and removed the ceremonial president and vice-president. In 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda
Uganda
a republic and abolished the traditional kingdoms. Obote was declared the president.

1971 (AFTER THE COUP) –1979 (END OF AMIN REGIME)

After a military coup on 25 January 1971 , Obote was deposed from power and General Idi Amin
Idi Amin
seized control of the country. Amin ruled Uganda
Uganda
as dictator with the support of the military for the next eight years. He carried out mass killings within the country to maintain his rule. An estimated 80,000-500,000 Ugandans lost their lives during his regime. Aside from his brutalities, he forcibly removed the entrepreneurial Indian minority from Uganda. In June 1976, Palestinian terrorists hijacked an Air France
Air France
flight and forced it to land at Entebbe
Entebbe
airport . One hundred of the 250 passengers originally on board were held hostage until an Israeli commando raid rescued them ten days later. Amin's reign was ended after the Uganda- Tanzania
Tanzania
War in 1979, in which Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles invaded Uganda.

1986–PRESENT

Belligerents of the Second Congo War. On December 19, 2005, the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
found against Uganda, in a case brought by the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo , for illegal invasion of its territory, and violation of human rights.

Museveni has been president since his forces toppled the previous regime in January 1986.

Political parties in Uganda
Uganda
were restricted in their activities beginning that year, in a measure ostensibly designed to reduce sectarian violence. In the non-party "Movement" system instituted by Museveni, political parties continued to exist, but they could operate only a headquarters office. They could not open branches, hold rallies, or field candidates directly (although electoral candidates could belong to political parties). A constitutional referendum cancelled this nineteen-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005.

In the mid-to-late 1990s, Museveni was lauded by western countries as part of a new generation of African leaders .

His presidency has been marred, however, by invading and occupying the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo during the Second Congo War, resulting in an estimated 5.4 million deaths since 1998, and by participating in other conflicts in the Great Lakes region of Africa
Africa
. He has struggled for years in the civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army, which has been guilty of numerous crimes against humanity, including child slavery , the Atiak massacre, and other mass murders. Conflict in northern Uganda
Uganda
has killed thousands and displaced millions.

Parliament abolished presidential term limits in 2005, allegedly because Museveni used public funds to pay US$2,000 to each member of parliament who supported the measure. Presidential elections were held in February 2006. Museveni ran against several candidates, the most prominent of them being Kizza Besigye.

On 20 February 2011, the Uganda
Uganda
Electoral Commission declared the incumbent president Yoweri Kaguta Museveni the winning candidate of the 2011 elections that were held on 18 February 2011. The opposition however, were not satisfied with the results, condemning them as full of sham and rigging. According to the official results, Museveni won with 68 percent of the votes. This easily topped his nearest challenger, Besigye, who had been Museveni's physician and told reporters that he and his supporters "downrightly snub" the outcome as well as the unremitting rule of Museveni or any person he may appoint. Besigye added that the rigged elections would definitely lead to an illegitimate leadership and that it is up to Ugandans to critically analyse this. The European Union's Election Observation Mission reported on improvements and flaws of the Ugandan electoral process: "The electoral campaign and polling day were conducted in a peaceful manner However, the electoral process was marred by avoidable administrative and logistical failures that led to an unacceptable number of Ugandan citizens being disfranchised."

Since August 2012, hacktivist group Anonymous has threatened Ugandan officials and hacked official government websites over its anti-gay bills. Some international donors have threatened to cut financial aid to the country if anti-gay bills continue.

Indicators of a plan for succession by the president's son, Muhoozi Kainerugaba, have increased tensions.

GEOGRAPHY

_ Regional map of Uganda. Mount Kadam, Uganda. Ugandan kob Uganda
Uganda
map of Köppen climate classification. The road between Otuboi and Bata near the Teso /Lango border Main article: Geography of Uganda

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The country is located on the East African Plateau, lying mostly between latitudes 4°N and 2°S (a small area is north of 4°), and longitudes 29° and 35°E . It averages about 1,100 metres (3,609 ft) above sea level, sloping very steadily downwards to the Sudanese Plain to the north.

LAKES AND RIVERS

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Much of the south of the country is heavily influenced by one of the world's biggest lakes, Lake Victoria, which contains many islands. Most important cities are located in the south, near this lake, including the capital Kampala
Kampala
and the nearby city of Entebbe.

Lake Kyoga
Lake Kyoga
is in the centre of the country and is surrounded by extensive marshy areas.

Although landlocked, Uganda
Uganda
contains many large lakes. Besides Lakes Victoria and Kyoga, there are Lake Albert , Lake Edward
Lake Edward
, and the smaller Lake George .

Uganda
Uganda
lies almost completely within the Nile
Nile
basin. The Victoria Nile
Nile
drains from Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
into Lake Kyoga
Lake Kyoga
and thence into Lake Albert on the Congolese border. It then runs northwards into South Sudan
Sudan
. An area in eastern Uganda
Uganda
is drained by the Suam River , part of the internal drainage basin of Lake Turkana
Lake Turkana
. The extreme north-eastern part of Uganda
Uganda
drains into the Lotikipi Basin, which is primarily in Kenya.

ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION

The Crested craneis the national bird. Main article: Conservation in Uganda

Uganda
Uganda
has 60 protected areas , including ten national parks: Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and Rwenzori Mountains National Park(both UNESCO World Heritage Sites ), Kibale National Park, Kidepo Valley National Park , Lake Mburo National Park, Mgahinga Gorilla National Park , Mount Elgon National Park, Murchison Falls National Park, Queen Elizabeth National Park, and Semuliki National Park.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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Yoweri Museveni, President of Uganda Main article: Politics of Uganda
Uganda

The President of Ugandais both head of state and head of government . The president appoints a vice-president and a prime minister to aid him in governing. U.S. President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
met with President Yoweri Museveniin Entebbe, Uganda, July 11, 2003.

The parliament is formed by the National Assembly , which has 449 members. These include; 290 constituency representatives, 116 district woman representatives, 10 representatives of the Uganda
Uganda
Peoples Defence Forces, 5 representatives of the youth, 5 representatives of workers, 5 representatives of persons with disabilities and 18 ex-official members.

CORRUPTION

Transparency Internationalhas rated Uganda's public sector as one of the most corrupt in the world. In 2016, Uganda
Uganda
ranked 151st worst out of 176 and had a score of 25 on a scale from 0 (perceived as most corrupt) to 100 (perceived as clean).

The World Bank
World Bank
's 2015 Worldwide Governance Indicators ranked Uganda in the worst 12 percentile of all countries. According to the United States Department of State 's 2012 Human Rights Report on Uganda, "The World Bank's most recent Worldwide Governance Indicators reflected corruption was a severe problem" and that "the country annually loses 768.9 billion shillings ($286 million) to corruption."

Ugandan parliamentarians in 2014 were earning 60 times what was being earned by most state employees and they were seeking a major increase. This was causing widespread criticism and protests, including the smuggling of two piglets into the parliament in June 2014 to highlight corruption amongst members of parliament. The protesters, who were arrested, were using the word "MPigs" to highlight their grievance.

A specific scandal, which had significant international consequences and highlighted the presence of corruption in high-level government offices, was the embezzlement of $12.6 million of donor funds from the Office of the Prime Minister in 2012. These funds were "earmarked as crucial support for rebuilding northern Uganda, ravaged by a 20-year war, and Karamoja, Uganda's poorest region." This scandal prompted the EU, the UK, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, and Norway to suspend aid.

Widespread grand and petty corruption involving public officials and political patronage systems have also seriously affected the investment climate in Uganda. One of the high corruption risk areas is the public procurement in which non-transparent under-the-table cash payments are often demanded from procurement officers.

What may ultimately compound this problem is the availability of oil. The Petroleum Bill, passed by parliament in 2012 and touted by the NRM as bringing transparency to the oil sector, has failed to please domestic and international political commentators and economists. For instance, Angelo Izama, a Ugandan energy analyst at the US-based Open Society Foundation said the new law was tantamount to "handing over an ATM (cash) machine" to Museveni and his regime. According to Global Witness in 2012, a non-governmental organization devoted to international law, Uganda
Uganda
now has "oil reserves that have the potential to double the government's revenue within six to ten years, worth an estimated" US $2.4 billion per year.

The Non-Governmental Organizations (Amendment) Act, passed in 2006, has stifled the productivity of NGOs through erecting barriers to entry, activity, funding and assembly within the sector. Burdensome and corrupt registration procedures (i.e. requiring recommendations from government officials; annual re-registration), unreasonable regulation of operations (i.e. requiring government notification prior to making contact with individuals in NGO's area of interest), and the precondition that all foreign funds be passed through the Bank of Uganda, among other things, are severely limiting the output of the NGO
NGO
sector. Furthermore, the sector's freedom of speech has been continually infringed upon through the use of intimidation, and the recent Public Order Management Bill (severely limiting freedom of assembly) will only add to the government's stockpile of ammunition.

POLITICAL DIVISIONS

Main article: Administrative divisions of Uganda

Uganda
Uganda
is divided into 112 districts . The districts are subdivided into counties . Each county is subdivided into sub-counties , parishes, and villages.

Administrative units (August 2014) DISTRICTS 112

Counties 181

Sub counties 1,382

Municipalities 22

Town councils 174

Political subdivisions in Uganda
Uganda
are officially served and united by the Uganda Local Governments Association(ULGA), a voluntary and non-profit body which also serves as a forum for support and guidance for Ugandan sub-national governments.

Parallel with the state administration, five traditional Bantu kingdoms have remained, enjoying some degrees of mainly cultural autonomy. The kingdoms are Toro , Busoga, Bunyoro, Buganda
Buganda
, and Rwenzururu. Furthermore, some groups attempt to restore Ankoleas one of the officially recognised traditional kingdoms, to no avail yet. Several other kingdoms and chiefdoms are officially recognized by the government, including the union of Alur chiefdoms, the Iteso paramount chieftaincy, the paramount chieftaincy of Lango and the Padhola state.

FOREIGN RELATIONS AND MILITARY

Further information: Foreign relations of Ugandaand Uganda
Uganda
People\'s Defence Force

In Uganda, the Uganda
Uganda
People\'s Defence Force serves as the military. The number of military personnel in Uganda
Uganda
is estimated at 45,000 soldiers on active duty. The Uganda
Uganda
army is involved in several peacekeeping and combat missions in the region, with commentators noting that only the United States Armed Forces
United States Armed Forces
is deployed in more countries. Uganda
Uganda
has soldiers deployed in the northern and eastern areas of the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo and in the Central African Republic
Republic
, Somalia
Somalia
, and South Sudan
South Sudan
.

HUMAN RIGHTS

Main article: Human rights in Uganda Two women in Gulu
Gulu
whose lips have been cut off by Lord\'s Resistance Army rebels

There are many areas which continue to attract concern when it comes to human rights in Uganda.

Conflict in the northern parts of the country continues to generate reports of abuses by both the rebel Lord\'s Resistance Army (LRA), led by Joseph Kony, and the Ugandan Army . A UN official accused the LRA in February 2009 of "appalling brutality" in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The number of internally displaced persons is estimated at 1.4 million. Torture continues to be a widespread practice amongst security organisations. Attacks on political freedom in the country, including the arrest and beating of opposition members of parliament, have led to international criticism, culminating in May 2005 in a decision by the British government to withhold part of its aid to the country. The arrest of the main opposition leader Kizza Besigyeand the siege of the High Court during a hearing of Besigye's case by heavily armed security forces – before the February 2006 elections – led to condemnation.

Child labour
Child labour
is common in Uganda. Many child workers are active in agriculture. Children who work on tobacco farms in Uganda
Uganda
are exposed to health hazards. Child domestic servants in Uganda
Uganda
risk sexual abuse . Trafficking of childrenoccurs. Slavery
Slavery
and forced labour are prohibited by the Ugandan constitution.

The US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported several violations of refugee rights in 2007, including forcible deportations by the Ugandan government and violence directed against refugees.

Torture and extrajudicial killings have been a pervasive problem in Uganda
Uganda
in recent years. For instance, according to a 2012 US State Department report, "the African Center for Treatment and Rehabilitation for Torture Victims registered 170 allegations of torture against police, 214 against the UPDF, 1 against military police, 23 against the Special
Special
Investigations Unit, 361 against unspecified security personnel, and 24 against prison officials" between January and September 2012.

In September 2009 Museveni refused Kabaka Muwenda Mutebi, the Baganda king, permission to visit some areas of Buganda
Buganda
Kingdom, particularly the Kayunga district. Riots occurred and over 40 people were killed while others remain imprisoned to this date. Furthermore, 9 more people were killed during the April 2011 "Walk to Work" demonstrations. According to the Humans Rights Watch 2013 World Report on Uganda, the government has failed to investigate the killings associated with both of these events.

LGBT RIGHTS

Main article: LGBT rights in Uganda Protests in New York City against Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill.

In 2007, a Ugandan newspaper, the _Red Pepper _, published a list of allegedly gay men, many of whom suffered harassment as a result.

On 9 October 2010, the Ugandan newspaper _Rolling Stone _ published a front page article titled "100 Pictures of Uganda's Top Homos Leak" that listed the names, addresses, and photographs of 100 homosexuals alongside a yellow banner that read "Hang Them". The paper also alleged that homosexuals aimed to recruit Ugandan children. This publication attracted international attention and criticism from human rights organisations, such as Amnesty International
Amnesty International
, No Peace Without Justice and the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association . According to gay rights activists, many Ugandans have been attacked since the publication. On 27 January 2011, gay rights activist David Katowas murdered.

In 2009, the Ugandan parliament considered an Anti-Homosexuality Bill that would have broadened the criminalisation of homosexuality by introducing the death penalty for people who have previous convictions, or are HIV-positive, and engage in same-sex sexual acts. The bill also included provisions for Ugandans who engage in same-sex sexual relations outside of Uganda, asserting that they may be extradited back to Uganda
Uganda
for punishment, and included penalties for individuals, companies, media organisations, or non-governmental organisations that support legal protection for homosexuality or sodomy. The private member\'s bill was submitted by MP David Bahatiin Uganda
Uganda
on 14 October 2009, and was believed to have had widespread support in the Uganda
Uganda
parliament. The hacktivist group Anonymous hacked into Ugandan government websites in protest of the bill. The debate of the bill was delayed in response to global condemnation but was eventually passed on 20 December 2013 and signed by President Yoweri Musevenion 24 February 2014. The death penalty was dropped in the final legislation. The law was widely condemned by the international community. Denmark, the Netherlands, and Sweden said they would withhold aid. The World Bank
World Bank
on 28 February 2014 said it would postpone a US$90 million loan, while the United States said it was reviewing ties with Uganda. On 1 August 2014, the Constitutional Court of Uganda
Uganda
ruled the bill invalid as it was not passed with the required quorum . A 13 August 2014 news report said that the Ugandan attorney general had dropped all plans to appeal, per a directive from President Museveni who was concerned about foreign reaction to the bill and who also said that any newly introduced bill should not criminalize same-sex relationships between consenting adults.

ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Main articles: Economy of Uganda, Energy in Uganda, and Agriculture in Uganda
Uganda
Downtown Kampala
Kampala
, the capital city.

The Bank of Ugandais the central bank of Uganda
Uganda
and handles monetary policy along with the printing of the Ugandan shilling.

In 2015, Uganda's economy generated export income from the following merchandise: coffee (US $402.63 million), oil re-exports (US $131.25 million), base metals and products (US $120.00 million), fish (US $117.56 million), maize (US $90.97 million), cement (US $80.13 million), tobacco (US $73.13 million), tea (US $69.94 million), sugar (US $66.43 million), hides and skins (US $62.71 million), cocoa beans (US $55.67 million), beans (US $53.88 million), simsim (US $52.20 million), flowers (US $51.44 million), and other products (US $766.77 million).

The country has been experiencing consistent economic growth. In fiscal year 2015-16, Uganda
Uganda
recorded gross domestic product growth of 4.6 percent in real terms and 11.6 percent in nominal terms. This compares to 5.0 percent real growth in fiscal year 2014-15. :vii

The country has largely untapped reserves of both crude oil and natural gas. While agriculture accounted for 56 percent of the economy in 1986, with coffee as its main export, it has now been surpassed by the services sector, which accounted for 52 percent of GDP in 2007. In the 1950s, the British colonial regime encouraged some 500,000 subsistence farmers to join co-operatives. Since 1986, the government (with the support of foreign countries and international agencies) has acted to rehabilitate an economy devastated during the regime of Idi Amin
Idi Amin
and the subsequent civil war. Suburban Kampala. Graphical depiction of Uganda's product exports in 28 color-coded categories. Coffee fields in southwestern Uganda
Uganda

In 2012, the World Bank
World Bank
still listed Uganda
Uganda
on the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries list.

Economic growth has not always led to poverty reduction . Despite an average annual growth of 2.5 percent between 2000 and 2003, poverty levels increased by 3.8 percent during that time. This has highlighted the importance of avoiding jobless growth and is part of the rising awareness in development circles of the need for equitable growth not just in Uganda, but across the developing world.

With the Uganda
Uganda
securities exchanges established in 1996, several equities have been listed. The government has used the stock market as an avenue for privatisation. All government treasury issues are listed on the securities exchange. The Capital Markets Authority has licensed 18 brokers, asset managers, and investment advisors including: African Alliance Investment Bank, Baroda Capital Markets Uganda
Uganda
Limited, Crane Financial Services Uganda
Uganda
Limited, Crested Stocks and Securities Limited, Dyer "> Street views in Kampala
Kampala

Uganda
Uganda
is one of the poorest nations in the world. In 2012, 37.8 percent of the population lived on less than $1.25 a day. Despite making enormous progress in reducing the countrywide poverty incidence from 56 percent of the population in 1992 to 24.5 percent in 2009, poverty remains deep-rooted in the country's rural areas, which are home to 84 percent of Ugandans.

People in rural areas of Uganda
Uganda
depend on farming as the main source of income and 90 per cent of all rural women work in the agricultural sector. In addition to agricultural work, rural women are responsible for the caretaking of their families. The average Ugandan woman spends 9 hours a day on domestic tasks, such as preparing food and clothing, fetching water and firewood, and caring for the elderly, the sick as well as orphans. As such, women on average work longer hours than men, between 12 and 18 hours per day, with a mean of 15 hours, as compared to men, who work between 8 and 10 hours a day.

To supplement their income, rural women may engage in small-scale entrepreneurial activities such as rearing and selling local breeds of animals. Nonetheless, because of their heavy workload, they have little time for these income-generating activities. The poor cannot support their children at school and in most cases, girls drop out of school to help out in domestic work or to get married. Other girls engage in sex work. As a result, young women tend to have older and more sexually experienced partners and this puts women at a disproportionate risk of getting affected by HIV, accounting for about 57 per cent of all adults living with HIV
HIV
in Uganda.

Maternal health in rural Uganda
Uganda
lags behind national policy targets and the Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
, with geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport and financial burdens identified as key demand-side constraints to accessing maternal health services; as such, interventions like intermediate transport mechanisms have been adopted as a means to improve women's access to maternal health care services in rural regions of the country.

Gender inequality is the main hindrance to reducing women's poverty. Women are subjected to an overall lower social status than men. For many women, this reduces their power to act independently, participate in community life, become educated and escape reliance upon abusive men.

COMMUNICATIONS

_ An advertisement for a mobile phone carrier on a van in Kampala. Main article: Communications in Uganda

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2013)_

There are seven telecommunications companies serving over 21 million subscribers in a population of over 34 million. More than 95 percent of internet connections are made using mobile phones.

The total mobile and fixed telephony subscriptions increased from over 20 million to over 21 million yielding an increment of over 1.1 million subscribers (5.4 increase) compared to the 4.1 percent increases realized in the previous quarter Q4 2014 (October–December). The road between Fort Portal
Fort Portal
and Rebisengo

Mobile "> Northern corridor road from Kampala
Kampala
to Gulu
Gulu
at Matugga Town in Wakiso District

ENERGY

See also: Energy in Uganda

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2013)_

In the 1980s, the majority of energy in Uganda
Uganda
came from charcoal and wood. However, oil was found in the Lake Albert area, totaling an estimated 95,000,000 m3 (3.354893339×109 cu ft) barrels of crude. Heritage Oildiscovered one of the largest crude oil finds in Uganda, and continues operations there.

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Uganda

According to a 2006 published report, the Ugandan water supply and sanitation sector had made substantial progress in urban areas since the mid-1990s, with substantial increases in coverage as well as in operational and commercial performance. :3–4 Sector reforms in the period 1998-2003 included the commercialization and modernization of the National Water and Sewerage Corporationoperating in cities and larger towns, as well as decentralization and private sector participation in small towns. :15

Although, these reforms have attracted significant international attention, 38 percent of the population still had no access to an improved water source in 2010. Concerning access to improved sanitation , figures have varied widely. According to government figures, it was 70 percent in rural areas and 81 percent in urban areas in 2011, while according to UN figures it was only 34 percent.

The water and sanitation sector was recognized as a key area under the 2004 Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), Uganda's main strategy paper to fight poverty. :182–188 According to a 2006 published report, a comprehensive expenditure framework had been introduced to coordinate financial support by external donors, the national government, and nongovernmental organizations . :5 The PEAP estimated that from 2001 to 2015, about US $1.4 billion, or US $92 million per year, was needed to increase water supply coverage up to 95 percent, with rural areas needing US $956 million, urban areas and large towns needing US $281 million, and small towns needing US $136 million. :182–183

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Uganda Students in Uganda
Uganda
Children attending a primary education program for conflict-affected students

At the 2002 census, Uganda
Uganda
had a literacy rate of 66.8 percent (76.8 percent male and 57.7 percent female). Public spending on education was at 5.2 percent of the 2002–2005 GDP.

HEALTH

Main articles: Health in Ugandaand HIV/AIDS in Uganda Lira, Uganda
Uganda
.

Uganda
Uganda
has been among the rare HIV
HIV
success stories. Infection rates of 30 per cent of the population in the 1980s fell to 6.4 percent by the end of 2008. However, there has been a spike in recent years compared to the mid-1990s. Meanwhile, the practice of abstinence was found to have decreased.

The prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) is low: according to a 2013 UNICEF report, Only 1 percent of women in Uganda
Uganda
have undergone FGM, with the practice being illegal in the country.

Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth was estimated to be 53.45 years in 2012. The infant mortality rate was approximately 61 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012. There were eight physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s. The 2006 Uganda
Uganda
Demographic Health Survey (UDHS) indicated that roughly 6,000 women die each year from pregnancy-related complications. However, recent pilot studies by Future Health Systems have shown that this rate could be significantly reduced by implementing a voucher scheme for health services and transport to clinics.

Uganda's elimination of user fees at state health facilities in 2001 has resulted in an 80 percent increase in visits, with over half of this increase coming from the poorest 20 percent of the population. This policy has been cited as a key factor in helping Uganda
Uganda
achieve its Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
and as an example of the importance of equity in achieving those goals. Despite this policy, many users are denied care if they do not provide their own medical equipment, as happened in the highly publicised case of Jennifer Anguko. Poor communication within hospitals, low satisfaction with health services and distance to health service providers undermine the provision of quality health care to people living in Uganda, and particularly for those in poor and elderly-headed households. The provision of subsidies for poor and rural populations, along with the extension of public private partnerships, have been identified as important provisions to enable vulnerable populations to access health services.

In July 2012, there was an Ebola
Ebola
outbreak in the Kibaale District
Kibaale District
of the country. On 4 October 2012, the Ministry of Health officially declared the end of the outbreak after at least 16 people had died.

The Health Ministry announced on 16 August 2013 that three people had died in northern Uganda
Uganda
from a suspected outbreak of Congo Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever .

CRIME AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2013)_

In Uganda, the Allied Democratic Forces
Allied Democratic Forces
is considered a violent rebel force that opposes the Ugandan government. These rebels are an enemy of the Uganda People's Defence Forceand are considered an affiliate of Al-Shabaab .

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Main article: Science and technology in Uganda

The _National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy_ dates from 2009. Its overarching goal is to ‘strengthen national capability to generate, transfer and apply scientific knowledge, skills and technologies that ensure sustainable utilisation of natural resources for the realisation of Uganda’s development objectives.’ The policy precedes Uganda
Uganda
Vision 2040, which was launched in April 2013 to transform ‘Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years,’ in the words of the Cabinet. Uganda
Uganda
Vision 2040 vows to strengthen the private sector, improve education and training, modernize infrastructure and the underdeveloped services and agriculture sectors, foster industrialization and promote good governance, among other goals. Potential areas for economic development include oil and gas, tourism, minerals and information and communication technologies (ICTs).

Research funding climbed between 2008 and 2010 from 0.33% to 0.48% of GDP. Over the same period, the number of researchers doubled (in head counts) from 1 387 to 2 823, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics . This represents a leap from 44 to 83 researchers per million inhabitants over the same period. One in four researchers is a woman. Uganda
Uganda
has been able to manufacture prototype of cars called kiira in which the government invested 70usd.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Uganda
Demographics of Uganda
Cultural celebrations in Northern Uganda
Uganda

The country has a significant overpopulation problem. Uganda's population grew from 9.5 million people in 1969 to 34.9 million in 2014. With respect to the last inter-censal period (September 2002), the population increased by 10.6 million people in the past 12 years. Uganda's median age of 15 years is the lowest in the world. Uganda has the fifth highest total fertility rate in the world, at 5.97 children born per woman (2014 estimates).

There were about 80,000 Indians in Ugandabefore Idi Amin
Idi Amin
required the expulsion of Ugandan-Asians (mostly of Indian origin) in 1972, which reduced the population to as low as 7,000. Many Indians, however, returned to Uganda
Uganda
after Amin's fall ouster in 1979. Around 90 percent of Ugandan Indians reside in Kampala.

According to the UNHCR, Uganda
Uganda
hosted over 190,000 refugees in 2013. Most of the latter came from neighbouring countries in the African Great Lakes region, namely Burundi
Burundi
, the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo, Kenya
Kenya
, Rwanda
Rwanda
, and Sudan
Sudan
.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of Uganda An ethnolinguistic map of Uganda
Uganda

Swahili , a widely used language throughout the African Great Lakes region, was approved as the country's second official national language in 2005. English was the only official language until the constitution was amended in 2005. Although Swahili has not been favoured by the Bantu-speaking populations of the south and south-west of the country, it is an important _lingua franca _ in the northern regions. It is also widely used in the police and military forces, which may be a historical result of the disproportionate recruitment of northerners into the security forces during the colonial period. The status of Swahili has thus alternated with the political group in power. For example, Idi Amin, who came from the north-west, declared Swahili to be the national language.

RELIGION

_ This article needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2017)_

Main article: Religion in Uganda Church in Entebbe
Entebbe
Gaddafi National Mosque

According to the 2002 census, Christians made up about 85 percent of Uganda's population. The Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church had the largest number of adherents (41.9 percent), followed by the Anglican Church of Uganda (35.9 percent). Adventist , Evangelical
Evangelical
, Pentecostal
Pentecostal
, and other Protestant
Protestant
churches claimed most of the remaining Christians, although there was also a tiny Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
community. The next most reported religion of Uganda
Uganda
was Islam , with Muslims
Muslims
representing 12.1 percent of the population.

The Muslim population is primarily Sunni. There are also minorities who are Shia
Shia
(7 percent), Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
(4 percent), and those that are non-denominational Muslims
Muslims
, Sufi
Sufi
Muslims
Muslims
.

The remainder of the population according to the 2002 census followed traditional religions (1.0 percent), Baha'i (0.1 percent), other non-Christian religions (0.7 percent), or had no religious affiliation (0.9 percent).

The Northern Region , including the West Nile
Nile
sub-region , is predominantly Catholic
Catholic
, while the Iganga Districtin eastern Uganda has the highest percentage of Muslims. The rest of the country has a mix of religious affiliations.

LARGEST CITIES

* v * t * e

Largest urban centres in Uganda Uganda Bureau of Statistics2016, _National Population and Housing Census 2014 – Main Report_, p. 11

RANK NAME DISTRICT POP.

Kampala
Kampala
1 Kampala
Kampala
Kampala
Kampala
1,507,114

2 Nansana Wakiso 365,857

3 Kira Wakiso 317,428

4 Makindye Ssabagabo Wakiso 282,664

5 Mbarara
Mbarara
Mbarara
Mbarara
195,160

6 Mukono
Mukono
Mukono
Mukono
162,744

7 Gulu
Gulu
Gulu
Gulu
149,802

8 Lugazi Buikwe 114,163

9 Kasese Kasese 103,293

10 Masaka Masaka 101,557

CULTURE

Main articles: Culture of Uganda, Music of Uganda, Ugandan cuisine , List of African writers (by country) § Uganda
Uganda
, and List of Ugandans Woman in Ruwenzori – Western Uganda
Uganda

Owing to the large number of communities, culture within Uganda
Uganda
is diverse. Many Asians (mostly from India) who were expelled during the regime of Idi Amin
Idi Amin
have returned to Uganda.

SPORT

Basketball

The country has an increasingly successful national basketball team . It is nicknamed "The Silverbacks", and made its debut at the 2015 FIBA Africa
Africa
Championship .

Baseball

In July 2011, Kampala, Uganda
Uganda
qualified for the 2011 Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania
Williamsport, Pennsylvania
for the first time, beating Saudi Arabian baseball team Dharan LL, although visa complications prevented them from attending the series. Little League teams from Uganda
Uganda
qualified for and attended the 2012 .d

MEDIA

Main article: Media of Uganda

Cinema

Main article: Cinema of Uganda

The Ugandan film industry is relatively young. It is developing quickly, but still faces an assortment of challenges. There has been support for the industry as seen in the proliferation of film festivals such as Amakula, Pearl International Film Festival, Maisha African Film Festival and Manya Human Rights Festival. However filmmakers struggle against the competing markets from other countries on the continent such as those in Nigeria
Nigeria
and South Africa
Africa
in addition to the big budget films from Hollywood.

The first publicly recognised film that was produced solely by Ugandans was _Feelings Struggle_, which was directed and written by Hajji Ashraf Ssemwogererein 2005. This marks the year of ascent of film in Uganda, a time where many enthusiasts were proud to classify themselves as cinematographers in varied capacities.

The local film industry is polarised between two types of filmmakers. The first are filmmakers who use the Nollywood
Nollywood
video film era 's guerrilla approach to film making, churning out a picture in around two weeks and screening it in makeshift video halls. The second is the filmmaker who has the film aesthetic, but with limited funds has to depend on the competitive scramble for donor cash.

Though cinema in Uganda
Uganda
is evolving it still faces major challenges. Along with technical problems such as refining acting and editing skills, there are issues regarding funding and lack of government support and investment. There are no schools in the country dedicated to film, banks do not extend credit to film ventures, and distribution and marketing of movies remains poor.

The Uganda
Uganda
Communications Commission (UCC) is preparing regulations starting in 2014 that require Ugandan television to broadcast 70 percent Ugandan content and of this, 40 percent to be independent productions. With the emphasis on Ugandan Film and the UCC regulations favouring Ugandan productions for mainstream television, Ugandan film may become more prominent and successful in the near future.

SEE ALSO

* _ Geography portal * Africa
Africa
portal * Uganda
Uganda
portal

* Book: Uganda
Uganda

* Conservation in Uganda * Index of Uganda-related articles * National Heroes\' Day * Kisizi * List of national parks of Uganda * Outline of Uganda * The Uganda Scouts Association * Tourism in Uganda * Uganda AIDS Orphan Children Foundation * War/Dance_ * Football in Uganda * Supreme Court of Uganda * Transport in Uganda

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FURTHER READING

Encyclopedia

* Appiah, Anthony and Henry Louis Gates (ed). _Encyclopaedia of Africa_ (2010). Oxford University Press. * Middleton, John (ed). _New encyclopaedia of Africa_ (2008). Detroit: Thompson-Gale. * Shillington, Kevin (ed). _Encyclopedia of African history_ (2005). CRC Press.

Selected books

* BakamaNume, Bakama B. _A Contemporary Geography of Uganda._ (2011) African Books Collective. * Robert Barlas (2000). _ Uganda
Uganda
(Cultures of the World)_. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9780761409816 . OCLC