Coordinates : 1°N 32°E / 1°N 32°E / 1; 32
Flag Coat of arms
MOTTO: "For God and My Country"
Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty"
Africa (light blue "> (light blue)
and largest city
English ("the official language"), Swahili ("the second official
* Ateso /Akaramojong
* Kinyarwanda ,
* Lugbara (which also includes Madi )
* Luo (covering Lango , Acholi and Alur )
• VICE PRESIDENT
Edward Kiwanuka Ssekandi
• PRIME MINISTER
• FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
9 October 1962
• CURRENT CONSTITUTION
8 October 1995
241,038 km2 (93,065 sq mi) (81st )
• WATER (%)
37,873,253 (35th )
• 2014 CENSUS
157.1/km2 (406.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP )
• PER CAPITA
• PER CAPITA
low · 163rd
Ugandan shilling(UGX )
EAT (UTC +3)
DRIVES ON THE
* +006 from
UGANDA (/juːˈɡændə/ _yew-GAN-də_ or /juːˈɡɑːndə/
_yew-GAHN-də_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF UGANDA, is a landlocked
country in East
Africa. It is bordered to the east by
Kenya, to the
South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic
Congo , to the south-west by
Rwanda, and to the south by
The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of
Lake Victoria, shared with
Ugandais in the
African Great Lakes
African Great Lakesregion.
Ugandaalso lies within the
and has a varied but generally a modified equatorial climate.
Ugandatakes its name from the
Bugandakingdom, which encompasses a
large portion of the south of the country, including the capital
Kampala. The people of
Ugandawere hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to
2,300 years ago, when Bantu -speaking populations migrated to the
southern parts of the country.
Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the
British, who established administrative law across the territory.
Ugandagained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962. The period
since then has been marked by intermittent conflicts, including a
lengthy civil war against the Lord\'s Resistance Army in the Northern
Region , which has caused hundreds of thousands of casualties.
The official languages are English and Swahili , although "any other
language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other
educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or
judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law."
Luganda, a central
language, is widely spoken across the country, and several other
languages are also spoken including
and Luo . The president of
Yoweri Museveni, who came to
power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war.
* 1 History
* 1.2 Independence (1962 to 1965)
* 1.3 1966–1971 (before the coup)
* 1.4 1971 (after the coup) –1979 (end of Amin regime)
* 1.5 1986–present
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Lakes and rivers
* 3 Environment and conservation
* 4 Government and politics
* 4.1 Corruption
* 4.2 Political divisions
* 4.3 Foreign relations and military
* 5 Human rights
* 5.1 LGBT rights
* 6 Economy and infrastructure
* 6.1 Poverty
* 6.2 Communications
* 6.3 Energy
* 6.4 Water supply and sanitation
* 6.5 Education
* 6.6 Health
* 6.7 Crime and law enforcement
* 7 Science and technology
* 8 Demographics
* 8.1 Languages
* 8.2 Religion
* 8.3 Largest cities
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Sport
* 9.1.1 Basketball
* 9.1.2 Baseball
* 9.2 Media
* 9.2.1 Cinema
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
* 13.1 Overview
* 13.2 Maps
* 13.3 Government and economy
* 13.4 Humanitarian issues
* 13.5 Tourism
Early history of Ugandaand
History of Uganda
The ancestors of the Ugandans were hunter-gatherers until 1,700-2,300
years ago. Bantu -speaking populations, who were probably from central
Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country.
According to oral tradition , the
Empire of Kitaracovered an
important part of the great lakes area , from the northern lakes
Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika .
Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the
Buganda, Toro ,
Busogakingdoms. Flag of the
Some Luo invaded the area of
Bunyoroand assimilated with the Bantu
there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama (ruler)
Arabtraders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa
in the 1830s. They were followed in the 1860s by British explorers
searching for the source of the
Nile. :151 British Anglican
missionaries arrived in the kingdom of
Bugandain 1877 (a situation
which gave rise to the death of the
Uganda Martyrs) and were followed
Catholicmissionaries in 1879. The British government
chartered the Imperial British East
AfricaCompany (IBEAC) to
negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. :51–58
From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda, initially
Muslimsand Christians and then, from 1890, between ba-Ingleza
Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics. Because of civil unrest and
financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their
occupation" in the region. British commercial interests were ardent
to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British
government to annex
Bugandaand adjoining territories to create the
Uganda Protectoratein 1894. :3–4
UGANDA PROTECTORATE (1894–1962)
In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British
Indiawere recruited to
Africaunder indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda
Railway . Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724
decided to remain in East
Africaafter the line's completion.
Subsequently, some became traders and took control of cotton ginning
and sartorial retail.
From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part
of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than
INDEPENDENCE (1962 TO 1965)
Ugandagained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962 as a
Commonwealth realm with
Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth IIas head of state. In
Ugandabecame a republic but maintained its membership
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations.
The first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an
alliance between the
UgandaPeople\'s Congress (UPC) and Kabaka Yekka
(KY). UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with
Milton Oboteas executive prime minister, with the
(King) Edward Muteesa II holding the largely ceremonial position of
president. Construction of the Owen Falls Dam in Jinja .
UgandaPrinters Building on
1966–1971 (BEFORE THE COUP)
In 1966, following a power struggle between the Obote-led government
and King Muteesa, Obote suspended the constitution and removed the
ceremonial president and vice-president. In 1967, a new constitution
Ugandaa republic and abolished the traditional kingdoms.
Obote was declared the president.
1971 (AFTER THE COUP) –1979 (END OF AMIN REGIME)
After a military coup on 25 January 1971 , Obote was deposed from
power and General
Idi Aminseized control of the country. Amin ruled
Ugandaas dictator with the support of the military for the next eight
years. He carried out mass killings within the country to maintain
his rule. An estimated 80,000-500,000 Ugandans lost their lives during
his regime. Aside from his brutalities, he forcibly removed the
entrepreneurial Indian minority from Uganda. In June 1976,
Palestinian terrorists hijacked an
Air Franceflight and forced it to
Entebbeairport . One hundred of the 250 passengers originally
on board were held hostage until an Israeli commando raid rescued them
ten days later. Amin's reign was ended after the Uganda-
in 1979, in which Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles invaded
Belligerents of the Second Congo War. On December 19, 2005, the
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justicefound against Uganda, in a case brought
by the Democratic
Republicof the Congo , for illegal invasion of its
territory, and violation of human rights.
Museveni has been president since his forces toppled the previous
regime in January 1986.
Political parties in
Ugandawere restricted in their activities
beginning that year, in a measure ostensibly designed to reduce
sectarian violence. In the non-party "Movement" system instituted by
Museveni, political parties continued to exist, but they could operate
only a headquarters office. They could not open branches, hold
rallies, or field candidates directly (although electoral candidates
could belong to political parties). A constitutional referendum
cancelled this nineteen-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005.
In the mid-to-late 1990s, Museveni was lauded by western countries as
part of a new generation of African leaders .
His presidency has been marred, however, by invading and occupying
Republicof the Congo during the
Second Congo War,
resulting in an estimated 5.4 million deaths since 1998, and by
participating in other conflicts in the Great Lakes region of
He has struggled for years in the civil war against the Lord's
Resistance Army, which has been guilty of numerous crimes against
humanity, including child slavery , the
Atiak massacre, and other
mass murders. Conflict in northern
Ugandahas killed thousands and
Parliament abolished presidential term limits in 2005, allegedly
because Museveni used public funds to pay US$2,000 to each member of
parliament who supported the measure. Presidential elections were
held in February 2006. Museveni ran against several candidates, the
most prominent of them being
On 20 February 2011, the
UgandaElectoral Commission declared the
incumbent president Yoweri Kaguta Museveni the winning candidate of
the 2011 elections that were held on 18 February 2011. The opposition
however, were not satisfied with the results, condemning them as full
of sham and rigging. According to the official results, Museveni won
with 68 percent of the votes. This easily topped his nearest
challenger, Besigye, who had been Museveni's physician and told
reporters that he and his supporters "downrightly snub" the outcome as
well as the unremitting rule of Museveni or any person he may appoint.
Besigye added that the rigged elections would definitely lead to an
illegitimate leadership and that it is up to Ugandans to critically
analyse this. The European Union's Election Observation Mission
reported on improvements and flaws of the Ugandan electoral process:
"The electoral campaign and polling day were conducted in a peaceful
manner However, the electoral process was marred by avoidable
administrative and logistical failures that led to an unacceptable
number of Ugandan citizens being disfranchised."
Since August 2012, hacktivist group Anonymous has threatened Ugandan
officials and hacked official government websites over its anti-gay
bills. Some international donors have threatened to cut financial aid
to the country if anti-gay bills continue.
Indicators of a plan for succession by the president's son, Muhoozi
Kainerugaba, have increased tensions.
_ Regional map of Uganda.
Mount Kadam, Uganda.
Ugandamap of Köppen climate classification.
The road between Otuboi and Bata near the Teso /Lango border Main
Geography of Uganda
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The country is located on the
East African Plateau, lying mostly
between latitudes 4°N and 2°S (a small area is north of 4°), and
longitudes 29° and 35°E . It averages about 1,100 metres (3,609 ft)
above sea level, sloping very steadily downwards to the Sudanese Plain
to the north.
LAKES AND RIVERS
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Much of the south of the country is heavily influenced by one of the
world's biggest lakes, Lake Victoria, which contains many islands.
Most important cities are located in the south, near this lake,
including the capital
Kampalaand the nearby city of Entebbe.
Lake Kyogais in the centre of the country and is surrounded by
extensive marshy areas.
Ugandacontains many large lakes. Besides Lakes
Victoria and Kyoga, there are Lake Albert ,
Lake Edward, and the
smaller Lake George .
Ugandalies almost completely within the
Nilebasin. The Victoria
Lake Kyogaand thence into Lake
Albert on the Congolese border. It then runs northwards into South
Sudan. An area in eastern
Ugandais drained by the Suam River , part
of the internal drainage basin of
Lake Turkana. The extreme
north-eastern part of
Ugandadrains into the Lotikipi Basin, which is
primarily in Kenya.
ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION
Crested craneis the national bird. Main article:
Conservation in Uganda
Ugandahas 60 protected areas , including ten national parks: Bwindi
Impenetrable National Park and
Rwenzori Mountains National Park(both
UNESCO World Heritage Sites ),
Kibale National Park, Kidepo Valley
National Park ,
Lake Mburo National Park, Mgahinga Gorilla National
Mount Elgon National Park,
Murchison Falls National Park,
Queen Elizabeth National Park, and
Semuliki National Park.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
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President of Uganda Main article: Politics
President of Ugandais both head of state and head of government
. The president appoints a vice-president and a prime minister to aid
him in governing. U.S. President
George W. Bush
George W. Bushmet with
Yoweri Museveniin Entebbe, Uganda, July 11, 2003.
The parliament is formed by the National Assembly , which has 449
members. These include; 290 constituency representatives, 116 district
woman representatives, 10 representatives of the
Defence Forces, 5 representatives of the youth, 5 representatives of
workers, 5 representatives of persons with disabilities and 18
Transparency Internationalhas rated Uganda's public sector as one of
the most corrupt in the world. In 2016,
Ugandaranked 151st worst out
of 176 and had a score of 25 on a scale from 0 (perceived as most
corrupt) to 100 (perceived as clean).
World Bank's 2015 Worldwide Governance Indicators ranked Uganda
in the worst 12 percentile of all countries. According to the United
States Department of State 's 2012 Human Rights Report on Uganda, "The
World Bank's most recent Worldwide Governance Indicators reflected
corruption was a severe problem" and that "the country annually loses
768.9 billion shillings ($286 million) to corruption."
Ugandan parliamentarians in 2014 were earning 60 times what was being
earned by most state employees and they were seeking a major increase.
This was causing widespread criticism and protests, including the
smuggling of two piglets into the parliament in June 2014 to highlight
corruption amongst members of parliament. The protesters, who were
arrested, were using the word "MPigs" to highlight their grievance.
A specific scandal, which had significant international consequences
and highlighted the presence of corruption in high-level government
offices, was the embezzlement of $12.6 million of donor funds from the
Office of the Prime Minister in 2012. These funds were "earmarked as
crucial support for rebuilding northern Uganda, ravaged by a 20-year
war, and Karamoja, Uganda's poorest region." This scandal prompted the
EU, the UK, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, and Norway to suspend aid.
Widespread grand and petty corruption involving public officials and
political patronage systems have also seriously affected the
investment climate in Uganda. One of the high corruption risk areas is
the public procurement in which non-transparent under-the-table cash
payments are often demanded from procurement officers.
What may ultimately compound this problem is the availability of oil.
The Petroleum Bill, passed by parliament in 2012 and touted by the NRM
as bringing transparency to the oil sector, has failed to please
domestic and international political commentators and economists. For
instance, Angelo Izama, a Ugandan energy analyst at the US-based Open
Society Foundation said the new law was tantamount to "handing over an
ATM (cash) machine" to Museveni and his regime. According to Global
Witness in 2012, a non-governmental organization devoted to
Ugandanow has "oil reserves that have the
potential to double the government's revenue within six to ten years,
worth an estimated" US $2.4 billion per year.
The Non-Governmental Organizations (Amendment) Act, passed in 2006,
has stifled the productivity of NGOs through erecting barriers to
entry, activity, funding and assembly within the sector. Burdensome
and corrupt registration procedures (i.e. requiring recommendations
from government officials; annual re-registration), unreasonable
regulation of operations (i.e. requiring government notification prior
to making contact with individuals in NGO's area of interest), and the
precondition that all foreign funds be passed through the Bank of
Uganda, among other things, are severely limiting the output of the
NGOsector. Furthermore, the sector's freedom of speech has been
continually infringed upon through the use of intimidation, and the
recent Public Order Management Bill (severely limiting freedom of
assembly) will only add to the government's stockpile of ammunition.
Administrative divisions of Uganda
Ugandais divided into 112 districts . The districts are subdivided
into counties . Each county is subdivided into sub-counties ,
parishes, and villages.
Administrative units (August 2014)
Political subdivisions in
Ugandaare officially served and united by
Uganda Local Governments Association(ULGA), a voluntary and
non-profit body which also serves as a forum for support and guidance
for Ugandan sub-national governments.
Parallel with the state administration, five traditional Bantu
kingdoms have remained, enjoying some degrees of mainly cultural
autonomy. The kingdoms are Toro ,
Rwenzururu. Furthermore, some groups attempt to restore
of the officially recognised traditional kingdoms, to no avail yet.
Several other kingdoms and chiefdoms are officially recognized by the
government, including the union of Alur chiefdoms, the Iteso paramount
chieftaincy, the paramount chieftaincy of Lango and the Padhola state.
FOREIGN RELATIONS AND MILITARY
Foreign relations of Ugandaand
In Uganda, the
UgandaPeople\'s Defence Force serves as the military.
The number of military personnel in
Ugandais estimated at 45,000
soldiers on active duty. The
Ugandaarmy is involved in several
peacekeeping and combat missions in the region, with commentators
noting that only the
United States Armed Forces
United States Armed Forcesis deployed in more
Ugandahas soldiers deployed in the northern and eastern
areas of the Democratic
Republicof the Congo and in the Central
Human rights in Uganda Two women in
lips have been cut off by Lord\'s Resistance Army rebels
There are many areas which continue to attract concern when it comes
to human rights in Uganda.
Conflict in the northern parts of the country continues to generate
reports of abuses by both the rebel Lord\'s Resistance Army (LRA), led
Joseph Kony, and the Ugandan Army . A UN official accused the LRA
in February 2009 of "appalling brutality" in the Democratic Republic
The number of internally displaced persons is estimated at 1.4
million. Torture continues to be a widespread practice amongst
security organisations. Attacks on political freedom in the country,
including the arrest and beating of opposition members of parliament,
have led to international criticism, culminating in May 2005 in a
decision by the British government to withhold part of its aid to the
country. The arrest of the main opposition leader
the siege of the High Court during a hearing of Besigye's case by
heavily armed security forces – before the February 2006 elections
– led to condemnation.
Child labouris common in Uganda. Many child workers are active in
agriculture. Children who work on tobacco farms in
to health hazards. Child domestic servants in
Trafficking of childrenoccurs.
Slaveryand forced labour
are prohibited by the Ugandan constitution.
The US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported several
violations of refugee rights in 2007, including forcible deportations
by the Ugandan government and violence directed against refugees.
Torture and extrajudicial killings have been a pervasive problem in
Ugandain recent years. For instance, according to a 2012 US State
Department report, "the African Center for Treatment and
Rehabilitation for Torture Victims registered 170 allegations of
torture against police, 214 against the UPDF, 1 against military
police, 23 against the
SpecialInvestigations Unit, 361 against
unspecified security personnel, and 24 against prison officials"
between January and September 2012.
In September 2009 Museveni refused Kabaka Muwenda Mutebi, the Baganda
king, permission to visit some areas of
the Kayunga district. Riots occurred and over 40 people were killed
while others remain imprisoned to this date. Furthermore, 9 more
people were killed during the April 2011 "Walk to Work"
demonstrations. According to the Humans Rights Watch 2013 World Report
on Uganda, the government has failed to investigate the killings
associated with both of these events.
LGBT rights in Uganda Protests in New York City
In 2007, a Ugandan newspaper, the _Red Pepper _, published a list of
allegedly gay men, many of whom suffered harassment as a result.
On 9 October 2010, the Ugandan newspaper _Rolling Stone _ published a
front page article titled "100 Pictures of Uganda's Top Homos Leak"
that listed the names, addresses, and photographs of 100 homosexuals
alongside a yellow banner that read "Hang Them". The paper also
alleged that homosexuals aimed to recruit Ugandan children. This
publication attracted international attention and criticism from human
rights organisations, such as
Amnesty International, No Peace
Without Justice and the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans
and Intersex Association . According to gay rights activists, many
Ugandans have been attacked since the publication. On 27 January
2011, gay rights activist
David Katowas murdered.
In 2009, the Ugandan parliament considered an Anti-Homosexuality Bill
that would have broadened the criminalisation of homosexuality by
introducing the death penalty for people who have previous
convictions, or are HIV-positive, and engage in same-sex sexual acts.
The bill also included provisions for Ugandans who engage in same-sex
sexual relations outside of Uganda, asserting that they may be
extradited back to
Ugandafor punishment, and included penalties for
individuals, companies, media organisations, or non-governmental
organisations that support legal protection for homosexuality or
sodomy. The private member\'s bill was submitted by MP
Ugandaon 14 October 2009, and was believed to have had widespread
support in the
Ugandaparliament. The hacktivist group Anonymous
hacked into Ugandan government websites in protest of the bill. The
debate of the bill was delayed in response to global condemnation but
was eventually passed on 20 December 2013 and signed by President
Yoweri Musevenion 24 February 2014. The death penalty was dropped in
the final legislation. The law was widely condemned by the
international community. Denmark, the Netherlands, and Sweden said
they would withhold aid. The
World Bankon 28 February 2014 said it
would postpone a US$90 million loan, while the United States said it
was reviewing ties with Uganda. On 1 August 2014, the Constitutional
Ugandaruled the bill invalid as it was not passed with the
required quorum . A 13 August 2014 news report said that the
Ugandan attorney general had dropped all plans to appeal, per a
directive from President Museveni who was concerned about foreign
reaction to the bill and who also said that any newly introduced bill
should not criminalize same-sex relationships between consenting
ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Economy of Uganda,
Energy in Uganda, and Agriculture
Kampala, the capital city.
Bank of Ugandais the central bank of
Ugandaand handles monetary
policy along with the printing of the
In 2015, Uganda's economy generated export income from the following
merchandise: coffee (US $402.63 million), oil re-exports (US $131.25
million), base metals and products (US $120.00 million), fish (US
$117.56 million), maize (US $90.97 million), cement (US $80.13
million), tobacco (US $73.13 million), tea (US $69.94 million), sugar
(US $66.43 million), hides and skins (US $62.71 million), cocoa beans
(US $55.67 million), beans (US $53.88 million), simsim (US $52.20
million), flowers (US $51.44 million), and other products (US $766.77
The country has been experiencing consistent economic growth. In
fiscal year 2015-16,
Ugandarecorded gross domestic product growth of
4.6 percent in real terms and 11.6 percent in nominal terms. This
compares to 5.0 percent real growth in fiscal year 2014-15. :vii
The country has largely untapped reserves of both crude oil and
natural gas. While agriculture accounted for 56 percent of the
economy in 1986, with coffee as its main export, it has now been
surpassed by the services sector, which accounted for 52 percent of
GDP in 2007. In the 1950s, the British colonial regime encouraged
some 500,000 subsistence farmers to join co-operatives. Since 1986,
the government (with the support of foreign countries and
international agencies) has acted to rehabilitate an economy
devastated during the regime of
Idi Aminand the subsequent civil war.
Suburban Kampala. Graphical depiction of Uganda's product
exports in 28 color-coded categories. Coffee fields in
In 2012, the
World Bankstill listed
Ugandaon the Heavily Indebted
Poor Countries list.
Economic growth has not always led to poverty reduction . Despite an
average annual growth of 2.5 percent between 2000 and 2003, poverty
levels increased by 3.8 percent during that time. This has
highlighted the importance of avoiding jobless growth and is part of
the rising awareness in development circles of the need for equitable
growth not just in Uganda, but across the developing world.
Ugandasecurities exchanges established in 1996, several
equities have been listed. The government has used the stock market as
an avenue for privatisation. All government treasury issues are listed
on the securities exchange. The Capital Markets Authority has licensed
18 brokers, asset managers, and investment advisors including: African
Alliance Investment Bank, Baroda Capital Markets
UgandaLimited, Crested Stocks and Securities
Limited, Dyer "> Street views in
Ugandais one of the poorest nations in the world. In 2012, 37.8
percent of the population lived on less than $1.25 a day. Despite
making enormous progress in reducing the countrywide poverty incidence
from 56 percent of the population in 1992 to 24.5 percent in 2009,
poverty remains deep-rooted in the country's rural areas, which are
home to 84 percent of Ugandans.
People in rural areas of
Ugandadepend on farming as the main source
of income and 90 per cent of all rural women work in the agricultural
sector. In addition to agricultural work, rural women are responsible
for the caretaking of their families. The average Ugandan woman spends
9 hours a day on domestic tasks, such as preparing food and clothing,
fetching water and firewood, and caring for the elderly, the sick as
well as orphans. As such, women on average work longer hours than men,
between 12 and 18 hours per day, with a mean of 15 hours, as compared
to men, who work between 8 and 10 hours a day.
To supplement their income, rural women may engage in small-scale
entrepreneurial activities such as rearing and selling local breeds of
animals. Nonetheless, because of their heavy workload, they have
little time for these income-generating activities. The poor cannot
support their children at school and in most cases, girls drop out of
school to help out in domestic work or to get married. Other girls
engage in sex work. As a result, young women tend to have older and
more sexually experienced partners and this puts women at a
disproportionate risk of getting affected by HIV, accounting for about
57 per cent of all adults living with
Maternal health in rural
Ugandalags behind national policy targets
Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals, with geographical
inaccessibility, lack of transport and financial burdens identified as
key demand-side constraints to accessing maternal health services; as
such, interventions like intermediate transport mechanisms have been
adopted as a means to improve women's access to maternal health care
services in rural regions of the country.
Gender inequality is the main hindrance to reducing women's poverty.
Women are subjected to an overall lower social status than men. For
many women, this reduces their power to act independently, participate
in community life, become educated and escape reliance upon abusive
_ An advertisement for a mobile phone carrier on a van in
Kampala. Main article:
Communications in Uganda
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There are seven telecommunications companies serving over 21 million
subscribers in a population of over 34 million. More than 95 percent
of internet connections are made using mobile phones.
The total mobile and fixed telephony subscriptions increased from
over 20 million to over 21 million yielding an increment of over 1.1
million subscribers (5.4 increase) compared to the 4.1 percent
increases realized in the previous quarter Q4 2014
(October–December). The road between
Fort Portaland Rebisengo
Mobile "> Northern corridor road from
Energy in Uganda
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In the 1980s, the majority of energy in
Ugandacame from charcoal and
wood. However, oil was found in the Lake Albert area, totaling an
estimated 95,000,000 m3 (3.354893339×109 cu ft) barrels of crude.
Heritage Oildiscovered one of the largest crude oil finds in Uganda,
and continues operations there.
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
Water supply and sanitation in Uganda
According to a 2006 published report, the Ugandan water supply and
sanitation sector had made substantial progress in urban areas since
the mid-1990s, with substantial increases in coverage as well as in
operational and commercial performance. :3–4 Sector reforms in the
period 1998-2003 included the commercialization and modernization of
National Water and Sewerage Corporationoperating in cities and
larger towns, as well as decentralization and private sector
participation in small towns. :15
Although, these reforms have attracted significant international
attention, 38 percent of the population still had no access to an
improved water source in 2010. Concerning access to improved
sanitation , figures have varied widely. According to government
figures, it was 70 percent in rural areas and 81 percent in urban
areas in 2011, while according to UN figures it was only 34 percent.
The water and sanitation sector was recognized as a key area under
the 2004 Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), Uganda's main
strategy paper to fight poverty. :182–188 According to a 2006
published report, a comprehensive expenditure framework had been
introduced to coordinate financial support by external donors, the
national government, and nongovernmental organizations . :5 The PEAP
estimated that from 2001 to 2015, about US $1.4 billion, or US $92
million per year, was needed to increase water supply coverage up to
95 percent, with rural areas needing US $956 million, urban areas and
large towns needing US $281 million, and small towns needing US $136
Education in Uganda Students in
Children attending a primary education program for conflict-affected
At the 2002 census,
Ugandahad a literacy rate of 66.8 percent (76.8
percent male and 57.7 percent female). Public spending on education
was at 5.2 percent of the 2002–2005 GDP.
Health in Ugandaand
HIV/AIDS in Uganda Lira,
Ugandahas been among the rare
HIVsuccess stories. Infection rates
of 30 per cent of the population in the 1980s fell to 6.4 percent by
the end of 2008. However, there has been a spike in recent years
compared to the mid-1990s. Meanwhile, the practice of abstinence was
found to have decreased.
The prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) is low: according
to a 2013 UNICEF report, Only 1 percent of women in
undergone FGM, with the practice being illegal in the country.
Life expectancyat birth was estimated to be 53.45 years in 2012.
The infant mortality rate was approximately 61 deaths per 1,000
children in 2012. There were eight physicians per 100,000 persons in
the early 2000s. The 2006
UgandaDemographic Health Survey (UDHS)
indicated that roughly 6,000 women die each year from
pregnancy-related complications. However, recent pilot studies by
Future Health Systems have shown that this rate could be significantly
reduced by implementing a voucher scheme for health services and
transport to clinics.
Uganda's elimination of user fees at state health facilities in 2001
has resulted in an 80 percent increase in visits, with over half of
this increase coming from the poorest 20 percent of the population.
This policy has been cited as a key factor in helping
Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goalsand as an example of the importance
of equity in achieving those goals. Despite this policy, many users
are denied care if they do not provide their own medical equipment, as
happened in the highly publicised case of Jennifer Anguko. Poor
communication within hospitals, low satisfaction with health services
and distance to health service providers undermine the provision of
quality health care to people living in Uganda, and particularly for
those in poor and elderly-headed households. The provision of
subsidies for poor and rural populations, along with the extension of
public private partnerships, have been identified as important
provisions to enable vulnerable populations to access health services.
In July 2012, there was an
Ebolaoutbreak in the
the country. On 4 October 2012, the Ministry of Health officially
declared the end of the outbreak after at least 16 people had died.
The Health Ministry announced on 16 August 2013 that three people had
died in northern
Ugandafrom a suspected outbreak of Congo Crimean
Hemorrhagic Fever .
CRIME AND LAW ENFORCEMENT
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
In Uganda, the
Allied Democratic Forces
Allied Democratic Forcesis considered a violent rebel
force that opposes the Ugandan government. These rebels are an enemy
Uganda People's Defence Forceand are considered an affiliate
of Al-Shabaab .
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Science and technology in Uganda
The _National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy_ dates from
2009. Its overarching goal is to ‘strengthen national capability to
generate, transfer and apply scientific knowledge, skills and
technologies that ensure sustainable utilisation of natural resources
for the realisation of Uganda’s development objectives.’ The
UgandaVision 2040, which was launched in April 2013
to transform ‘Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and
prosperous country within 30 years,’ in the words of the Cabinet.
UgandaVision 2040 vows to strengthen the private sector, improve
education and training, modernize infrastructure and the
underdeveloped services and agriculture sectors, foster
industrialization and promote good governance, among other goals.
Potential areas for economic development include oil and gas, tourism,
minerals and information and communication technologies (ICTs).
Research funding climbed between 2008 and 2010 from 0.33% to 0.48% of
GDP. Over the same period, the number of researchers doubled (in head
counts) from 1 387 to 2 823, according to the UNESCO Institute for
Statistics . This represents a leap from 44 to 83 researchers per
million inhabitants over the same period. One in four researchers is a
Ugandahas been able to manufacture prototype of cars called
kiira in which the government invested 70usd.
Demographics of Uganda
Demographics of Uganda Cultural celebrations in
The country has a significant overpopulation problem. Uganda's
population grew from 9.5 million people in 1969 to 34.9 million in
2014. With respect to the last inter-censal period (September 2002),
the population increased by 10.6 million people in the past 12 years.
Uganda's median age of 15 years is the lowest in the world. Uganda
has the fifth highest total fertility rate in the world, at 5.97
children born per woman (2014 estimates).
There were about 80,000
Indians in Ugandabefore
the expulsion of Ugandan-Asians (mostly of Indian origin) in 1972,
which reduced the population to as low as 7,000. Many Indians,
however, returned to
Ugandaafter Amin's fall ouster in 1979. Around
90 percent of Ugandan Indians reside in Kampala.
According to the UNHCR,
Ugandahosted over 190,000 refugees in 2013.
Most of the latter came from neighbouring countries in the African
Great Lakes region, namely
Burundi, the Democratic
Languages of Uganda An ethnolinguistic map of
Swahili , a widely used language throughout the African Great Lakes
region, was approved as the country's second official national
language in 2005. English was the only official language until the
constitution was amended in 2005. Although Swahili has not been
favoured by the Bantu-speaking populations of the south and south-west
of the country, it is an important _lingua franca _ in the northern
regions. It is also widely used in the police and military forces,
which may be a historical result of the disproportionate recruitment
of northerners into the security forces during the colonial period.
The status of Swahili has thus alternated with the political group in
power. For example, Idi Amin, who came from the north-west, declared
Swahili to be the national language.
This article needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2017)_
Religion in Uganda Church in
According to the 2002 census, Christians made up about 85 percent of
Uganda's population. The Roman
CatholicChurch had the largest number
of adherents (41.9 percent), followed by the Anglican Church of Uganda
(35.9 percent). Adventist ,
Pentecostal, and other
Protestantchurches claimed most of the remaining Christians, although
there was also a tiny
Eastern Orthodoxcommunity. The next most
reported religion of
Ugandawas Islam , with
percent of the population.
The Muslim population is primarily Sunni. There are also minorities
Ahmadiyya(4 percent), and those that are
The remainder of the population according to the 2002 census followed
traditional religions (1.0 percent), Baha'i (0.1 percent), other
non-Christian religions (0.7 percent), or had no religious affiliation
The Northern Region , including the West
Nilesub-region , is
Catholic, while the
Iganga Districtin eastern Uganda
has the highest percentage of Muslims. The rest of the country has a
mix of religious affiliations.
Largest urban centres in Uganda
Uganda Bureau of Statistics2016, _National Population and Housing
Census 2014 – Main Report_, p. 11
Culture of Uganda,
Music of Uganda, Ugandan cuisine
, List of African writers (by country) §
Uganda, and List of
Ugandans Woman in Ruwenzori – Western
Owing to the large number of communities, culture within
diverse. Many Asians (mostly from India) who were expelled during the
Idi Aminhave returned to Uganda.
The country has an increasingly successful national basketball team .
It is nicknamed "The Silverbacks", and made its debut at the 2015
In July 2011, Kampala,
Ugandaqualified for the 2011 Little League
World Series in
Williamsport, Pennsylvaniafor the first time, beating
Saudi Arabian baseball team Dharan LL, although visa complications
prevented them from attending the series. Little League teams from
Ugandaqualified for and attended the 2012 .d
Media of Uganda
Cinema of Uganda
The Ugandan film industry is relatively young. It is developing
quickly, but still faces an assortment of challenges. There has been
support for the industry as seen in the proliferation of film
festivals such as Amakula,
Pearl International Film Festival, Maisha
African Film Festival and Manya Human Rights Festival. However
filmmakers struggle against the competing markets from other countries
on the continent such as those in
to the big budget films from Hollywood.
The first publicly recognised film that was produced solely by
Ugandans was _Feelings Struggle_, which was directed and written by
Ashraf Ssemwogererein 2005. This marks the year of ascent of
film in Uganda, a time where many enthusiasts were proud to classify
themselves as cinematographers in varied capacities.
The local film industry is polarised between two types of filmmakers.
The first are filmmakers who use the
Nollywoodvideo film era 's
guerrilla approach to film making, churning out a picture in around
two weeks and screening it in makeshift video halls. The second is the
filmmaker who has the film aesthetic, but with limited funds has to
depend on the competitive scramble for donor cash.
Though cinema in
Ugandais evolving it still faces major challenges.
Along with technical problems such as refining acting and editing
skills, there are issues regarding funding and lack of government
support and investment. There are no schools in the country dedicated
to film, banks do not extend credit to film ventures, and distribution
and marketing of movies remains poor.
UgandaCommunications Commission (UCC) is preparing regulations
starting in 2014 that require Ugandan television to broadcast 70
percent Ugandan content and of this, 40 percent to be independent
productions. With the emphasis on Ugandan Film and the UCC regulations
favouring Ugandan productions for mainstream television, Ugandan film
may become more prominent and successful in the near future.
* _ Geography portal
Conservation in Uganda
Index of Uganda-related articles
* National Heroes\' Day
List of national parks of Uganda
Outline of Uganda
The Uganda Scouts Association
Tourism in Uganda
Uganda AIDS Orphan Children Foundation
Football in Uganda
Supreme Court of Uganda
Transport in Uganda
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