Contents 1 History 2 Units of length 3 Units of area 4 Units of capacity and volume 4.1 Fluid volume 4.2 Dry volume 5 Units of weight 5.1 Grain measures 6 Cooking measures 7 Units of temperature 8 Other units 9 Other names for U.S. customary units 10 See also 11 References 12 External links History[edit]
See also:
Unit Divisions SI equivalent Most common measures shown in italics Exact relationships shown in boldface International 1 point (p) 127/360 mm or 6996352778000000000♠352.778 μm 1 pica (P̸) 12 p 127/30 mm or 6997423300000000000♠4.233 mm 1 inch (in or ″) 6 P̸ 25.4 mm 1 foot (ft or ′) 12 in 6999304800000000000♠0.3048 m[9] 1 yard (yd) 3 ft 6999914400000000000♠0.9144 m[9] 1 mile (mi) 7003160934400000000♠5280 ft or 7003160934400000000♠1760 yd 7003160934400000000♠1.609344 km US Survey 1 link (li) 33/50 ft or 7.92 in 792/3937 m or 6999201170000000000♠20.117 cm 1 (survey) foot (ft) 1200/3937 m or 6999304800000000000♠30.480 cm[9] 1 rod (rd) 25 li or 16.5 ft 19,800/3937 m or 7000502900000000000♠5.029 m 1 chain (ch) 4 rd or 66 ft 79,200/3937 m or 7001201160000000000♠20.116 m 1 furlong (fur) 10 ch 792/3937 km or 7002201168000000000♠201.168 m 1 survey (or statute) mile (mi) 8 fur 6336/3937 km or 7003160934700000000♠1.609347 km[9] 1 league (lea) 3 mi 19,008/3937 km or 7003482800000000000♠4.828 km International Nautical[9] 1 fathom (ftm) 2 yd 7000182880000000000♠1.8288 m 1 cable (cb) 120 ftm or 1.091 fur 7002219456000000000♠219.456 m 1 nautical mile (NM or nmi) 8.439 cb or 1.151 mi 1.852 km For measuring length, the U.S. customary system uses the inch, foot,
yard, and mile, which are the only four customary length measurements
in everyday use. Since July 1, 1959, these have been defined on the
basis of 1 yard = 0.9144 meters except for some
applications in surveying.[2] The U.S., the
Units of area[edit] Unit Divisions SI equivalent Exact relationships shown in boldface 1 square survey foot (sq ft or ft2) 144 square inches 6998929034100000000♠0.09290341 m2 1 square chain (sq ch or ch2) 7003435600000000000♠4356 sq ft (survey) or 16 sq rods 7002404687300000000♠404.6873 m2 1 acre 7004435600000000000♠43560 sq ft (survey) or 10 sq ch 7003404687300000000♠4046.873 m2 1 section 640 acres or 1 sq mile (survey) 7006258999800000000♠2.589998 km2 1 survey township (twp) 36 sections or 4 sq leagues 7007932399300000000♠93.23993 km2 The most widely used area unit with a name unrelated to any length unit is the acre. The National Institute of Standards and Technology contends that customary area units are defined in terms of the square survey foot, not the square international foot.[9] Conversion factors are based on Astin (July 27, 1968)[11] and National Institute of Standards and Technology (2008).[12] Units of capacity and volume[edit] Volume in general Unit Divisions SI equivalent 1 cubic inch (cu in) or (in3) 6995163870640000000♠16.387064 mL[13] 1 cubic foot (cu ft) or (ft3) 7003172800000000000♠1728 cu in 6998283168465920000♠28.316846592 L 1 cubic yard (cu yd) or (yd3) 27 cu ft 6999764554857984000♠764.554857984 L 6999764554857984000♠0.764554857984 m3 1 acre-foot (acre ft) 7004435600000000000♠43560 cu ft 7003161333300000000♠1613.333 cu yd 7003123348183754752♠1.23348183754752 ML 7003123348200000000♠1233.482 m3 The cubic inch, cubic foot and cubic yard are commonly used for measuring volume. In addition, there is one group of units for measuring volumes of liquids, and one for measuring volumes of dry material. Other than the cubic inch, cubic foot and cubic yard, these units are differently sized from the units in the imperial system, although the names of the units are similar. Also, while the U.S. has separate systems for measuring the volumes of liquids and dry material, the imperial system has one set of units for both. Fluid volume[edit] Liquid volume Most common measures shown in italic font Exact conversions in bold font Unit Divisions SI equivalent 1 minim (min) ~1 drop or 0.95 grain of water 6992616115199218750♠61.611519921875 μL 1 US fluid dram (fl dr) 60 min 6994369669119531250♠3.6966911953125 mL 1 teaspoon (tsp) 80 min 6994492892159374999♠4.92892159375 mL 1 tablespoon (Tbsp) 3 tsp or 4 fl dr 6995147867647812500♠14.78676478125 mL 1 US fluid ounce (fl oz) 2 Tbsp or 1.0408 oz av of water 6995295735295625000♠29.5735295625 mL 1 US shot (jig) 1.5 fl oz or 3 Tbsp 6995443602943437500♠44.36029434375 mL 1 US gill (gi) 22⁄3 jig or 4 fl oz 6996118294118249999♠118.29411825 mL 1 US cup (cp) 2 gi or 8 fl oz 6996236588236499999♠236.5882365 mL 1 (liquid) US pint (pt) 2 cp or 16.65 oz av of water 6996473176472999999♠473.176473 mL 1 (liquid) US quart (qt) 2 pt 6996946352946000000♠0.946352946 L 1 (liquid) US gallon (gal) 4 qt or 231 cu in 6997378541178400000♠3.785411784 L 1 (liquid) barrel (bbl) 31.5 gal or 1⁄2 hogshead 6999119240471196000♠119.240471196 L 1 oil barrel (bbl) 11⁄3 (liquid) barrel or 42 gal or 2⁄3 hogshead 6999158987294928000♠158.987294928 L 1 hogshead 1.5 oil barrels or 63 gal or 7000842187500000000♠8.421875 cu ft or 524.7 lb of water 6999238480942392000♠238.480942392 L One US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US pint, 1⁄32 of a US quart, and 1⁄128 of a US gallon. The teaspoon, tablespoon, and cup are defined in terms of a fluid ounce as 1⁄6, 1⁄2, and 8 fluid ounces. The fluid ounce derives its name originally from being the volume of one ounce avoirdupois of water, but in the US it is defined as 1⁄128 of a US gallon. Consequently, a fluid ounce of water weighs about 1.041 ounces avoirdupois. The saying "a pint's a pound the world around" refers to 16 US fluid ounces of water weighing approximately (about 4% more than) one pound avoirdupois. An imperial pint of water weighs a pound and a quarter (20 oz). A 23.7 US fl oz (700 mL) bottle displaying both US and metric units. There are varying standards for barrel for some specific commodities, including 31 gal for beer, 40 gal for whiskey or kerosene, and 42 gal for petroleum. The general standard for liquids is 31.5 gal or half a hogshead. The common 55 gallon size of drum for storing and transporting various products and wastes is sometimes confused with a barrel, though it is not a standard measure. In the U.S., single servings of beverages are usually measured in fluid ounces. Milk is usually sold in half pints (8 fluid ounces), pints, quarts, half gallons, and gallons. Water volume for sinks, bathtubs, ponds, swimming pools, etc., is usually stated in gallons or cubic feet. Quantities of gases are usually given in cubic feet (at one atmosphere). Minims, drams and gill are rarely used currently. The gill is often referred to as a "half-cup". Dry volume[edit] Dry volume[14] Unit Divisions SI equivalent 1 (dry) pint (pt) 7001336003125000000♠33.6003125 cu in 6996550610471357500♠0.5506104713575 L 1 (dry) quart (qt) 2 pt 6997110122100000000♠1.101221 L 1 (dry) gallon (gal) 4 qt 6997440488400000000♠4.404884 L 1 peck (pk) 2 gal 6997880976800000000♠8.809768 L 1 bushel (bu) 4 pk 6998352390701668800♠35.23907016688 L 1 (dry) barrel (bbl) 7003705600000000000♠7056 cu in or 6997994242424242424♠3.281 bu 6999115627100000000♠115.6271 L
Units of weight[edit]
Main articles:
Conversions Type Unit Divisions SI equivalent Avoirdupois 1 grain (gr) 1⁄7000 lb 6995647989100000000♠64.79891 mg 1 dram (dr) 27 11⁄32 gr or 8.859 carats 6997177184519531250♠1.7718451953125 g 1 ounce (oz) 16 dr 6998283495231250000♠28.349523125 g 1 pound (lb) 16 oz 6999453592370000000♠453.59237 g 1 US hundredweight (cwt) 100 lb 7001453592370000000♠45.359237 kg 1 long hundredweight 112 lb 7001508023454400000♠50.80234544 kg 1 ton (short ton) 20 US cwt or 2000 lb 7002907184740000000♠907.18474 kg 1 long ton 20 long cwt or 2240 lb 7003101604690880000♠1016.0469088 kg Troy 1 grain (gr) 1⁄7000 lb or 1⁄5760 lb t 6995647989100000000♠64.79891 mg 1 pennyweight (dwt) 24 gr or 7.776 carats 6997155517384000000♠1.55517384 g 1 troy ounce (oz t) 20 dwt 6998311034768000000♠31.1034768 g 1 troy pound (lb t) 12 oz t or 13.17 oz 6999373241721600000♠373.2417216 g Most common measures shown in italics Exact conversions shown in bold There have historically been five different English systems of mass:
tower, apothecaries', troy, avoirdupois, and metric. Of these, the
avoirdupois weight is the most common system used in the U.S.,
although
1 bushel (corn) = 56 lb = 25.4012 kg 1 bushel (wheat) = 60 lb = 27.2155 kg 1 bushel (barley) = 48 lb = 21.7724 kg In trade terms a bushel is a term used to refer to these nominal
weights, although even this varies. With oats,
Common volume measures in English-speaking countries (Comparable measures listed for comparison purposes.) Measure Australia Canada UK US US FDA[17] Teaspoon 5 mL 5 mL 4.74 mL 4.93 mL 5 mL Dessertspoon 10 mL — 9.47 mL — — Tablespoon 20 mL 15 mL 14.21 mL 14.79 mL 15 mL Fluid ounce — — 28.41 mL 29.57 mL 30 mL Cup 250 mL 250 mL 284.13 mL 236.59 mL 240 mL Pint — — 568.26 mL 473.18 mL — Quart — — 1136.52 mL 946.35 mL — Gallon — — 4546.09 mL 3785.41 mL — The most common practical cooking measures for both liquid and dry
ingredients in the U.S. (and many other countries) are the teaspoon,
tablespoon, and cup, along with halves, thirds, quarters, and eighths
of these. Pounds, ounces, fluid ounces, and common sizes are also
used, such as can (presumed size varies depending on product), jar,
square (e.g., 1 oz of chocolate), stick (e.g., 4 oz butter), or
fruit/vegetable (e.g., a half lemon, two medium onions).[citation
needed]
Units of temperature[edit]
Degrees
[ ∘ F ] = 9 5 [ ∘ C ] + 32 displaystyle [^ circ text F ]= frac 9 5 [^ circ text C ]+32 or inversely as [ ∘ C ] = 5 9 ( [ ∘ F ] − 32 ) displaystyle [^ circ text C ]= frac 5 9 ([^ circ text F ]-32) . Other units[edit] 1 board-foot = 1 ft × 1 ft × 1 in =
6997236000000000000♠2.360 dm3
1
Sizing systems are used for various items in commerce, several of which are U.S.-specific: US standard clothing size
Other names for U.S. customary units[edit]
The
Acre-foot
Board foot
Conversion of units
Cord (unit)
References[edit] ^ T.C. Mendenhall, Superintendent of Standard Weights and Measures.
Order of April 5, 1893 Archived September 30, 2012, at the Wayback
Machine., published as Appendix 6 to the Report for 1893 of the
Coast and Geodetic Survey.
^ a b c Astin, A.V., Karo, H.A. and Mueller, F.H. (June 25, 1959). Doc
59-5442, "Refinement of Values for the
External links[edit] Rowlett's A Dictionary of Units of Measurement v t e Systems of measurement Current General
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