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 United States  East Timor[2][Note 1]  Ecuador[3][Note 2]  El Salvador[4]  Federated States of Micronesia  Marshall Islands  Palau  Panama[Note 3]  Zimbabwe[Note 4]

3 non-U.S. territories

 British Virgin Islands   Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands  Turks and Caicos Islands

Unofficial user(s)

36 other countries

 Afghanistan[Note 5]  Angola  Argentina[Note 6]  The Bahamas[Note 7]  Barbados[Note 8]  Belize  Bolivia  Brazil  Cambodia[Note 9]  Canada  Chile[Note 10]  Colombia[Note 11]  Costa Rica[Note 12]  Dominican Republic  Ethiopia  Guatemala  Guyana  Haiti  Honduras  Iraq[Note 13]  Jamaica[Note 14]  Laos[Note 15]  Lebanon[Note 16]  Liberia  Mexico[Note 17]  Myanmar[Note 18]  Nicaragua[Note 19]  Paraguay[Note 20]  Peru[Note 21]  Sierra Leone  Somalia[Note 22]  South Africa[Note 23]  Suriname[Note 24]  Trinidad and Tobago  Uruguay[Note 25]  Venezuela[Note 26]

6 non-U.S. territories

  Anguilla
Anguilla
(UK)[Note 27]   Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(UK; de facto)[Note 28]   Bermuda
Bermuda
(UK)[Note 29]   British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(de facto[5][6])   Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
(UK; de facto)   Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
(UK; de facto)[Note 30][7]

2 non-U.S. cities

Cancún, Mexico[Note 31] Tijuana, Mexico[Note 31]

Issuance

Central bank Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
System

 Website www.federalreserve.gov

Printer Bureau of Engraving and Printing

 Website www.moneyfactory.gov

Mint United States
United States
Mint

 Website www.usmint.gov

Valuation

Inflation 2.04% (October 2017)

 Source inflationdata.com

 Method CPI

Pegged by

27 currencies

Aruban florin Bahamian dollar
Bahamian dollar
(at par) Bahraini dinar
Bahraini dinar
(higher value) Barbadian dollar Belize
Belize
dollar Bermudian dollar
Bermudian dollar
(at par) Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
dollar (higher value) Cuban convertible peso (at par) Djiboutian franc East Caribbean
Caribbean
dollar East Timor
East Timor
Centavo Coin (at par) Ecuadorian Centavo Coin (at par) Eritrean nakfa Hong Kong
Hong Kong
dollar (narrow band) Iraqi dinar Jordanian dinar
Jordanian dinar
(higher value) Kuwaiti dinar
Kuwaiti dinar
(higher value) Lebanese pound Netherlands Antillean guilder Omani rial
Omani rial
(higher value) Panamanian balboa
Panamanian balboa
(at par) Qatari riyal Saudi riyal Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
dollar United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
dirham Venezuelan bolívar Zimbabwean Bond Coins and Zimbabwean Bond Notes (at par)

The United States
United States
dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States
United States
and its insular territories per the United States
United States
Constitution since 1792. For most practical purposes, it is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but officially it can be divided into 1000 mills (₥). The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Notes that are denominated in United States
United States
dollars (12 U.S.C. § 418). Since the suspension in 1971[8] of convertibility of paper U.S. currency into any precious metal, the U.S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money.[9] As it is the most used in international transactions, the U.S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency.[10] Several countries use it as their official currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency.[11] Besides the United States, it is also used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or also accept U.S. dollar coins (such as the Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
dollar). As of September 20, 2017, there were approximately $1.58 trillion in circulation, of which $1.53 trillion was in Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
notes (the remaining $50 billion is in the form of coins).[12]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Etymology

2.1 Nicknames

3 Dollar
Dollar
sign 4 History

4.1 Continental currency 4.2 Silver and gold standards

5 Coins

5.1 Collector coins 5.2 Dollar
Dollar
coins 5.3 Mint marks

5.3.1 Notes

6 Banknotes 7 Means of issue 8 Value 9 Exchange rates

9.1 Historical exchange rates 9.2 Current exchange rates

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

14.1 Images of U.S. currency and coins

Overview[edit] Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money".[13] Laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U.S.C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States
United States
dollars should be issued.[14] These coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts.[14] The Sacagawea dollar
Sacagawea dollar
is one example of the copper alloy dollar. The pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 also provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars.[14] These other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States
United States
dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time".[15] That provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States
United States
Code.[16] The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are currently being expressed in U.S. dollars (for example, see the 2009 Financial Report of the United States Government).[17] The U.S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U.S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar
Spanish milled dollar
as the same is now current, and to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States
United States
shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States
United States
shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States
United States
dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act officially established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar (symbol ₥), cent or one-hundredth of a dollar (symbol ¢), dime or one-tenth of a dollar, and eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each. It was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were ever struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar; "dime" is used solely as the name of the coin with the value of 10¢, while "eagle" and "mill" are largely unknown to the general public, though mills are sometimes used in matters of tax levies, and gasoline prices are usually in the form of $X.XX9 per gallon, e.g., $3.599, more commonly written as $3.59​9⁄10. When currently issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U.S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
notes (with the exception of gold, silver and platinum coins valued up to $100 as legal tender, but worth far more as bullion). Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is significantly more common. In the past, "paper money" was occasionally issued in denominations less than a dollar (fractional currency) and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20 (known as the "double eagle", discontinued in the 1930s). The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792
Coinage Act of 1792
for the denomination of ten dollars, and subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was also sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie, then Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", and "Quarter Union",[18] thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100.

Series of 1917 $1 United States
United States
bill

Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, which is made of wood fiber. U.S. coins are produced by the United States
United States
Mint. U.S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by the Federal Reserve. The "large-sized notes" issued before 1928 measured 7.42 by 3.125 inches (188.5 by 79.4 mm); small-sized notes, introduced that year, measure 6.14 by 2.61 by 0.0043 inches (155.96 by 66.29 by 0.11 mm). When the current, smaller sized U.S. currency was introduced it was referred to as Philippine-sized currency because the Philippines
Philippines
had previously adopted the same size for its legal currency. Etymology[edit] Further information: Dollar In the 16th century, Count Hieronymus Schlick of Bohemia
Bohemia
began minting coins known as Joachimstalers (from German thal, or nowadays usually Tal, "valley", cognate with "dale" in English), named for Joachimstal, the valley where the silver was mined (St. Joachim's Valley, now Jáchymov; then part of the Kingdom of Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic).[19] Joachimstaler was later shortened to the German Taler, a word that eventually found its way into Danish and Swedish as daler, Norwegian as dalar and daler, Dutch as daler or daalder, Ethiopian as ታላሪ (talari), Hungarian as tallér, Italian as tallero, and English as dollar.[19] Alternatively, thaler is said to come from the German coin Guldengroschen
Guldengroschen
("great guilder", being of silver but equal in value to a gold guilder), minted from the silver from Joachimsthal. The coins minted at Joachimsthal soon lent their name to other coins of similar size and weight from other places. One such example, was a Dutch coin depicting a lion, hence its Dutch name leeuwendaler (in English: lion dollar). The leeuwendaler was authorized to contain 427.16 grains of .75 fine silver and passed locally for between 36 and 42 stuivers. It was lighter than the large-denomination coins then in circulation, thus it was more advantageous for a Dutch merchant to pay a foreign debt in leeuwendalers and it became the coin of choice for foreign trade. The leeuwendaler was popular in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
and in the Dutch New Netherland
New Netherland
Colony (New York), and circulated throughout the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
during the 17th and early 18th centuries. It was also popular throughout Eastern Europe, where it led to the current Romanian and Moldovan currency being called leu (literally "lion"). Among the English-speaking community, the coin came to be popularly known as lion dollar – and is the origin of the name dollar.[20] The modern American-English pronunciation of dollar is still remarkably close to the 17th-century Dutch pronunciation of daler.[21] By analogy with this lion dollar, Spanish pesos – with the same weight and shape as the lion dollar – came to be known as Spanish dollars.[21] By the mid-18th century, the lion dollar had been replaced by the Spanish dollar, the famous "piece of eight", which was distributed widely in the Spanish colonies in the New World
New World
and in the Philippines.[22] Eventually, dollar became the name of the first official American currency. Nicknames[edit] See also: Slang terms for money § United States The colloquialism "buck"(s) (much like the British word "quid"(s, pl) for the pound sterling) is often used to refer to dollars of various nations, including the U.S. dollar. This term, dating to the 18th century, may have originated with the colonial leather trade. It may also have originated from a poker term.[23] "Greenback" is another nickname originally applied specifically to the 19th century Demand Note dollars created by Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
to finance the costs of the Civil War for the North.[24] The original note was printed in black and green on the back side. It is still used to refer to the U.S. dollar (but not to the dollars of other countries). Other well-known names of the dollar as a whole in denominations include "greenmail", "green" and "dead presidents" (the last because deceased presidents are pictured on most bills). A "grand", sometimes shortened to simply "G", is a common term for the amount of $1,000. The suffix "K" or "k" (from "kilo-") is also commonly used to denote this amount (such as "$10k" to mean $10,000). However, the $1,000 note is no longer in general use. A "large" or "stack", it is usually a reference to a multiple of $1,000 (such as "fifty large" meaning $50,000). The $100 note is nicknamed "Benjamin", "Benji", "Ben", or "Franklin" (after Benjamin Franklin), "C-note" (C being the Roman numeral
Roman numeral
for 100), "Century note" or "bill" (e.g. "two bills" being $200). The $50 note is occasionally called a "yardstick" or a "grant" (after President Ulysses S. Grant, pictured on the obverse). The $20 note is referred to as a "double sawbuck", "Jackson" (after Andrew Jackson), or "double eagle". The $10 note is referred to as a "sawbuck", "ten-spot" or "Hamilton" (after Alexander Hamilton). The $5 note as "Lincoln", "fin", "fiver" or "five-spot". The infrequently-used $2 note is sometimes called "deuce", "Tom", or "Jefferson" (after Thomas Jefferson). The $1 note as a "single" or "buck". The dollar has also been referred to as a "bone" and "bones" in plural (e.g. "twenty bones" is equal to $20). The newer designs, with portraits displayed in the main body of the obverse (rather than in cameo insets), upon paper color-coded by denomination, are sometimes referred to as "bigface" notes or "Monopoly money". "Piastre" was the original French word for the U.S. dollar, used for example in the French text of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase. Calling the dollar a piastre is still common among the speakers of Cajun French and New England
New England
French. Modern French uses dollar for this unit of currency as well. The term is still used as slang for U.S. dollars in the French-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
islands, most notably Haiti. Dollar
Dollar
sign[edit] Main article: Dollar
Dollar
sign

Spanish silver real or peso of 1768

The symbol $, usually written before the numerical amount, is used for the U.S. dollar (as well as for many other currencies). The sign was the result of a late 18th-century evolution of the scribal abbreviation "ps" for the peso, the common name for the Spanish dollars that were in wide circulation in the New World
New World
from the 16th to the 19th centuries. These Spanish pesos or dollars were minted in Spanish America, namely in Mexico
Mexico
City; Potosí, Bolivia; and Lima, Peru. The p and the s eventually came to be written over each other giving rise to $.[25][26][27][28] Another popular explanation is that it is derived from the Pillars of Hercules on the Spanish Coat of arms of the Spanish dollar. These Pillars of Hercules
Pillars of Hercules
on the silver Spanish dollar
Spanish dollar
coins take the form of two vertical bars () and a swinging cloth band in the shape of an "S". Yet another explanation suggests that the dollar sign was formed from the capital letters U and S written or printed one on top of the other. This theory, popularized by novelist Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
in Atlas Shrugged,[29] does not consider the fact that the symbol was already in use before the formation of the United States.[30] History[edit] See also: History of the United States
United States
dollar

Obverse of rare 1934 $500 Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Note, featuring a portrait of President William McKinley.

Reverse of a $500 Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Note.

The American dollar coin was initially based on the value and look of the Spanish dollar, used widely in Spanish America
Spanish America
from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The first dollar coins issued by the United States Mint (founded 1792) were similar in size and composition to the Spanish dollar, minted in Mexico
Mexico
and Peru. The Spanish, U.S. silver dollars, and later, Mexican silver pesos circulated side by side in the United States, and the Spanish dollar
Spanish dollar
and Mexican peso
Mexican peso
remained legal tender until the Coinage Act of 1857. The coinage of various English colonies also circulated. The lion dollar was popular in the Dutch New Netherland
New Netherland
Colony (New York), but the lion dollar also circulated throughout the English colonies during the 17th century and early 18th century. Examples circulating in the colonies were usually worn so that the design was not fully distinguishable, thus they were sometimes referred to as "dog dollars".[31] The U.S. dollar was first defined by the Coinage Act of 1792, which specified a "dollar" to be based in the Spanish milled dollar
Spanish milled dollar
and of 371 grains and 4 sixteenths part of a grain of pure or 416 grains (27.0 g) of standard silver and an "eagle" to be 247 and 4 eighths of a grain or 270 grains (17 g) of gold (again depending on purity).[32] The choice of the value 371 grains arose from Alexander Hamilton's decision to base the new American unit on the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. Hamilton got the treasury to weigh a sample of Spanish dollars
Spanish dollars
and the average weight came out to be 371 grains. A new Spanish dollar
Spanish dollar
was usually about 377 grains in weight, and so the new U.S. dollar was at a slight discount in relation to the Spanish dollar. The same coinage act also set the value of an eagle at 10 dollars, and the dollar at ​1⁄10 eagle. It called for 90% silver alloy coins in denominations of 1, ​1⁄2, ​1⁄4, ​1⁄10, and ​1⁄20 dollars; it called for 90% gold alloy coins in denominations of 1, ​1⁄2, ​1⁄4, and ​1⁄10 eagles. The value of gold or silver contained in the dollar was then converted into relative value in the economy for the buying and selling of goods. This allowed the value of things to remain fairly constant over time, except for the influx and outflux of gold and silver in the nation's economy.[33] The early currency of the United States
United States
did not exhibit faces of presidents, as is the custom now;[34] although today, by law, only the portrait of a deceased individual may appear on United States currency.[35] In fact, the newly formed government was against having portraits of leaders on the currency, a practice compared to the policies of European monarchs.[36] The currency as we know it today did not get the faces they currently have until after the early 20th century; before that "heads" side of coinage used profile faces and striding, seated, and standing figures from Greek and Roman mythology and composite Native Americans. The last coins to be converted to profiles of historic Americans
Americans
were the dime (1946) and the Dollar (1971). For articles on the currencies of the colonies and states, see Connecticut
Connecticut
pound, Delaware
Delaware
pound, Georgia pound, Maryland
Maryland
pound, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
pound, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
pound, New Jersey
New Jersey
pound, New York pound, North Carolina
North Carolina
pound, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
pound, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
pound, South Carolina
South Carolina
pound, and Virginia
Virginia
pound. Continental currency[edit]

Continental One Third Dollar
Dollar
Bill (obverse)

See also: Continental currency During the American Revolution
American Revolution
the thirteen colonies became independent states. Freed from British monetary regulations, they each issued £sd
£sd
paper money to pay for military expenses. The Continental Congress also began issuing "Continental Currency" denominated in Spanish dollars. The dollar was valued relative to the states' currencies at the following rates:

5 shillings – Georgia 6 shillings – Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Virginia ​7 1⁄2 shillings – Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania 8 shillings – New York, North Carolina ​32 1⁄2 shillings – South Carolina

Continental currency
Continental currency
depreciated badly during the war, giving rise to the famous phrase "not worth a continental".[37] A primary problem was that monetary policy was not coordinated between Congress and the states, which continued to issue bills of credit. Additionally, neither Congress nor the governments of the several states had the will or the means to retire the bills from circulation through taxation or the sale of bonds.[38] The currency was ultimately replaced by the silver dollar at the rate of 1 silver dollar to 1000 continental dollars. Silver and gold standards[edit] From 1792, when the Mint Act
Mint Act
was passed, the dollar was defined as 371.25 grains (24.056 g) of silver. The gold coins that were minted were not given any denomination and traded for a market value relative to the Congressional standard of the silver dollar. 1834 saw a shift in the gold standard to 23.2 grains (1.50 g), followed by a slight adjustment to 23.22 grains (1.505 g) in 1837 (16:1 ratio).[citation needed] In 1862, paper money was issued without the backing of precious metals, due to the Civil War. Silver and gold coins continued to be issued and in 1878 the link between paper money and coins was reinstated. This disconnection from gold and silver backing also occurred during the War of 1812. The use of paper money not backed by precious metals had also occurred under the Articles of Confederation from 1777 to 1788. With no solid backing and being easily counterfeited, the continentals quickly lost their value, giving rise to the phrase "not worth a continental". This was a primary reason for the "No state shall... make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts" clause in article 1, section 10 of the United States
United States
Constitution. In order to finance the War of 1812, Congress authorized the issuance of Treasury Notes, interest-bearing short-term debt that could be used to pay public dues. While they were intended to serve as debt, they did function "to a limited extent" as money. Treasury Notes were again printed to help resolve the reduction in public revenues resulting from the Panic of 1837
Panic of 1837
and the Panic of 1857, as well as to help finance the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
and the Civil War. In addition to Treasury Notes, in 1861, Congress authorized the Treasury to borrow $50 million in the form of Demand Notes, which did not bear interest but could be redeemed on demand for precious metals. However, by December 1861, the Union government's supply of specie was outstripped by demand for redemption and they were forced to suspend redemption temporarily. The following February, Congress passed the Legal Tender Act of 1862, issuing United States
United States
Notes, which were not redeemable on demand and bore no interest, but were legal tender, meaning that creditors had to accept them at face value for any payment except for public debts and import tariffs. However, silver and gold coins continued to be issued, resulting in the depreciation of the newly printed notes through Gresham's Law. In 1869, Supreme Court ruled in Hepburn v. Griswold
Hepburn v. Griswold
that Congress could not require creditors to accept United States
United States
Notes, but overturned that ruling the next year in the Legal Tender Cases. In 1875, Congress passed the Specie Payment Resumption Act, requiring the Treasury to allow US Notes to be redeemed for gold after January 1, 1879. The Treasury ceased to issue United States
United States
Notes in 1971. The Gold Standard Act
Gold Standard Act
of 1900 abandoned the bimetallic standard and defined the dollar as 23.22 grains (1.505 g) of gold, equivalent to setting the price of 1 troy ounce of gold at $20.67. Silver coins continued to be issued for circulation until 1964, when all silver was removed from dimes and quarters, and the half dollar was reduced to 40% silver. Silver half dollars were last issued for circulation in 1970. Gold coins were confiscated by Executive Order 6102
Executive Order 6102
issued in 1933 by Franklin Roosevelt. The gold standard was changed to 13.71 grains (0.888 g), equivalent to setting the price of 1 troy ounce of gold at $35. This standard persisted until 1968. Between 1968 and 1975, a variety of pegs to gold were put in place, eventually culminating in a sudden end, on August 15, 1971, to the convertibility of dollars to gold later dubbed the Nixon Shock. The last peg was $42.22 per ounce[citation needed] before the U.S. dollar was allowed to freely float on currency markets. According to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the largest note it ever printed was the $100,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1934. These notes were printed from December 18, 1934, through January 9, 1935, and were issued by the Treasurer of the United States
United States
to Federal Reserve Banks only against an equal amount of gold bullion held by the Treasury. These notes were used for transactions between Federal Reserve Banks and were not circulated among the general public. Coins[edit] Main article: Coins of the United States
United States
dollar Official United States
United States
coins have been produced every year from 1792 to the present.

Denomination Common name Front Reverse Portrait and design date Reverse motif and design date Weight Diameter Material Edge Circulation

Cent 1¢ penny

Abraham Lincoln Union Shield 2.5 g (0.088 oz) 0.75 in (19.05 mm) 97.5% Zn 2.5% Cu plain Wide

Five-Cent 5¢ nickel

Thomas Jefferson Monticello 5 g (0.176 oz) 0.835 in (21.21 mm) 75% Cu 25% Ni plain Wide

Dime 10¢ dime

Franklin D. Roosevelt olive branch, torch, oak branch 0.08 oz (2.268 g) 0.705 in (17.91 mm) 91.67% Cu 8.33% Ni 118 reeds Wide

Quarter Dollar 25¢ quarter

George Washington Various; five designs per year 0.2 oz (5.67 g) 0.955 in (24.26 mm) 91.67% Cu 8.33% Ni 119 reeds Wide

Half Dollar 50¢ half

John F. Kennedy Presidential Seal 0.4 oz (11.34 g) 1.205 in (30.61 mm) 91.67% Cu 8.33% Ni 150 reeds Limited

Dollar
Dollar
coin $1 dollar coin, golden dollar

Profile of Sacagawea
Sacagawea
with her child, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau Bald eagle
Bald eagle
in flight (2000–2008), Various; new design per year 0.286 oz (8.10 g) 1.043 in (26.50 mm) 88.5% Cu 6% Zn 3.5% Mn 2% Ni Lettered Limited

Discontinued coin denominations include:

Half cent: ​1⁄2¢, 1793–1857 Fugio Cent: 1¢, 1787 Two-cent piece: 2¢, 1863–1873 Three-cent bronze: 3¢, 1863 (not circulated) Three-cent nickel: 3¢, 1865–1889 Trime: 3¢, 1851–1873 Half dime: 5¢, 1792–1873 Twenty-cent piece: 20¢, 1875–1878 Gold dollar: $1.00, 1849–1889 Quarter eagle: $2.50, 1792–1929 Three-dollar piece: $3.00, 1854–1889 Stella: $4.00, (not circulated) Half eagle: $5.00, 1795–1929, minted as a commemorative 1986–present Eagle: $10.00, minted as a commemorative 1984–2003 Double eagle: $20.00, 1849–1933, 2009 Half-union: $50.00, 1877 (pattern only), 1915 (Panama–Pacific International Exposition coin) Union: $100.00, 2015 (High relief; not circulated)

Collector coins for which everyday transactions are non-existent.[39]

American Eagles originally were not available from the Mint for individuals but had to be purchased from authorized dealers. In 2006 The Mint began direct sales to individuals of uncirculated bullion coins with a special finish, and bearing a "W" mintmark.

American Silver Eagle
American Silver Eagle
$1 (1 troy ounce) silver bullion coin 1986–present American Gold Eagle
American Gold Eagle
$5 (​1⁄10 troy oz), $10 (​1⁄4 troy oz), $25 (​1⁄2 troy oz), and $50 (1 troy oz) Gold bullion coin 1986–present American Platinum Eagle
American Platinum Eagle
($10, $25, $50, and $100 platinum coin) 1997–present

United States
United States
commemorative coins—special issue coins

$50.00 (Half Union) 1915 Presidential Proofs (see below) 2007–present

Technically, all these coins are still legal tender at face value, though some are far more valuable today for their numismatic value, and for gold and silver coins, their precious metal value. From 1965 to 1970 the Kennedy half dollar
Kennedy half dollar
was the only circulating coin with any silver content, which was removed in 1971 and replaced with cupronickel. However, since 1992, the U.S. Mint
U.S. Mint
has produced special Silver Proof Sets in addition to the regular yearly proof sets with silver dimes, quarters, and half dollars in place of the standard copper-nickel versions. In addition, an experimental $4.00 (Stella) coin was also minted in 1879, but never placed into circulation, and is properly considered to be a pattern rather than an actual coin denomination. The $50 coin mentioned was only produced in 1915 for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915)
Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915)
celebrating the opening of the Panama
Panama
Canal. Only 1,128 were made, 645 of which were octagonal; this remains the only U.S. coin that was not round as well as the largest and heaviest U.S. coin ever produced. A $100 gold coin was produced in High relief during 2015, although it was primarily produced for collectors, not for general circulation.[40] From 1934 to present, the only denominations produced for circulation have been the familiar penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half dollar and dollar. The nickel is the only coin still in use today that is essentially unchanged (except in its design) from its original version. Every year since 1866, the nickel has been 75% copper and 25% nickel, except for 4 years during World War II
World War II
when nickel was needed for the war. Due to the penny's low value, some efforts have been made to eliminate the penny as circulating coinage.[41][42] Collector coins[edit] The United States
United States
Mint produces Proof Sets specifically for collectors and speculators. Silver Proofs tend to be the standard designs but with the dime, quarter, and half dollar containing 90% silver. Starting in 1983 and ending in 1997, the Mint also produced proof sets containing the year's commemorative coins alongside the regular coins. Another type of proof set is the Presidential Dollar
Dollar
Proof Set where four special $1 coins are minted each year featuring a president. Because of budget constraints and increasing stockpiles of these relatively unpopular coins, the production of new Presidential dollar coins for circulation was suspended on December 13, 2011, by U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner. Future minting of such coins will be made solely for collectors.[43]

2007 had George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison 2008 had James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and Martin Van Buren 2009 had William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James K. Polk, and Zachary Taylor 2010 had Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, and Abraham Lincoln 2011 had Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, and James A. Garfield 2012 had Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1st term), Benjamin Harrison, and Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(2nd term) 2013 had William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson 2014 had Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Franklin D. Roosevelt 2015 had Harry S Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson 2016 had Richard M. Nixon, Gerald R. Ford and Ronald Reagan.

Dollar
Dollar
coins[edit] Main article: Coins of the United States
United States
dollar The first United States
United States
dollar was minted in 1794. Known as the Flowing Hair Dollar, contained 416 grains of "standard silver" (89.25% silver and 10.75% copper), as specified by Section 13[44] of the Coinage Act of 1792. It was designated by Section 9 of that Act as having "the value of a Spanish milled dollar". Dollar
Dollar
coins have not been very popular in the United States.[45] Silver dollars were minted intermittently from 1794 through 1935; a copper-nickel dollar of the same large size, featuring President Dwight D. Eisenhower, was minted from 1971 through 1978. Gold dollars were also minted in the 19th century. The Susan B. Anthony dollar
Susan B. Anthony dollar
coin was introduced in 1979; these proved to be unpopular because they were often mistaken for quarters, due to their nearly equal size, their milled edge, and their similar color. Minting of these dollars for circulation was suspended in 1980 (collectors' pieces were struck in 1981), but, as with all past U.S. coins, they remain legal tender. As the number of Anthony dollars held by the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
and dispensed primarily to make change in postal and transit vending machines had been virtually exhausted, additional Anthony dollars were struck in 1999. In 2000, a new $1 coin, featuring Sacagawea, (the Sacagawea
Sacagawea
dollar) was introduced, which corrected some of the problems of the Anthony dollar by having a smooth edge and a gold color, without requiring changes to vending machines that accept the Anthony dollar. However, this new coin has failed to achieve the popularity of the still-existing $1 bill and is rarely used in daily transactions. The failure to simultaneously withdraw the dollar bill and weak publicity efforts have been cited by coin proponents as primary reasons for the failure of the dollar coin to gain popular support.[46] In February 2007, the U.S. Mint, under the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005,[47] introduced a new $1 U.S. Presidential dollar coin. Based on the success of the "50 State Quarters" series, the new coin features a sequence of presidents in order of their inaugurations, starting with George Washington, on the obverse side. The reverse side features the Statue of Liberty. To allow for larger, more detailed portraits, the traditional inscriptions of "E Pluribus Unum", "In God We Trust", the year of minting or issuance, and the mint mark will be inscribed on the edge of the coin instead of the face. This feature, similar to the edge inscriptions seen on the British £1 coin, is not usually associated with U.S. coin designs. The inscription "Liberty" has been eliminated, with the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
serving as a sufficient replacement. In addition, due to the nature of U.S. coins, this will be the first time there will be circulating U.S. coins of different denominations with the same president featured on the obverse (heads) side (Lincoln/penny, Jefferson/nickel, Franklin D. Roosevelt/dime, Washington/quarter, Kennedy/half dollar, and Eisenhower/dollar). Another unusual fact about the new $1 coin is Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
will have two coins with two different portraits issued due to the fact he was the only U.S. President to be elected to two non-consecutive terms.[48] Early releases of the Washington coin included error coins shipped primarily from the Philadelphia mint to Florida and Tennessee banks. Highly sought after by collectors, and trading for as much as $850 each within a week of discovery, the error coins were identified by the absence of the edge impressions "E PLURIBUS UNUM IN GOD WE TRUST 2007 P". The mint of origin is generally accepted to be mostly Philadelphia, although identifying the source mint is impossible without opening a mint pack also containing marked units. Edge lettering is minted in both orientations with respect to "heads", some amateur collectors were initially duped into buying "upside down lettering error" coins.[49] Some cynics also erroneously point out that the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
makes more profit from dollar bills than dollar coins because they wear out in a few years, whereas coins are more permanent. The fallacy of this argument arises because new notes printed to replace worn out notes, which have been withdrawn from circulation, bring in no net revenue to the government to offset the costs of printing new notes and destroying the old ones. As most vending machines are incapable of making change in banknotes, they commonly accept only $1 bills, though a few will give change in dollar coins. Mint marks[edit]

Mint Mint mark Metal minted Year established Current status

Denver D All metals 1906 Facility open

Philadelphia P or none[a] All metals 1792 Facility open

San Francisco S All metals 1854 Facility open (proof only)

West Point W or none[b] Gold, Silver and Platinum 1973 Facility open (bullion only)

Carson City CC Gold and Silver 1870 Facility closed, 1893[c]

Charlotte C Gold only 1838 Facility closed, 1861

Dahlonega D[d] Gold only 1838 Facility closed, 1861

Manila[e] M or none[f] All metals 1920 Facility closed, 1922; re-opened 1925–1941

New Orleans O Gold and Silver 1838 Facility closed, 1861; re-opened 1879–1909[g]

Notes[edit]

^ The letter "P" is used for the Philadelphia mint mark on all coins (except cents) released from 1980 onward. Before this it had only been used on silver Jefferson nickels from 1942 to 1945. ^ Between 1973 and 1986 there was no mint mark (these coins are indistinguishable from coins produced at the Philadelphia Mint
Philadelphia Mint
from 1973 to 1980); after 1988 the letter "W" was used for coinage, except for the 2009 Ultra High Relief Double Eagle. ^ It is now the home of the Nevada State Museum, which still strikes commemorative medallions with the "CC" mint mark (most recently in 2014 commemorating the Nevada Sesquicentennial), using former mint's the original coin press. ^ Although the mint mark "D" has been used by two separate mints, it is easy to distinguish between the two, as any 19th century coinage is Dahlonega, and any 20th or 21st century coins are Denver. ^ During the period in which this mint branch was operational, The Philippines
Philippines
was an insular territory and then commonwealth of the U.S.; it was the first (and to date only) U.S. branch mint located outside the Continental United States. ^ The letter "M" was used for the Manila mint mark on all coins released from 1925 onward; before this it had produced its coins with no mintmark. ^ During the Civil War, this mint operated under the control of the State of Louisiana
Louisiana
(February 1861) and the Confederate States of America (March 1861) until it ran out of bullion later in that year; some Half Dollars have been identified as being the issue of the State of Louisiana
Louisiana
and the Confederacy.

Banknotes[edit] Main article: Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Note

Denomination Front Reverse Portrait Reverse motif First series Latest series Circulation

One Dollar

George Washington Great Seal of the United States Series 1935 Series 2017[50] Wide

Two Dollars

Thomas Jefferson Trumbull's Declaration of Independence Series 1976 Series 2013 Limited

Five Dollars

Abraham Lincoln Lincoln Memorial Series 2006 Series 2013 Wide

Ten Dollars

Alexander Hamilton U.S. Treasury Series 2004A Series 2013 Wide

Twenty Dollars

Andrew Jackson White House Series 2004 Series 2013 Wide

Fifty Dollars

Ulysses S. Grant United States
United States
Capitol Series 2004 Series 2013 Wide

One Hundred Dollars

Benjamin Franklin Independence Hall Series 2009 Series 2013 Wide

The U.S. Constitution provides that Congress shall have the power to "borrow money on the credit of the United States".[51] Congress has exercised that power by authorizing Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Banks to issue Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Notes. Those notes are "obligations of the United States" and "shall be redeemed in lawful money on demand at the Treasury Department of the United States, in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, or at any Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
bank".[52] Federal Reserve Notes are designated by law as "legal tender" for the payment of debts.[53] Congress has also authorized the issuance of more than 10 other types of banknotes, including the United States
United States
Note[54] and the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Bank Note. The Federal Reserve Note
Federal Reserve Note
is the only type that remains in circulation since the 1970s. Currently printed denominations are $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. Notes above the $100 denomination stopped being printed in 1946 and were officially withdrawn from circulation in 1969. These notes were used primarily in inter-bank transactions or by organized crime; it was the latter usage that prompted President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
to issue an executive order in 1969 halting their use. With the advent of electronic banking, they became less necessary. Notes in denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000, $10,000, and $100,000 were all produced at one time; see large denomination bills in U.S. currency for details. With the exception of the $100,000 bill (which was only issued as a Series 1934 Gold Certificate and was never publicly circulated; thus it is illegal to own), these notes are now collectors' items and are worth more than their face value to collectors. Though still predominantly green, post-2004 series incorporate other colors to better distinguish different denominations. As a result of a 2008 decision in an accessibility lawsuit filed by the American Council of the Blind, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
is planning to implement a raised tactile feature in the next redesign of each note, except the $1 and the current version of the $100 bill. It also plans larger, higher-contrast numerals, more color differences, and distribution of currency readers to assist the visually impaired during the transition period.[55] Means of issue[edit] The monetary base consists of coins and Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Notes in circulation outside the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Banks and the U.S. Treasury, plus deposits held by depository institutions at Federal Reserve Banks. The adjusted monetary base has increased from approximately 400 billion dollars in 1994, to 800 billion in 2005, and over 3000 billion in 2013.[56] The amount of cash in circulation is increased (or decreased) by the actions of the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
System. Eight times a year, the 12-person Federal Open Market Committee
Federal Open Market Committee
meets to determine U.S. monetary policy.[57] Every business day, the Federal Reserve System engages in Open market operations
Open market operations
to carry out that monetary policy.[58] If the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
desires to increase the money supply, it will buy securities (such as U.S. Treasury
U.S. Treasury
Bonds) anonymously from banks in exchange for dollars. Conversely, it will sell securities to the banks in exchange for dollars, to take dollars out of circulation.[59] When the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
makes a purchase, it credits the seller's reserve account (with the Federal Reserve). This money is not transferred from any existing funds—it is at this point that the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
has created new high-powered money. Commercial banks can freely withdraw in cash any excess reserves from their reserve account at the Federal Reserve. To fulfill those requests, the Federal Reserve places an order for printed money from the U.S. Treasury Department.[60] The Treasury Department in turn sends these requests to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
(to print new dollar bills) and the Bureau of the Mint (to stamp the coins). Usually, the short-term goal of open market operations is to achieve a specific short-term interest rate target. In other instances, monetary policy might instead entail the targeting of a specific exchange rate relative to some foreign currency or else relative to gold. For example, in the case of the United States
United States
the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
targets the federal funds rate, the rate at which member banks lend to one another overnight. The other primary means of conducting monetary policy include: (i) Discount window
Discount window
lending (as lender of last resort); (ii) Fractional deposit lending (changes in the reserve requirement); (iii) Moral suasion (cajoling certain market players to achieve specified outcomes); (iv) "Open mouth operations" (talking monetary policy with the market). Value[edit]

Buying power of one U.S. dollar compared to 1774 USD

 Year   Equivalent  buying power

1774  $1.00

1780  $0.59

1790  $0.89

1800  $0.64

1810  $0.66

1820  $0.69

1830  $0.88

1840  $0.94

1850  $1.03

1860  $0.97

 Year   Equivalent  buying power

1870  $0.62

1880  $0.79

1890  $0.89

1900  $0.96

1910  $0.85

1920  $0.39

1930  $0.47

1940  $0.56

1950  $0.33

1960  $0.26

 Year   Equivalent  buying power

1970  $0.20

1980  $0.10

1990  $0.06

2000  $0.05

2007  $0.04

2008  $0.04

2009  $0.04

2010  $0.035

2011  $0.034

2012  $0.03

U.S. Consumer Price Index, starting from 1913

The 6th paragraph of Section 8 of Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution provides that the U.S. Congress shall have the power to "coin money" and to "regulate the value" of domestic and foreign coins. Congress exercised those powers when it enacted the Coinage Act of 1792. That Act provided for the minting of the first U.S. dollar and it declared that the U.S. dollar shall have "the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current".[61] The table to the right shows the equivalent amount of goods that, in a particular year, could be purchased with $1. The table shows that from 1774 through 2012 the U.S. dollar has lost about 97.0% of its buying power.[62] The decline in the value of the U.S. dollar corresponds to price inflation, which is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.[63] A consumer price index (CPI) is a measure estimating the average price of consumer goods and services purchased by households. The United States
United States
Consumer Price Index, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is a measure estimating the average price of consumer goods and services in the United States.[64] It reflects inflation as experienced by consumers in their day-to-day living expenses.[65] A graph showing the U.S. CPI relative to 1982–1984 and the annual year-over-year change in CPI is shown at right. The value of the U.S. dollar declined significantly during wartime, especially during the American Civil War, World War I, and World War II.[66] The Federal Reserve, which was established in 1913, was designed to furnish an "elastic" currency subject to "substantial changes of quantity over short periods", which differed significantly from previous forms of high-powered money such as gold, national bank notes, and silver coins.[67] Over the very long run, the prior gold standard kept prices stable—for instance, the price level and the value of the U.S. dollar in 1914 was not very different from the price level in the 1880s. The Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
initially succeeded in maintaining the value of the U.S. dollar and price stability, reversing the inflation caused by the First World War and stabilizing the value of the dollar during the 1920s, before presiding over a 30% deflation in U.S. prices in the 1930s.[68] Under the Bretton Woods system
Bretton Woods system
established after World War II, the value of gold was fixed to $35 per ounce, and the value of the U.S. dollar was thus anchored to the value of gold. Rising government spending in the 1960s, however, led to doubts about the ability of the United States
United States
to maintain this convertibility, gold stocks dwindled as banks and international investors began to convert dollars to gold, and as a result the value of the dollar began to decline. Facing an emerging currency crisis and the imminent danger that the United States would no longer be able to redeem dollars for gold, gold convertibility was finally terminated in 1971 by President Nixon, resulting in the "Nixon shock".[69] The value of the U.S. dollar was therefore no longer anchored to gold, and it fell upon the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
to maintain the value of the U.S. currency. The Federal Reserve, however, continued to increase the money supply, resulting in stagflation and a rapidly declining value of the U.S. dollar in the 1970s. This was largely due to the prevailing economic view at the time that inflation and real economic growth were linked (the Phillips curve), and so inflation was regarded as relatively benign.[69] Between 1965 and 1981, the U.S. dollar lost two thirds of its value.[62] In 1979, President Carter appointed Paul Volcker
Paul Volcker
Chairman of the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
tightened the money supply and inflation was substantially lower in the 1980s, and hence the value of the U.S. dollar stabilized.[69] Over the thirty-year period from 1981 to 2009, the U.S. dollar lost over half its value.[62] This is because the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
has targeted not zero inflation, but a low, stable rate of inflation—between 1987 and 1997, the rate of inflation was approximately 3.5%, and between 1997 and 2007 it was approximately 2%. The so-called "Great Moderation" of economic conditions since the 1970s is credited to monetary policy targeting price stability.[70] There is ongoing debate about whether central banks should target zero inflation (which would mean a constant value for the U.S. dollar over time) or low, stable inflation (which would mean a continuously but slowly declining value of the dollar over time, as is the case now). Although some economists are in favor of a zero inflation policy and therefore a constant value for the U.S. dollar,[68] others contend that such a policy limits the ability of the central bank to control interest rates and stimulate the economy when needed.[71] Exchange rates[edit] Historical exchange rates[edit]

Currency
Currency
units per U.S. dollar, averaged over the year

19702 19802 19852 19902 1993 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015[72]

Euro  —  —  —  —  — 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.6739 0.7178 0.7777 0.7530 0.7520 0.9015

Japanese yen 357.6 240.45 250.35 146.25 111.08 113.73 107.80 121.57 125.22 115.94 108.15 110.11 116.31 117.76 103.39 93.68 87.78 79.70 79.82 97.60 105.74 121.05

Pound sterling 8s 4d =0.4167 0.4484[73] 0.8613[73] 0.6207 0.6660 0.6184 0.6598 0.6946 0.6656 0.6117 0.5456 0.5493 0.5425 0.4995 0.5392 0.6385 0.4548 0.6233 0.6308 0.6393 0.6066 0.6544

Canadian dollar 1.081 1.168 1.321 1.1605 1.2902 1.4858 1.4855 1.5487 1.5704 1.4008 1.3017 1.2115 1.1340 1.0734 1.0660 1.1412 1.0298 0.9887 0.9995 1.0300 1.1043 1.2789

Mexican peso 0.01250–0.026501 2.801 2.671 2.501 3.1237 9.553 9.459 9.337 9.663 10.793 11.290 10.894 10.906 10.928 11.143 13.498 12.623 12.427 13.154 12.758 13.302 15.837

Renminbi
Renminbi
yuan 2.46 1.7050 2.9366 4.7832 5.7620 8.2783 8.2784 8.2770 8.2771 8.2772 8.2768 8.1936 7.9723 7.6058 6.9477 6.8307 6.7696 6.4630 6.3093 6.1478 6.1620 6.2840

Indian rupee 7.56 8.000 12.38 16.96 31.291 43.13 45.00 47.22 48.63 46.59 45.26 44.00 45.19 41.18 43.39 48.33 45.65 46.58 53.37 58.51 62.00 64.1332

Singapore dollar  —  — 2.179 1.903 1.6158 1.6951 1.7361 1.7930 1.7908 1.7429 1.6902 1.6639 1.5882 1.5065 1.4140 1.4543 1.24586 1.2565 1.2492 1.2511 1.2665 1.3748

South African rand 0.7182 0.7780 2.2343[74] 2.5600 3.2729 6.1191 6.9468 8.6093 10.5176 7.5550 6.4402 6.3606 6.7668 7.0477 8.2480 8.4117 7.3159 7.2510 8.2014 9.6436 10.8420 12.7759

Notes: 1. Mexican peso
Mexican peso
values prior to 1993 revaluation 2. Value at the start of the year Sources:

US: Last 4 years, 2009–2012, 2005–2008, 2001–2004, 1997–2000, 1993–1996, all available years[75] Multiple countries: 2004–present Australia: 1970–present China: 1974–1991, 1993–1995 Mexico: 1976–1991 Canada: 1977–1991

Current exchange rates[edit]

Current USD exchange rates

From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY RUB INR CNY

From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY RUB INR CNY

From XE: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY RUB INR CNY

From OANDA: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY RUB INR CNY

From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY RUB INR CNY

See also[edit]

Government of the United States
United States
portal Numismatics
Numismatics
portal

Coins of the United States
United States
dollar Counterfeit United States
United States
currency Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Note International use of the U.S. dollar Large denominations of United States
United States
currency Series ( United States
United States
currency) Strong dollar policy U.S. Dollar
Dollar
Index

Notes[edit]

^ Alongside East Timor
East Timor
centavo coins ^ Alongside Ecuadorian centavo coins ^ Alongside Panamanian balboa
Panamanian balboa
coins ^ Official currency for Zimbabwean government transactions ^ United States
United States
dollars, Iranian rials, and Pakistani rupees are widely accepted. ^ Used heavily for large purchases. ^ Bahamian dollar
Bahamian dollar
tied at a 1:1 rate to the United States
United States
dollar, both are accepted interchangeably. ^ Barbadian dollar tied at about 2:1, both the accepted. Visiting Barbados
Barbados
FAQ: What is the local currency?, Invest Barbados ^ Alongside the Cambodian riel ^ Alongside the Chilean peso ^ Alongside the Colombian peso ^ Alongside the Costa Rican colón ^ Iraqi dinar
Iraqi dinar
tied at about 2:1, both accepted. ^ Alongside the Jamaican dollar ^ Alongside the Lao kip ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Lebanese pound at a fixed exchange rate of 1:1,500 ^ Alongside the Mexican peso ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Burmese kyat ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Nicaraguan córdoba ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Paraguayan guarani ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Peruvian sol ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Somali shilling ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the South African rand ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Surinamese dollar ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Uruguayan peso ^ The United States
United States
dollar is widely used alongside the Venezuelan bolívar ^ Alongside the East Caribbean
Caribbean
dollar ^ Alongside the Saint Helena pound ^ Alongside the Bermudian dollar ^ Alongside the New Zealand dollar ^ a b The United States
United States
dollar is widely used by locals.

References[edit]

^ nichol, Mark. "50 Slang Terms for Money". dailywritingtips.com. Retrieved May 31, 2016.  ^ "Central Bank of Timor-Leste". Retrieved Mar 22, 2017. The official currency of Timor-Leste is the United States
United States
dollar, which is legal tender for all payments made in cash.  ^ "Ecuador". CIA World Factbook. October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2010. The dollar is legal tender  ^ "El Salvador". CIA World Factbook. October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2001. The US dollar became El Salvador's currency in 2001  ^ FCO country profile Archived June 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
Currency". Wwp.greenwichmeantime.com. March 6, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2013.  ^ "demtullpitcairn.com" (PDF). www.demtullpitcairn.com.  ^ "Nixon Ends Convertibility of US Dollars to Gold and Announces Wage/Price Controls". Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Bank of Richmond. Retrieved September 25, 2017.  ^ "Is U.S. currency still backed by gold?". Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
System. Retrieved September 25, 2017.  ^ "The Implementation of Monetary
Monetary
Policy – The Federal Reserve in the International Sphere" (PDF). Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ Benjamin J. Cohen, The Future of Money, Princeton University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-691-11666-0; cf. "the dollar is the de facto currency in Cambodia", Charles Agar, Frommer's Vietnam, 2006, ISBN 0-471-79816-9, p. 17 ^ "How much U.S. currency is in circulation?". Federal Reserve. Retrieved November 10, 2017.  ^ "Paragraph 5 of Section 8 of Article 1 of the Constitution of the United States
United States
of America". Topics.law.cornell.edu. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ a b c "Section 5112 of Title 31 of the United States
United States
Code". Retrieved March 16, 2010.  ^ "Paragraph 7 of Section 9 of Article 1 of the Constitution of the United States
United States
of America". Topics.law.cornell.edu. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ "Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States
United States
Code". Law.cornell.edu. August 6, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ "2009 Financial Report of the United States
United States
Government" (PDF). Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ Mehl, B. Max. " United States
United States
$50.00 Gold Pieces, 1877", in Star Rare Coins Encyclopedia and Premium Catalogue (20th edition, 1921) ^ a b National Geographic. June 2002. p. 1. Ask US. ^ "Dutch Colonial – Lion Dollar". Coins.lakdiva.org. Retrieved May 5, 2013.  ^ a b "etymologiebank.nl". etymologiebank.nl. Retrieved May 5, 2013.  ^ Julian, R.W. (2007). "All About the Dollar". Numismatist: 41.  ^ "Buck". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved November 10, 2011.  ^ "Paper Money Glossary". Littleton Coin Company. Retrieved November 7, 2011.  ^ Cajori, Florian ([1929]1993). A History of Mathematical Notations (Vol. 2). New York: Dover, 15–29. ISBN 0-486-67766-4 ^ Aiton, Arthur S. and Benjamin W. Wheeler (May 1931). "The First American Mint", The Hispanic American Historical Review 11 (2), 198 and note 2 on 198. ^ Nussbaum, Arthur (1957). A History of the Dollar. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 56. The dollar sign, $, is connected with the peso, contrary to popular belief, which considers it to be an abbreviation of 'U.S.' The two parallel lines represented one of the many abbreviations of 'P,' and the 'S' indicated the plural. The abbreviation '$.' was also used for the peso, and is still used in Argentina.  ^ "What is the origin of the $ Sign?" Archived May 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
website ^ Rand, Ayn. Atlas Shrugged. 1957. Signet. 1992. p628 ^ James, James Alton (1970) [1937]. Oliver Pollock: The Life and Times of an Unknown Patriot. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-8369-5527-9.  ^ "The Lion Dollar: Introduction". Coins.nd.edu. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ Mint, U.S. "Coinage Act of 1792". U.S. treasury.  ^ See [1]. ^ " United States
United States
Dollar". OANDA. Retrieved December 19, 2013.  ^ "Engraving and printing currency and security documents:Article b". Legal Information Institute. Retrieved December 19, 2013.  ^ Matt Soniak (July 22, 2011). "On the Money: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Coin Portraits". Mental Floss. Retrieved December 19, 2013.  ^ Newman, Eric P. (1990). The Early Paper Money of America (3 ed.). Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. p. 17. ISBN 0-87341-120-X.  ^ Wright, Robert E. (2008). One Nation Under Debt: Hamilton, Jefferson, and the History of What We Owe. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 50–52. ISBN 978-0-07-154393-4.  ^ "IRS Court Case Shakes the Foundations of the Debt Money System". Beyondmoney.net. November 8, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ "2015 $100 American Liberty High Relief Gold Coin Photos". July 31, 2015.  ^ Christian Zappone (July 18, 2006). "Kill-the-penny bill introduced". CNN Money. Retrieved February 13, 2016.  ^ Weinberg, Ali (February 19, 2013). "Penny pinching: Can Obama manage elimination of one-cent coin?". NBC News. Retrieved February 13, 2016.  ^ "The United States
United States
Mint Coins and Medals Program". Department of the Treasury. Retrieved August 1, 2012.  ^ "Section 13 of the Coinage Act of 1792". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ CNN Money Congress tries again for a dollar coin. Written by Gordon T. Anderson. Published April 25, 2005. ^ "Report to the Subcommittee on Treasury and General Government, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate" (PDF). USGAO. Retrieved May 5, 2013.  ^ Pub. L. No. 109-145, 119 Stat. 2664 (December 22, 2005). ^ The United States
United States
Mint. "The United States
United States
Mint Pressroom". Usmint.com. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ Godless Dollars[dead link] ^ "USPaperMoney.Info: Series 2017 $1". www.uspapermoney.info.  ^ "Paragraph 2 of Section 8 of Article 1 of the United States Constitution". Topics.law.cornell.edu. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ "Section 411 of Title 12 of the United States
United States
Code". Law.cornell.edu. June 22, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ "Section 5103 of Title 31 of the United States
United States
Code". Law.cornell.edu. August 6, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ "Section 5115 of Title 31 of the United States
United States
Code". Law.cornell.edu. August 6, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ See Federal Reserve Note
Federal Reserve Note
for details and references ^ "St. Louis Adjusted Monetary
Monetary
Base". Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved May 3, 2013.  ^ "The Federal Reserve's Beige Book". The Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Bank of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ Davies, Phil. "Right on Target". Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2008. Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Bank of Minneapolis  ^ "Open Market Operations". Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Bank of New York. Retrieved January 11, 2008. Open market operations
Open market operations
enable the Federal Reserve to affect the supply of reserve balances in the banking system.  ^ "Fact Sheets: Currency
Currency
& Coins". United States
United States
Department of the Treasury. Archived from the original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2008.  ^ "Section 9 of the Coinage Act of 1792". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ a b c "Measuring Worth – Purchasing Power of Money in the United States
United States
from 1774 to 2010". Retrieved April 22, 2010.  ^ Olivier Blanchard
Olivier Blanchard
(2000). Macroeconomics (2nd ed.), Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-013306-X ^ "Consumer Price Index Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved July 17, 2010.  ^ "Consumer Price Index Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved July 17, 2010.  ^ Milton Friedman, Anna Jacobson Schwartz. A monetary history of the United States, 1867–1960. p. 546. ISBN 978-0691003542.  ^ Friedman 189–190 ^ a b "Central Banking—Then and Now". Retrieved July 17, 2010.  ^ a b c "Controlling Inflation: A Historical Perspective" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2010.  ^ " Monetary
Monetary
Credibility, Inflation, and Economic Growth". Retrieved July 17, 2010.  ^ "U.S. Monetary
Monetary
Policy: The Fed's Goals". Retrieved July 17, 2010.  ^ "Historical Exchange Rates Currency
Currency
Converter - TransferMate". www.transfermate.com.  ^ a b 1970–1992 Archived October 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. 1980 derived from AUD–USD=1.1055 and AUD–GBP=0.4957 at end of Dec 1979: 0.4957/1.1055=0.448394392; 1985 derived from AUD–USD=0.8278 and AUD–GBP=0.7130 at end of Dec 1984: 0.7130/0.8278=0.861319159 ^ "Exchange Rates Between the United States
United States
Dollar
Dollar
and the South African Rand". Measuring Worth. Retrieved December 5, 2011.  ^ "FRB: Foreign Exchange Rates – G.5A; Release Dates". Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
System. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Prasad, Eswar S. (2014). The Dollar
Dollar
Trap: How the U.S. Dollar Tightened Its Grip on Global Finance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-16112-9. 

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Coinage of the United States

Cent (1¢)

Fugio Cent
Fugio Cent
(1787) Chain (1793) Wreath (1793) Liberty Cap (1793–96) Draped Bust
Draped Bust
(1796–1807) Classic Head
Classic Head
(1808–14) Matron Head
Matron Head
(1816–39) Large cent
Large cent
(Braided Hair) (1835–57; 1868) Flying Eagle cent
Flying Eagle cent
(1856–58) Indian Head (1859–1909) Lincoln cent
Lincoln cent
(1909–present) 1943 steel cent 1955 doubled die cent 1974 aluminum cent

Nickel
Nickel
(5¢) Half dime

Flowing Hair (1794–95) Draped Bust
Draped Bust
(1796–97, 1800–05) Capped Bust
Capped Bust
(1829–37) Seated Liberty (1837–73) Shield (1866–83) Liberty Head (1883–1913) Buffalo (1913–38) Jefferson (1938–present)

Dime (10¢)

Disme (1792) Draped Bust
Draped Bust
(1796–1807) Capped Bust
Capped Bust
(1809–37) Seated Liberty (1837–91) Barber (1892–1916) Mercury (1916–45) Roosevelt (1946–present)

Quarter dollar (25¢)

Draped Bust
Draped Bust
(1796–1807) Capped Bust
Capped Bust
(1815–39) Seated Liberty (1839–91) Barber (1892–1916) Standing Liberty (1916–30) Washington (1932–1998) 50 State Quarters
50 State Quarters
(1999–2008) District of Columbia and United States
United States
Territories Quarters (2009) America the Beautiful Quarters
America the Beautiful Quarters
(2010–present)

Half dollar
Half dollar
(50¢)

Flowing Hair (1794–95) Draped Bust
Draped Bust
(1796–1807) Capped Bust
Capped Bust
(1807–39) Seated Liberty (1839–91) Barber (1892–1915) Walking Liberty (1916–47) Franklin (1948–63) Kennedy (1964–present)

Dollar
Dollar
($1)

Flowing Hair (1794–95) Draped Bust
Draped Bust
(1795–1804) 1804 (1834, c. 1858–60) Gobrecht (1836–39) Seated Liberty (1840–73) Gold (1849–89) Trade (1873–85) Morgan (1878–1904; 1921) Peace (1921–35) Eisenhower (1971–78) Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
(1979–81; 1999) Silver Eagle (1986–present) Sacagawea
Sacagawea
(2000–present) Presidential (2007–16)

Gold

Turban Head eagle
Turban Head eagle
(1795–1804) Half eagle
Half eagle
(1795–1929) Eagle (1795–1933) Quarter eagle
Quarter eagle
(1796–1929) Gold dollar
Gold dollar
(1849–89) Three-dollar piece
Three-dollar piece
(1854–89) Liberty Head double eagle
Liberty Head double eagle
(1849–1907) Double eagle
Double eagle
(1849–1933) Saint-Gaudens double eagle
Saint-Gaudens double eagle
(1907–33) Indian Head eagle
Indian Head eagle
(1907–33) Indian Head gold pieces
Indian Head gold pieces
(1908–29) Gold Eagle (1986–present) Gold Buffalo (2006–present) First Spouse gold bullion coins (2007–16)

Commemorative

Early (1892–1954)

Columbian half dollar
Columbian half dollar
(1892–93) Isabella quarter
Isabella quarter
(1893) Lafayette dollar
Lafayette dollar
(1900) Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase Exposition dollar (1903) Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar
Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar
(1904–05) Panama–Pacific commemorative coins
Panama–Pacific commemorative coins
(1915) McKinley Birthplace Memorial dollar
McKinley Birthplace Memorial dollar
(1916–17) Illinois Centennial half dollar
Illinois Centennial half dollar
(1918) Maine Centennial half dollar
Maine Centennial half dollar
(1920) Pilgrim Tercentenary half dollar
Pilgrim Tercentenary half dollar
(1920–21) Missouri Centennial half dollar
Missouri Centennial half dollar
(1921) Alabama Centennial half dollar
Alabama Centennial half dollar
(1921) Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar
Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar
(1923) Huguenot-Walloon half dollar
Huguenot-Walloon half dollar
(1924) Stone Mountain Memorial half dollar
Stone Mountain Memorial half dollar
(1925) Lexington-Concord Sesquicentennial half dollar
Lexington-Concord Sesquicentennial half dollar
(1925) California Diamond Jubilee half dollar
California Diamond Jubilee half dollar
(1925) Fort Vancouver Centennial half dollar
Fort Vancouver Centennial half dollar
(1925) United States
United States
Sesquicentennial coinage (1926) Oregon Trail Memorial half dollar
Oregon Trail Memorial half dollar
(1926–39) Vermont Sesquicentennial half dollar
Vermont Sesquicentennial half dollar
(1927) Hawaii Sesquicentennial half dollar
Hawaii Sesquicentennial half dollar
(1928) Texas Centennial half dollar
Texas Centennial half dollar
(1934–38) Hudson Sesquicentennial half dollar
Hudson Sesquicentennial half dollar
(1935) Connecticut
Connecticut
Tercentenary half dollar (1935) California Pacific International Exposition half dollar
California Pacific International Exposition half dollar
(1935–36) Rhode Island
Rhode Island
Tercentenary half dollar (1936) Cincinnati Musical Center half dollar
Cincinnati Musical Center half dollar
(1936) Cleveland Centennial half dollar
Cleveland Centennial half dollar
(1936) Bridgeport half dollar (1936) Elgin, Illinois, Centennial half dollar
Elgin, Illinois, Centennial half dollar
(1936)

Modern (1982–present)

Los Angeles XXIII Olympiad dollar
Los Angeles XXIII Olympiad dollar
(1984) Eisenhower commemorative dollar
Eisenhower commemorative dollar
(1990) Library of Congress ten dollar coin (2000) John Marshall commemorative dollar (2005) Marine Corps 230th Anniversary silver dollar
Marine Corps 230th Anniversary silver dollar
(2005) Boy Scouts of America centennial silver dollar
Boy Scouts of America centennial silver dollar
(2010)

Patterns

Two-cent billon
Two-cent billon
(1836) Three-cent bronze
Three-cent bronze
(1863) Stella (1879–80) Half-union
Half-union
(1877)

Other

Half cent (1793–1857) Two-cent piece (1864–73) Three-cent silver
Three-cent silver
(1851–73) Three-cent nickel
Three-cent nickel
(1865–89) Twenty-cent piece (1875–78) United States
United States
Bicentennial coinage (1975–76) Platinum Eagle (1997–present) Palladium Eagle (2017–present) America the Beautiful Silver Bullion Coins
America the Beautiful Silver Bullion Coins
(2010–present) Norse-American medal
Norse-American medal
(1925)

v t e

Currencies of Africa

North

Algerian dinar Egyptian pound Euro

Plazas de soberanía

Libyan dinar Mauritanian ouguiya Moroccan dirham Sahrawi peseta
Sahrawi peseta
(unrecognized) Sudanese pound Tunisian dinar

Central

Angolan kwanza Burundian franc Central African CFA franc

Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Republic of the Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon

Congolese franc Rwandan franc

East

Comorian franc Djiboutian franc Eritrean nakfa Ethiopian birr Kenyan shilling Seychellois rupee Somali shilling Somaliland shilling
Somaliland shilling
(unrecognized) South Sudanese pound Tanzanian shilling Ugandan shilling

South

Botswana pula British pound sterling

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Zimbabwe

Euro

French Southern and Antarctic Lands Mayotte Réunion Zimbabwe

Lesotho
Lesotho
loti Malagasy ariary Malawian kwacha Mauritian rupee Mozambican metical Namibian dollar Saint Helena pound South African rand

Lesotho Namibia Swaziland Zimbabwe

Swazi lilangeni U.S. dollar

Zimbabwe

Zambian kwacha Zimbabwean dollar
Zimbabwean dollar
(defunct due to hyperinflation since April 2009) Zimbabwean bond coins
Zimbabwean bond coins
(since 18 December 2014 - denominated in U.S. Cents) Zimbabwean bond notes
Zimbabwean bond notes
(since 28 November 2016 - denominated in U.S. Dollars)

West

Cape Verdean escudo Euro

Canary Islands Madeira

Gambian dalasi Ghanaian cedi Guinean franc Liberian dollar Nigerian naira São Tomé and Príncipe dobra Sierra Leonean leone West African CFA franc

Benin Burkina Faso Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast Mali Niger Senegal Togo

v t e

Currencies of Asia

Central

Kazakhstani tenge Kyrgyzstani som Tajikistani somoni Turkmenistan manat Uzbekistani soʻm

East

Chinese yuan Hong Kong
Hong Kong
dollar Japanese yen North Korean won South Korean won Macanese pataca Mongolian tögrög New Taiwan dollar

unrecognized

North

Russian ruble

South

Afghan afghani Bangladeshi taka Bhutanese ngultrum Indian rupee Maldivian rufiyaa Nepalese rupee Pakistani rupee Sri Lankan rupee Pound sterling

British Indian Ocean Territory

U.S. dollar

British Indian Ocean Territory

Southeast

Brunei dollar Burmese kyat Cambodian riel East Timorese centavo Indonesian rupiah Lao kip Malaysian ringgit Philippine peso
Philippine peso
(piso) Singapore dollar Thai baht U.S. dollar

East Timor

Vietnamese đồng

West

Abkhazian apsar

unrecognized

Armenian dram Artsakh dram

unrecognized

Azerbaijani manat Bahraini dinar Egyptian pound

Gaza Strip

Euro

Cyprus

Georgian lari Iranian rial Iraqi dinar Israeli new shekel Jordanian dinar Kuwaiti dinar Lebanese pound Omani rial Russian ruble
Russian ruble
( Abkhazia
Abkhazia
(unrecognized) and South Ossetia (unrecognized)) Qatari riyal Saudi riyal Syrian pound Turkish lira UAE dirham Yemeni rial

v t e

Currencies of the Americas

North

Canadian dollar

Canada Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Danish krone

Greenland

Euro

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Mexican peso U.S. dollar

Caribbean

Aruban florin Bahamian dollar Barbadian dollar Bermudian dollar Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
dollar Cuban peso Cuban convertible peso Dominican peso East Caribbean
Caribbean
dollar

Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Dominica Grenada Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Euro

Saint Martin Saint Barthélemy Guadeloupe Martinique

Haitian gourde Jamaican dollar Netherlands Antillean guilder

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
dollar U.S. dollar

Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands Turks and Caicos Islands

Central

Belize
Belize
dollar Costa Rican colón Guatemalan quetzal Honduran lempira Nicaraguan córdoba Panamanian balboa U.S. dollar

El Salvador Panama

South

Argentine peso Bolivian boliviano Brazilian real British pound sterling

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Chilean peso Colombian peso Ecuadorian centavo coins

Ecuador

Euro

French Guiana

Falkland Islands pound Guyanese dollar Paraguayan guaraní Peruvian sol Surinamese dollar Uruguayan peso U.S. dollar

Ecuador

Venezuelan bolívar

v t e

Currencies of Oceania

Australia

Australian dollar
Australian dollar
(Norfolk Island)

Melanesia

CFP franc
CFP franc
(New Caledonia) Fijian dollar Papua New Guinean kina Solomon Islands dollar Vanuatu vatu

Micronesia

Australian dollar
Australian dollar
(Kiribati, Nauru) Kiribati
Kiribati
dollar U.S. dollar (Guam, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, United States
United States
Minor Outlying Islands)

Polynesia

Australian dollar
Australian dollar
(Tuvalu) CFP franc
CFP franc
(French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna) Chilean peso
Chilean peso
(Easter Island) Cook Islands
Cook Islands
dollar New Zealand dollar
New Zealand dollar
(Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau) Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
dollar Samoan tālā Tongan paʻanga Tuvaluan dollar U.S. dollar (American Samoa, Hawaii)

v t e

Currencies named dollar or similar

Circulating

Australian dollar Bahamian dollar Barbadian dollar Belize
Belize
dollar Bermudian dollar Brunei dollar Canadian dollar Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
dollar Cook Islands
Cook Islands
dollar Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
dollar Fijian dollar Guyanese dollar Hong Kong
Hong Kong
dollar Jamaican dollar Kiribati
Kiribati
dollar Liberian dollar Namibian dollar New Zealand dollar Samoan tālā Singapore dollar Solomon Islands dollar Surinamese dollar New Taiwan dollar Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
dollar Tuvaluan dollar United States
United States
dollar

Circulating, but renamed

Chinese yuan Ethiopian birr Malaysian ringgit

Obsolete

Antigua dollar British Columbia dollar British North Borneo dollar British West Indies dollar Ceylonese rixdollar Confederate States dollar Continental dollar Danish rigsdaler Danish West Indian daler Danish West Indian rigsdaler Dominican dollar Dutch rijksdaalder Greenlandic rigsdaler Grenadan dollar Hawaiian dollar Japanese occupation dollar Kiautschou dollar Malaya and British Borneo dollar Malayan dollar Mauritian dollar Mongolian dollar Nevisian dollar New Brunswick dollar Newfoundland dollar Norwegian rigsdaler Norwegian speciedaler Nova Scotian dollar Penang dollar Prince Edward Island dollar Puerto Rican dollar Rhodesian dollar Saint Kitts dollar Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
dollar Saint Vincent dollar Sarawak dollar Sierra Leonean dollar Slovenian tolar Spanish dollar Straits dollar Sumatran dollar Swedish riksdaler Old Taiwan dollar Texas dollar Trinidadian dollar Tobagan dollar Zimbabwean dollar

Noncirculating

Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
dollar Nauru
Nauru
dollar Niue
Niue
dollar Palau
Palau
dollar Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
dollar

Conceptual

Eurodollar Petrodollar Geary–Khamis dollar

Virtual

Linden dollar Project Entropia Dollar

Fictional

Angus Bucks

Private

Antarctican dollar Arizona dollar Calgary dollar Canadian Tire money Disney dollar Liberty dollar Salt Spring dollar Toronto dollar Bristol Pound

See also

Dollar
Dollar
sign Half dollar Holey dollar Thaler Tolar Trade dollar Zimbabwean bond coins Zimbabwean bond notes

v t e

Obsolete United States
United States
currency and coinage

Topics

United States
United States
coinage United States
United States
dollar History of the United States
United States
dollar

Coins

Half cent (1793–1857) Fugio Cent
Fugio Cent
(1787) Large cent
Large cent
(1793–1857; 1868) Two-cent piece (1836; 1864–1873) Three-cent nickel
Three-cent nickel
(1865–1889) Three-cent silver
Three-cent silver
(1851–1873) Half dime
Half dime
(1792–1873) Twenty-cent piece (1875–1878)

Gold coins

Gold dollar
Gold dollar
(1849–1889) Quarter eagle
Quarter eagle
(1796–1929) Three-dollar piece
Three-dollar piece
(1854–1889) Half eagle
Half eagle
(1795–1929) Eagle (1795–1933) Double eagle
Double eagle
(1850–1933) Half-union
Half-union
(1877, 1915)

Patterns

Two-cent billon
Two-cent billon
(1836) Three-cent bronze
Three-cent bronze
(1863) Stella (1879–1880)

Currency

Discontinued denominations

Fractional currency Large denominations of currency

Discontinued currency types

Early American currency Compound interest treasury note Demand Note Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Bank Note Gold certificate Interest bearing note National Bank Note National gold bank note Refunding Certificate Silver certificate Treasury or Coin Note Treasury Note (19th century) United States
United States
Note United States
United States
postal notes

v t e

United States articles

History

By event

Timeline of U.S. history Pre-Columbian era Colonial era

Thirteen Colonies military history Continental Congress

American Revolution

War

American frontier Confederation Period Drafting and ratification of Constitution Federalist Era War of 1812 Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Mexican–American War Civil War Reconstruction Era Indian Wars Gilded Age Progressive Era African-American civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968 Spanish–American War Imperialism World War I Roaring Twenties Great Depression World War II

home front Nazism in the United States

American Century Cold War Korean War Space Race Feminist Movement Vietnam War Post- Cold War
Cold War
(1991–2008) War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War

Recent events (2008–present)

By topic

Outline of U.S. history Demographic Discoveries Economic

debt ceiling

Inventions

before 1890 1890–1945 1946–91 after 1991

Military Postal Technological and industrial

Geography

Territory

counties federal district federal enclaves Indian reservations insular zones minor outlying islands populated places states

Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains

peaks ranges Appalachian Rocky

National Park Service

National Parks

Regions

East Coast West Coast Great Plains Gulf Mid-Atlantic Midwestern New England Pacific Central Eastern Northern Northeastern Northwestern Southern Southeastern Southwestern Western

Rivers

Colorado Columbia Mississippi Missouri Ohio Rio Grande Yukon

Time Water supply and sanitation

Politics

Federal

Executive

Cabinet Civil service Executive departments Executive Office Independent agencies Law enforcement President of the United States Public policy

Legislative

House of Representatives

current members Speaker

Senate

current members President pro tempore Vice President

Judicial

Courts of appeals District courts Supreme Court

Law

Bill of Rights

civil liberties

Code of Federal Regulations Constitution

federalism preemption separation of powers

Federal Reporter United States
United States
Code United States
United States
Reports

Intelligence

Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Office of the Director of National Intelligence

Uniformed

Armed Forces

Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard

National Guard NOAA Corps Public Health Service Corps

51st state

political status of Puerto Rico District of Columbia statehood movement

Elections

Electoral College

Foreign relations

Foreign policy

Hawaiian sovereignty movement Ideologies

anti-Americanism exceptionalism nationalism

Local government Parties

Democratic Republican Third parties

Red states and blue states

Purple America

Scandals State government

governor state legislature state court

Uncle Sam

Economy

By sector

Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation

Companies

by state

Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street

Society

Culture

Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages

American English Indigenous languages ASL

Black American Sign Language

HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish

Literature Media

Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television

Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art

Social class

Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth

Issues

Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime

incarceration

Criticism of government Discrimination

affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage

Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care

abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking

Human rights Immigration

illegal

International rankings National security

Mass surveillance Terrorism

Separation of church and state

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

United States
United States
currency and coinage

Topics

Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
System Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Note U.S. dollar U.S. Mint

Philadelphia San Francisco Denver West Point

Bureau of Engraving and Printing Mutilated currency

Current coinage

Penny (1¢) Nickel
Nickel
(5¢) Dime (10¢) Quarter (25¢) Half dollar
Half dollar
(50¢) Dollar
Dollar
($1)

Bullion coinage

America the Beautiful Silver Bullion Coins American Buffalo American Gold Eagle American Platinum Eagle American Silver Eagle American Palladium Eagle

Current paper money

$1 $2 $5 $10 $20 $50 $100

See also

Bicentennial coinage Commemoratives Early Commemoratives Modern Commemoratives Confederate dollar Large denominations Obsolete denominations Promotional fake denominations Counterfeit United States
United States
currency Mill Coin production In God We Trust E pluribus unum Annuit cœptis Nicknames Replacement banknote Sales tax token

Authority control

.