United States Agency for International Development
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an
independent agency of the
United States federal government
United States federal government that is
primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and
development assistance. With a budget of over $27 billion,
one of the largest official aid agencies in the world, and accounts
for more than half of all U.S. foreign assistance (which in absolute
dollar terms is the highest in the world).
Congress passed the
Foreign Assistance Act
Foreign Assistance Act on September 4, 1961, which
reorganized U.S. foreign assistance programs and mandated the creation
of an agency to administer economic aid.
USAID was subsequently
established by the executive order of President John F. Kennedy, who
sought to unite several existing foreign assistance organizations and
programs under one agency.
USAID became the first U.S. foreign
assistance organization whose primary focus was long-term
USAID's programs are authorized by Congress in the Foreign Assistance
Act, which Congress supplements through directions in annual
funding appropriation acts and other legislation. As an official
component of U.S. foreign policy,
USAID operates subject to the
guidance of the President, Secretary of State, and the National
USAID has missions in over 100 countries,
primarily in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern
1.1 Disaster relief
1.2 Poverty relief
1.3 Global issues
1.4 U.S. bilateral interests
1.5 Socioeconomic development
2 Modes of assistance
2.1 Technical assistance
2.2 Financial assistance
3.1 Country development programs
4 Inside a
USAID field mission
4.1 Assistance management offices
4.1.1 Health and Family Planning
4.1.5 Economic Growth
Special assistance offices
4.2 The Office of the Mission Director and the Program Office
4.3 Contracting, financial management and management offices
4.3.1 Contracting offices
4.3.2 Financial management offices
4.3.3 Management offices
5 Assistance projects
5.1 Budget support to a government agency
5.2 Contract for TA to a government agency
5.3 Grant to finance NGO services to a beneficiary group
5.4 Grant to an international NGO for technical assistance
5.5 Other mechanisms
6.1 Before World War II
6.2 Institutionalization of U.S. development assistance
6.3 Maturation of U.S. development assistance institutions
6.3.1 The Post-War Foreign Aid Context
6.3.2 The Impact of War in Korea
6.3.3 The Impact of a Change in Administration
6.3.4 A Gradual Change of Course under Eisenhower
6.3.5 The Debate Resolved
6.4 Creation of
USAID and the Development Decade
6.5 "New Directions" in the 1970s
6.6 Evolving organizational linkages with the State Department
7 Budgetary resources
8 Bilateral relationships in the news
8.1.1 Response to 2010
8.6 East Africa
9 Controversies and criticism
9.2 Modes of assistance
9.3 Cost of delivering assistance
9.4 Non-career contracts
9.5 Anti-government programs
9.6 Economic interests
9.7 Political interests
9.8 Influence on the United Nations
9.9 State Department terrorist list
9.10 Renouncing prostitution and sex trafficking
10 See also
13 External links
USAID's mission statement, adopted in May 2013, is "to partner to end
extreme poverty and to promote resilient, democratic societies while
advancing the security and prosperity of the United States."
USAID's decentralized network of resident field missions is drawn on
to manage U.S. Government (USG) programs in low-income countries for a
range of purposes.
Technical cooperation on global issues, including the environment
U.S. bilateral interests
USAID Packages are delivered by
United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard personnel
Some of the U.S. Government's earliest foreign aid programs provided
relief in crises created by war. In 1915, USG assistance through the
Commission for Relief of
Belgium headed by
Herbert Hoover prevented
Belgium after the German invasion. After 1945, the
European Recovery Program championed by Secretary of State George
Marshall (the "Marshall Plan") helped rebuild war-torn Western Europe.
USAID manages relief efforts after wars and natural disasters through
its Office of U.S Foreign Disaster Assistance in Washington D.C.
Privately funded U.S.
NGOs and the U.S. military also play major roles
in disaster relief overseas.
Early reading and literacy programs contribute to long-term
After 1945, many newly independent countries needed assistance to
relieve the chronic deprivation afflicting their low-income
USAID and its predecessor agencies have continuously
provided poverty relief in many forms, including assistance to public
health and education services targeted at the poorest.
USAID has also
helped manage food aid provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
USAID provides funding to
NGOs to supplement private
donations in relieving chronic poverty.
Technical cooperation between nations is essential for addressing a
range of cross-border concerns like communicable diseases,
environmental issues, trade and investment cooperation, safety
standards for traded products, money laundering, and so forth. The USG
has specialized agencies dealing with such areas, such as the Centers
for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. USAID's
special ability to administer programs in low-income countries
supports these and other USG agencies' international work on global
Among these global interests, environmental issues attract high
USAID assists projects that conserve and protect threatened
land, water, forests, and wildlife.
USAID also assists projects to
reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and to build resilience to the risks
associated with global climate change. U.S. environmental
regulation laws require that programs sponsored by
USAID should be
both economically and environmentally sustainable.
U.S. bilateral interests
To support U.S. geopolitical interests, Congress appropriates
exceptional financial assistance to allies, largely in the form of
"Economic Support Funds" (ESF).
USAID is called on to administer the
bulk (90%) of ESF and is instructed "To the maximum extent
feasible, [to] provide [ESF] assistance ... consistent with the policy
directions, purposes, and programs of [development assistance]."
Also, when U.S. troops are in the field,
USAID can supplement the
"Civil Affairs" programs that the U.S. military conducts to win the
friendship of local populations. In these circumstances,
USAID may be
directed by specially appointed diplomatic officials of the State
Department, as has been done in
operations against al-Qaeda.
U.S. commercial interests are served by U.S. law's requirement that
most goods and services financed by
USAID must be sourced from U.S.
USAID is also sometimes called upon to support projects of U.S.
constituents that have exceptional interest.
To help low-income nations achieve self-sustaining socioeconomic
USAID assists them in improving management of their own
resources. USAID's assistance for socioeconomic development mainly
provides technical advice, training, scholarships, commodities, and
financial assistance. Through grants and contracts,
the technical resources of the private sector, other USG agencies,
NGOs to participate in this assistance.
Programs of the various types above frequently reinforce one another.
For example, the
Foreign Assistance Act
Foreign Assistance Act requires
USAID to use funds
appropriated for geopolitical purposes ("Economic Support Funds") to
support socioeconomic development to the maximum extent possible.
Modes of assistance
USAID delivers both technical assistance and financial assistance.
Technical assistance includes technical advice, training,
scholarships, construction, and commodities. Technical assistance is
contracted or procured by
USAID and provided in-kind to recipients.
For technical advisory services,
USAID draws on experts from the
private sector, mainly from the assisted country's own pool of
expertise, as well as from specialized USG agencies. Many
host-government leaders have drawn on USAID's technical assistance for
development of IT systems and computer hardware procurement to
strengthen their institutions.
To build indigenous expertise and leadership,
scholarships to U.S. universities and assists the strengthening of
developing countries' own universities. Local universities' programs
in developmentally important sectors are assisted directly and through
USAID support for forming partnerships with U.S. universities.
The various forms of technical assistance are frequently coordinated
as capacity building packages for development of local institutions.
National Open Source Software Competition –
assistance for groups developing technology in Indonesia
Financial assistance supplies cash to developing country organizations
to supplement their budgets.
USAID also provides financial assistance
to local and international
NGOs who in turn give technical assistance
in developing countries. Although
USAID formerly provided loans, all
financial assistance is now provided in the form of nonreimbursable
In recent years, the USG has increased its emphasis on financial
rather than technical assistance. In 2004, the Bush Administration
Millennium Challenge Corporation
Millennium Challenge Corporation as a new foreign aid
agency that is mainly restricted to providing financial assistance. In
2009, the Obama Administration initiated a major realignment of
USAID's own programs to emphasize financial assistance, referring to
it as "government-to-government" or "G2G" assistance.
USAID is organized around country development programs managed by
USAID offices in developing countries ("
supported by USAID's global headquarters in Washington, DC.
Country development programs
USAID plans its work in each country around an individual country
development program managed by a resident office called a "mission."
USAID mission and its U.S. staff are guests in the country, with a
status that is usually defined by a "framework bilateral agreement"
between the USG and the host government. Framework bilaterals give
the mission and its U.S. staff privileges similar to (but not
necessarily the same as) those accorded to the U.S. embassy and
diplomats by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of
USAID missions work in over fifty countries, consulting with their
governments and non-governmental organizations to identify programs
that will receive USAID's assistance. As part of this process, USAID
missions conduct socioeconomic analysis, discuss projects with
host-country leaders, design assistance to those projects, award
contracts and grants, administer assistance (including evaluation and
reporting), and manage flows of funds.
As countries develop and need less assistance,
USAID shrinks and
ultimately closes its resident missions.
USAID has closed missions in
a number of countries that had achieved a substantial level of
prosperity, including South Korea, Turkey, Tunisia, and Costa Rica.
USAID also closes missions when requested by host countries for
political reasons. In September 2012, the U.S. closed USAID/Russia at
that country's request. Its mission in Moscow had been in operation
for two decades. On May 1, 2013, the President of Bolivia, Evo
USAID to close its mission, which had worked in the
country for 49 years. The closure was completed on September 20,
USAID missions are led by Mission Directors and are staffed both by
Foreign Service Officers and by development professionals from
the country itself, with the host-country professionals forming the
majority of the staff. The length of a Foreign Service Officer's
"tour" in most countries is four years, to provide enough time to
develop in-depth knowledge about the country. (Shorter tours of one or
two years are usual in countries of exceptional hardship or danger.)
The Mission Director is a member of the U.S. Embassy's "Country Team"
under the direction of the U.S. Ambassador. As a
USAID mission works
in an unclassified environment with relative frequent public
interaction, most missions were initially located in independent
offices in the business districts of capital cities. However, since
the passage of the Foreign Affairs Agencies Consolidation Act in 1998
and the bombings of U.S. Embassy chanceries in east
Africa in the same
year, missions have gradually been moved into U.S. Embassy chancery
The country programs are supported by USAID's headquarters in
Washington, D.C., "USAID/Washington," where about half of USAID's
Foreign Service Officers work on rotation from foreign assignments,
alongside USAID's Civil Service staff and top leadership.
headed by an Administrator appointed by the President and confirmed by
the Senate. Amb. Mark A. Green was confirmed as
USAID Administrator on
August 3, 2017.
Administrator of the United States Agency for International
A 2017 reorganisation of the U.S. National Security Council, placed
USAID Administrator as a permanent member on the Deputies
USAID/Washington helps define overall USG civilian foreign assistance
policy and budgets, working with the State Department, Congress, and
other U.S. government agencies. It is organized into "Bureaus"
covering geographical areas, development subject areas, and
administrative functions. Each Bureau is headed by an Assistant
Administrator appointed by the President.
Latin America & the Caribbean
E&E—Europe and Eurasia
ME—the Middle East
Afghanistan and Pakistan
Every year, the Global Health Bureau reports to the U.S. Congress
through its Global Health Report to Congress. The Global Health Bureau
also submits a yearly report on the Call to Action: ending preventable
child and maternal deaths. This is part of USAID's follow-up to the
2012 Call to Action on Child Survival, where it committed to ending
preventable child and maternal deaths in a generation with A Promise
E3—Economic Growth, Education, and the Environment
Economic Growth offices in E3 define Agency policy and provide
technical support to Mission assistance activities in the areas of
economic policy formulation, international trade, sectoral regulation,
capital markets, microfinance, energy, infrastructure, land tenure,
urban planning and property rights, gender equality and women's
empowerment. The Engineering Division in particular draws on licensed
professional engineers to support
USAID Missions in a
multibillion-dollar portfolio of construction projects, including
medical facilities, schools, universities, roads, power plants, and
water and sanitation plants.
The Education Office in E3 defines Agency policy and provides
technical support to Mission assistance activities for both basic and
Environment offices in E3 define Agency policy and provide technical
support to Mission assistance activities in the areas of climate
change and biodiversity.
DCHA—Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance
LPA—Legislative and Public Affairs
PPL—Policy, Planning, and Learning.
Independent oversight of
USAID activities is provided by its Office of
Inspector General, U.S. Agency for International Development, which
conducts criminal and civil investigations, financial and performance
audits, reviews, and inspections of
USAID activities around the world.
USAID's staffing reported to Congress in June 2016 totaled 10,235,
including both field missions "overseas" (7,176) and the Washington DC
Of this total, 1,850 were
Foreign Service Officers who spend
their careers mostly residing overseas (1,586 overseas in June 2016)
and partly on rotation in Washington DC (264). The Foreign Service
Officers stationed overseas worked alongside the 4,935 local staff of
USAID's field missions.
Host-country staff normally work under one-year contracts that are
renewed annually. Formerly, host-country staff could be recruited
as "direct hires" in career positions and at present many
host-country staff continue working with
USAID missions for full
careers on a series of one-year contracts. In USAID's management
approach, local staff may fill highly responsible, professional roles
in program design and management.
U.S. citizens can apply to become
Foreign Service Officers by
competing for specific job openings on the basis of academic
qualifications and experience in development programs. Within five
years of recruitment, most
Foreign Service Officers receive tenure for
an additional 20+ years of employment before mandatory retirement.
Some are promoted to the Senior Foreign Service with extended tenure,
subject to the Foreign Service's mandatory retirement age of 65.
(This recruitment system differs from the State Department's use of
the "Foreign Service Officer Test" to identify potential U.S.
diplomats. Individuals who pass the test become candidates for the
State Department's selection process, which emphasizes personal
qualities in thirteen dimensions such as "Composure" and
"Resourcefulness." No specific education level is required.)
USAID launched the "Development Leadership Initiative" to
reverse the decline in USAID's Foreign Service Officer staffing, which
had fallen to a total of about 1,200 worldwide. Although USAID's
goal was to double the number of
Foreign Service Officers to about
2,400 in 2012, actual recruitment net of attrition reached only 820 by
the end of 2012. USAID's 2016 total of 1,850 Foreign Service Officers
compared with 13,000 in the State Department.
USAID's Washington DC staff, in addition
Foreign Service Officers who
are on rotation from overseas postings, includes about 1,700 career
Civil Service staff and about 1,100 other U.S. employees who have
shorter-term contracts, for a total of about 3,060.
USAID's worldwide 2016 total of 5,163 U.S. staff compares with the
State Department's U.S. citizen workforce of about 24,000.
USAID's internal staffing is a small part of the overall human
resources picture, however. A development project that
may have thousands of the developing country's own people working on
it. USAID-financed technical assistance to such a project might be
provided by a team of five to twenty short-term and long-term
specialists contracted from outside USAID.
USAID employees in the field mission, both U.S. and
host-country staff, devote time to such a project. They collaborate
with local leaders to design USAID's assistance and then they oversee
the assistance as it is being provided.
USAID project officer is usually directly responsible for the
assistance, with support from the Mission's offices for program
evaluation and reporting, contracting, and financial management. Most
USAID project officers support two or three projects, and the time of
staff in support offices is also divided across several assistance
projects. Their combined time dedicated to a single assistance project
might add up to between one and two "full-time equivalent" staff,
which is considerably less than the number of technical-assistance
personnel that they monitor, and tiny compared to the country's own
level of effort for the project.
Part of the reason for wanting to rebuild USAID's Foreign Service
staffing has been to allow field missions to dedicate more people to
supporting the development assistance they provide.
USAID field mission
Pakistani and U.S. Staff of USAID/
Pakistan in 2009
USAID can have as little presence in a country as a single
person assigned to the U.S. Embassy, a full
USAID mission in a larger
country may have twenty or more
Foreign Service Officers and a
hundred or more professional and administrative employees from the
USAID mission's staff is divided into specialized offices in three
groups: (1) assistance management offices; (2) the Mission Director's
and the Program office; and (3) the contracting, financial management,
and facilities offices.
Assistance management offices
Called "technical" offices by
USAID staff, these offices design and
manage the technical and financial assistance that
USAID provides to
their local counterparts' projects. The technical offices that are
frequently found in
USAID missions include Health and Family Planning,
Education, Environment, Democracy, and Economic Growth.
Health and Family Planning
Examples of projects assisted by missions' Health and Family Planning
offices are projects for eradication of communicable diseases,
strengthening of public health systems focusing on maternal-child
health including family planning services, HIV-
delivery of medical supplies including contraceptives and HIV
vaccines, and coordination of Demographic and Health Surveys. This
assistance is primarily targeted to the poor majority of the
population and corresponds to USAID's poverty relief objective, as
well as strengthening the basis for socioeconomic development.
USAID's Education offices mainly assist the national school system,
emphasizing broadening coverage of quality basic education to reach
the entire population. Examples of projects often assisted by
Education offices are projects for curriculum development, teacher
training, and provision of improved textbooks and materials. Larger
programs have included school construction. Education offices often
manage scholarship programs for training in the U.S., while assistance
to the country's universities and professional education institutions
may be provided by Economic Growth and Health offices. The Education
office's emphasis on school access for the poor majority of the
population corresponds to USAID's poverty relief objective, as well as
to the socioeconomic development objective in the long term.
Examples of projects assisted by Environment offices are projects for
tropical forest conservation, protection of indigenous people's lands,
regulation of marine fishing industries, pollution control, reduction
of greenhouse gas emissions, and helping communities adapt to climate
change. Environment assistance corresponds to USAID's objective of
technical cooperation on global issues, as well as laying a
sustainable basis for USAID's socioeconomic development objective in
the long term.
Examples of projects assisted by
Democracy offices are projects for
the country's political institutions, including elections, political
parties, legislatures, and human rights organizations. Counterparts
include the judicial sector and civil-society organizations that
monitor government performance.
Democracy assistance received its
greatest impetus at the time of the creation of the successor states
to the USSR starting in about 1990, corresponding both to USAID's
objective of supporting U.S. bilateral interests and to USAID's
socioeconomic development objective.
Examples of projects often assisted by Economic Growth offices are
projects for improvements in agricultural techniques and marketing
(the mission may have a specialized "Agriculture" office), development
of microfinance industries, streamlining of Customs administrations
(to accelerate growth of exporting industries), and modernization of
government regulatory frameworks for industry in various sectors
(telecommunications, agriculture, and so forth).
USAID Firms Project's Agriculture Marketing Reforms
In USAID's early years and in some larger programs, Economic Growth
offices have financed economic infrastructure like roads and
electrical power plants. Economic Growth assistance is thus quite
diverse in terms of the range of sectors where it may work. It
corresponds to USAID's socioeconomic development objective and is the
source of sustainable poverty reduction. Economic Growth offices also
occasionally manage assistance to poverty relief projects, such as to
government programs that provide "cash transfer" payments to
Special assistance offices
USAID missions have specialized technical offices for areas like
counter-narcotics assistance or assistance in conflict zones.
Disaster assistance on a large scale is provided through USAID's
Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance. Rather than having a
permanent presence in country missions, this office has supplies
pre-positioned in strategic locations to respond quickly to disasters
when and where they occur.
The Office of the Mission Director and the Program Office
The Mission Director's signature authorizes technical offices to
provide assistance according to the designs and budgets they propose.
With the help of the Program Office, the Mission Director ensures that
designs are consistent with
USAID policy for the country, including
budgetary earmarks by which Washington directs that funds be used for
certain general purposes such as public health or environmental
conservation. The Program Office compiles combined reports to
Washington to support budget requests to Congress and to verify that
budgets were used as planned.
Contracting, financial management and management offices
While the Mission Director is the public face and key decision-maker
for an impressive array of
USAID technical capabilities, arguably the
offices that make
USAID preeminent among U.S. government agencies in
the ability to follow through on assistance agreements in low-income
countries are the "support" offices.
Commitments of U.S. government funds to
NGOs and firms that implement
USAID's assistance programs can only be made in compliance with
carefully designed contracts and grant agreements executed by
warranted Contracting and Agreement Officers. The Mission Director is
authorized to commit financial assistance directly to the country's
Financial management offices
Funds can be committed only when the Mission's Controller certifies
their availability for the stated purpose. "FM" offices assist
technical offices in financial analysis and in developing detailed
budgets for inputs needed by projects assisted. They evaluate
potential recipients' management abilities before financial assistance
can be authorized and then review implementers' expenditure reports
with great care. This office often has the largest number of staff of
any office in the mission.
Called the "Executive Office" in
USAID (sometimes leading to confusion
with the Embassy's Executive Office, which is the office of the
Ambassador), "EXO" provides operational support for mission offices,
including human resources, information systems management,
transportation, property and procurement services. Increasing
integration into Embassies' chancery complexes, and the State
Department's recently increased role in providing support services to
USAID, is expanding the importance of coordination between USAID's EXO
and the Embassy's Management section.
While the terms "assistance project" and "development project" might
sometimes be used indiscriminately, it helps in understanding USAID's
work to make a distinction. (1) Development is what developing
countries do. Development projects are projects of local government
agencies and NGOs, such as projects to improve public services or
business regulations, etc. (2) Assistance is what
USAID does. USAID's
assistance projects support local development projects.
The key to a successful development project is the institutional
capacity of local organizations, including the professional ability of
their staff members. The key to successful assistance is how well it
fits the needs of local development projects, including institutional
capacity building and supporting professional education and training
When a local development project's assistance needs have been
USAID arranges the agreed assistance through funding
agreements with implementing organizations, referred to by
as "implementing partners."
USAID finances several types of
implementers using a variety of funding agreements.
USAID might assist a development project with inputs
provided through several different funding agreements:
A budget-support grant to a government agency.
A contract with a firm for support to the agency.
A grant to a local NGO serving the beneficiary group.
A grant to an international NGO to strengthen the operations of the
Each of these types of
USAID funding agreements is profiled below.
Budget support to a government agency
This funding agreement would take the form of a letter from USAID's
Mission Director, countersigned by the recipient agency, explaining
the agency's objectives, the amount of USAID's financial commitment,
the specific expenditures to be financed by USAID's grant, and other
operational aspects of the agreement.
USAID's technical office would assign a staff member (U.S. or local)
to oversee progress in the agency's implementation. USAID's financial
management office would transfer funds to the agency, in tranches as
needed. Audit under this kind of government-to-government (G2G)
financial assistance is usually performed by the host government's own
Contract for TA to a government agency
As a government agency is usually specialized in services to the
beneficiary population (medical services, for example), its staff may
not be equipped to undertake planning and evaluation, construction,
acquisition of equipment, or management of training and study tours.
The government agency might therefore request USAID's assistance in
these areas, and
USAID could respond by contracting with a firm to
supply the services or technical assistance requested.
USAID's technical office would collaborate with the government agency
in drafting the specifications for what is needed (generally referred
to as a "Statement of Work" for the contract) and in conducting market
research for available sources and potential bidders. USAID's
Contracting Officer would then advertise for bids, manage the
selection of a contractor from among the competing bidders, sign the
contract, and assign a technical-office staff member as the
Contracting Officer's Representative to oversee the performance under
the contract. (If the work load permits, this staff member might be
the same person who oversees USAID's financial assistance to the
The contractor supplies technical assistance directly to the
government agency, so that in monitoring contractor performance USAID
relies substantially on the agency's evaluation of the contractor's
Grant to finance NGO services to a beneficiary group
Non-governmental organizations are, like their government
counterparts, usually already engaged in service provision in areas
USAID wants to assist, and they often have unique abilities that
complement public programs. Therefore,
USAID technical-office staff
might set aside a budget and, with the help of the mission's
contracting office, publish a solicitation for applications from NGOs
for financial assistance to their programs. One or several grants
could be made to selected
NGOs by the contracting office's "Agreement
Officer." Similar to the case of a contract, a
staff member would be assigned as the Agreement Officer's
Representative to monitor progress in the NGOs' implementation and to
arrange for external evaluations.
USAID grants require recipient NGOs
to contract for external audits.
As some local
NGOs may be small and young organizations with no prior
experience in receiving awards from USAID, the
financial management office reviews grant applicants' administrative
systems to ensure that they are capable of managing USG funds. Where
USAID can devote part of the grant to the NGO's internal
organizational strengthening to help the NGO qualify for USAID's
financing and build the capacity of the organization in the process.
Disbursement of the portion of USAID's grant financing the NGO's
project would follow completion of the NGO's internal organizational
Grant to an international NGO for technical assistance
NGOs have their own development projects and
USAID and its counterparts determine that development
objectives can best be met by supporting an NGO project, and if local
NGO capacity is not yet sufficient, the relevant
office will draft a program description and the contracting office
will issue as a request for applications to solicit responses from the
international NGO community.
USAID manages the award and
implementation processes in the same way as for local NGOs.
NGOs frequently make unsolicited proposals to
USAID, requesting funding for their own planned assistance activities.
NGOs or business enterprises are dedicating a substantial amount
of non-USG resources to their projects, they can receive
through "Global Development Alliance" grants, provided that the
non-USG resources are at least equal in value to USAID's grant.
USAID provides financial assistance (grants) to support
other organizations' programs when those programs correspond to the
USAID wants to support, while
USAID uses contracts to
procure products or services requested by the leaders of local
In addition to the types of projects described above,
various other assistance mechanisms for different U.S. objectives.
Budget agreements with other USG agencies are common in supporting
collaboration between the U.S. and other countries on global issues.
Large budget-support grants, referred to as "non-project" assistance,
may be made to recipient governments to pursue U.S. foreign policy
A chapter of USAID's operations manuals, ADS Series 300 on
"Acquisition and Assistance," covers many details about agreements
with implementing partners.
When the USG created
USAID in 1961, it built on a legacy of previous
agencies and their people, budgets, and operating procedures.
Assistance to developing countries was already substantial. The
decision to create an agency with a new structure was the culmination
of a debate that reviewed the experience of the previous twenty years
and that tried to provide for U.S. needs in a changing environment.
The new structure "proved to be sturdy and durable." In
particular, the USG has maintained "the unique American pattern of
placing strong resident aid missions in countries that [the U.S. was]
helping." The story of how the base for USAID's structure was
built is described below, along with an account of changes that have
been made since 1961.
Before World War II
The realization that early industrializers like the United States
could provide technical assistance to other countries' development
efforts spread gradually in the late 1800s, leading to a substantial
number of visits to other countries by U.S. technical experts,
generally with official support by the U.S. Government even when the
missions were unofficial. Japan, China, Turkey, and several Latin
American countries requested missions, while the U.S. Government also
initiated missions, particularly to Central America and the Caribbean
when the U.S. felt that U.S. interests might be affected by failed
elections, excessive debt, infectious diseases, or other crises.
Fiscal management, monetary institutions, election management, mining,
schooling, roads, flood control, and urban sanitation were among the
U.S. technical missions in this era were not, however, part of a
systematic, USG-supported program. Possibly the closest approximation
to what USG development assistance would become was the China
Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture, established
by the USG in 1924 (using funds provided by China as reparations
following the "Boxer" conflict). The Foundation's activities ranged
widely and included support for development of a leading Chinese
university, Tsinghua University.
A notable early example of U.S. Government foreign assistance for
disaster relief was its contribution to the 1915 Committee for Relief
Belgium headed by Herbert Hoover, to prevent starvation in Belgium
after the German invasion. After World War I in 1919, the USG created
the American Relief Administration, also headed by Hoover, which
provided food primarily in Eastern Europe.
Between the two world wars, however, U.S. assistance in low-income
countries was often the product of private initiative, including
prominently the work of private foundations such as the Rockefeller
Foundation and the Near East Foundation. The Rockefeller
Foundation, for example, assisted the breeding of improved maize and
wheat varieties in
Latin America and supported public health
initiatives in Asia.
Institutionalization of U.S. development assistance
The coming of World War II stimulated the U.S. Government to create
what proved to be the permanent, sustained foreign aid programs that
evolved into USAID. U.S. development assistance focussed initially
on Latin America. Since countries in the region were regularly
requesting expert assistance from USG cabinet departments, an
Interdepartmental Committee on Cooperation with the American Republics
was established in 1938, with the State Department in the chair, to
ensure systematic responses.
More ambitiously, the U.S. also created an institution that for the
first time would take an active role in development assistance
programming: the Institute of Inter-American Affairs (IIAA), chartered
in March 1942. The Institute was the initiative of the Coordinator of
Inter-American Affairs, Nelson Rockefeller (the future Vice President
of the United States, from the family whose fortune financed the
Rockefeller Foundation). IIAA's 1,400 employees provided technical
assistance across Central and South America for economic
stabilization, food supply, health, and sanitation. U.S. benefits
included development of sources for raw materials that had been
disrupted in other regions by the war.
IIAA's operational approach set the pattern for subsequent USG
technical assistance in developing countries, including ultimately
USAID. In each country, a program comprising a group of projects
in a given sector—health, food supply, or schools—was planned and
implemented jointly by U.S. and local staff working in an office
located in the developing country itself. In IIAA's case the
offices were called, not "missions" as today, but "servicios."
After the end of the war in 1945, IIAA was transferred to the State
Department. On the basis of positive evaluations from the U.S.
Ambassadors in Latin America, the State Department succeeded in
getting Congressional authorization to extend it, initially through
1950 and then through 1955. Some existing technical-assistance
agencies continued work in parallel with IIAA. In particular, the U.S.
Department of Agriculture’s Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations
(OFAR) continued to operate separately until 1954.
In January 1949, President Truman, responding to advice from staff who
had worked with IIAA, proposed a globalized version of the program
as the fourth element of his overall foreign policy—"Point Four."
The purpose of the program was to provide technical knowledge to aid
the growth of underdeveloped countries around the world. After a
lengthy debate, Congress approved Point Four in 1950 and the Technical
Cooperation Administration (TCA) was established within the Department
of State in October 1950 to administer it. After an initial attempt to
operate in the mode of the old Interdepartmental Committee and to
merely coordinate programs of other agencies (such as IIAA), TCA
adopted an integrated implementation mechanism in November 1951.
Maturation of U.S. development assistance institutions
While USG development assistance was institutionalized on a nearly
global scale by TCA, strong currents of change in U.S. foreign
economic policy during the 1950s affected how development assistance
worked and at times called its continued existence into question. When
this process finally resulted in the creation
USAID in 1961, USAID
continued to use TCA's core mechanism—providing technical assistance
led by in-country resident offices—and supplemented it with
substantial amounts of financial assistance.
The Post-War Foreign Aid Context
Point Four and TCA had been established in the context of a number of
other programs in the large-scale U.S. foreign aid effort of the
1940s. In 1943, the Allies (the "United Nations") established the
"United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration" (UNRRA)
and immediately after the war the USG supplied relief in Germany and
Japan funded by appropriations for "Government and Relief in Occupied
Areas" (GARIOA). In 1948, relief was succeeded by reconstruction
assistance through the Marshall Plan, mainly for Western Europe. In
the same year, the U.S. and China established the Joint Commission on
Rural Reconstruction, which, starting on the mainland and
continuing for two decades in Taiwan, provided sustained development
assistance. Also, the
Fulbright Program of academic exchanges was
established in 1946, globalizing the wartime program of exchange
visits between professionals from
Latin America and the United States.
At the same time as Point Four was conceived, the U.S. also
participated in a UN initiative for technical assistance to developing
countries. Through a series of actions in 1948 and 1949, the UN's
General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) created
the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance (EPTA). The U.S.
provided 60% of EPTA's financing. By 1955, EPTA adopted a
country-led approach where the UN's TA in each country was programmed
according to a plan drawn up by the receiving country in consultation
with the UN. ECOSOC also created a new Technical Assistance Board,
which (similarly to the USG's wartime Interdepartmental Committee)
coordinated the TA being provided to low-income countries by various
individual UN agencies.
Point Four focussed on technical assistance and provided financial
assistance only in limited amounts to support its technical
initiatives. The administration and Congress both appreciated that
this approach could be implemented with smaller budgets than were
needed by programs that mainly provided financial assistance, like the
Marshall Plan was implemented by the Economic Cooperation
Administration (ECA) primarily to stabilize U.S. allies in Europe
through financial assistance. However, the
Marshall Plan was also
expanded outside Europe into areas of strategic interest: parts of the
Middle East, overseas territories of European allies (principally in
Africa), and "the general area of China"—Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam,
Burma, Malaya, Indonesia, and the Philippines—where the ECA operated
Special Technical and Economic Missions (STEMs). Minimizing
overlaps with the ECA, Point Four (TCA) managed assistance mainly in
Latin America (via IIAA), North
Africa and Eritrea, parts of the
Middle East, and India, Pakistan, and Ceylon.
The Impact of War in Korea
Coordination between development assistance and the
Marshall Plan was
tightened in response to the 1950–51 war in Korea. In October 1951
Congress passed the Mutual Security Act, creating the Mutual Security
Agency (MSA), which reported directly to the President and supervised
both civilian and military assistance. The MSA increased the emphasis
on large-scale financial assistance to U.S. allies, which was provided
as civilian “economic assistance” but was intended to help the
allies to make greater military efforts and was therefore often called
The Mutual Security Agency absorbed the
Marshall Plan (the ECA), which
otherwise had been scheduled to end in 1952. The Technical Cooperation
Administration remained a semi-autonomous agency in the State
Department to administer Point Four, but after 1951 under the
supervision of MSA. MSA's Director adopted the policy that only
one of ECA and TCA would operate in a given country ("one country-one
agency"), which required each agency to transfer programs to the other
and close down in some countries.
The Impact of a Change in Administration
In 1953, the Eisenhower administration took office. The President's
party, which had been out of the White House since 1933, took a
critical view of the previous administrations’ policies, including
both the globalizing policies of the 1940s and the New Deal
initiatives of the 1930s.
An overall goal of the new administration was to administer the
government efficiently and cut spending. While TCA’s technical
assistance to developing countries was a small budget item and
considered a long-term program (although fresh funds were appropriated
annually), "economic assistance" (or “defense support”) was
considered an inherently short-term measure that required specific
authorization on a case-by-case and year-by-year basis. The
Eisenhower administration proposed that, in place of U.S. financial
assistance, U.S. allies should increasingly finance themselves through
their own exports, or in other words through "trade not aid." With
respect to financial assistance for developing countries, the policy
was maintained that it should be provided primarily by the U.S.
Export-Import Bank and by the World Bank and furthermore that it
was to be available only on commercial terms and primarily to finance
To administer the overall foreign assistance program more efficiently,
Pres. Eisenhower integrated management into a single agency, the newly
created Foreign Operations Administration (FOA). MSA, TCA (which
had been under MSA's direction), and IIAA (which had been part of TCA)
were all abolished as of August 1953, and their country offices all
became known as "United States Operations Missions" (USOMs) under
FOA. The President directed other USG agencies to put their
technical assistance in developing countries under FOA's management as
well. USDA in particular transferred to FOA the technical assistance
programs of OFAR and reconstituted the
Foreign Agricultural Service
Foreign Agricultural Service to
focus on building global markets for U.S. farm products.
Administrative functions were also consolidated as the various
agencies came into FOA. In addition, the
Mutual Security Act
Mutual Security Act of July
1953 instructed FOA to reduce personnel by at least 10% within 120
days. A large number of TCA's senior professionals were summarily
dismissed, and FOA's administrator mounted an effort to compensate for
lower USG staffing by drawing on experts from U.S. universities and
private voluntary organizations. The ExIm Bank's lending volume in
developing countries was also cut dramatically in 1953.
A Gradual Change of Course under Eisenhower
Changing world events and differences of opinion within the Eisenhower
administration soon altered the administration's cutbacks, however.
First, while a "trade not aid" strategy required the U.S. to import
more goods from its allies, the administration was unable to convince
Congress to liberalize import policy. On the contrary, the main
foreign commercial measure taken at this time went in the other
direction: the U.S. ramped up subsidies for exports of U.S.
agricultural products. The 1953 amendment to the Mutual Security Act
and the much larger Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act
of 1954, known as "PL-480," allowed the U.S. Government to buy
U.S. farm surpluses and sell them in developing countries for
inconvertible local currencies. Much of PL-480's foreign-currency
revenue was used to supplement U.S. development assistance budgets.
PL-480 revenues in the first twenty years were sometimes huge and
although PL-480 has become smaller it continues to provide resources
USAID for nutrition and disaster relief programs.
Second, several factors arose that favored large-scale economic
assistance to developing countries, especially in Asia. South Korea
needed massive economic assistance after an armistice was finally
signed in July 1953, and U.S. economic assistance to South Vietnam
ramped up after the retreat of France in 1954. On a global scale,
the Cold War evolved (particularly after the death of Joseph Stalin in
March 1953) in the direction of rivalry over influence in low-income
countries who were seeking financing for their development
India was a particular case of a country where the U.S.
felt it needed to provide economic assistance to balance the USSR's
influence, even though
India was not a U.S. military ally. These
considerations led to advocacy of expanded economic assistance by
several voices within the Eisenhower administration: for example, the
FOA Director, former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen; an influential
former advisor, C.D. Jackson, of the Time-Life publishing business
(drawing on advice from MIT economists Millikan and Rostow); the State
Department; and the National Security Council.
As a result, the USG decided in the course of 1954 to raise the
profile of development assistance.
In June 1954, the USG raised the ExIm Bank’s lending authority from
$4.5 billion to $5 billion. Following Congress’s August 1954
decision that technical assistance for developing countries should be
put back under the State Department, Pres. Eisenhower also
separated it from military assistance by abolishing the MSA at the
same time as he put the new International Cooperation Administration
(ICA) in the State Department, in May 1955.
In November 1954, the administration decided to endorse the proposed
International Finance Corporation, which as part of the World Bank
would raise funds from global capital markets to lend to the private
sector in developing countries. The IFC idea had been discussed by
the World Bank with the Truman administration since the late 1940s and
had been supported by the 1951 report of the "International
Development Advisory Board" established by Pres. Truman and chaired by
Nelson Rockefeller. The IFC was finally established in 1956.
Pres. Eisenhower also created in December 1954 a Cabinet-level Council
on Foreign Economic Policy, which in March 1955 recommended
expanded soft loans for development. In April 1955, Pres. Eisenhower
proposed a special economic fund for Asia.
The Debate Resolved
Some voices in the administration, however, continued to point in the
opposite direction: for example, Under Secretary of State Herbert
Hoover Jr. and the new ICA head, John Hollister, who represented more
frugal attitudes. Given the lack of consensus, Pres. Eisenhower
and Congress conducted in 1956 a number of studies to give foreign aid
policy a more solid basis. Mainly delivered in early 1957, the reports
included an updated version of the essay by Millikan & Rostow that
C.D. Jackson had circulated in 1954. The overall view that emerged
was that sustained development assistance would have long-term
benefits for the U.S. position in the world and, more specifically,
that developing countries needed substantial financial assistance in
the form of low-interest loans. Developing countries particularly
needed softer financing to invest in public health systems, schools,
and economic infrastructure, for which "hard," commercial lending was
unsuitable. Personnel changes soon reflected this change in the
administration’s view: Christian Herter succeeded
Herbert Hoover Jr.
as Under Secretary of State in February 1957, Robert Anderson
succeeded George Humphrey as Treasury Secretary in July 1957, and
James H. Smith Jr. replaced John Hollister as ICA Director in
Pres. Eisenhower summarized the conclusions in his May 21, 1957
message to Congress: "This past year ... Congressional Committees, the
Executive Branch and distinguished private citizens have just examined
these programs anew. ... I recommend the following legislative
actions: ... economic development assistance should be provided
primarily through loans, on a continuing basis, and related closely to
technical assistance. ... I recommend a clear separation of military
and defense support assistance on the one hand, from economic
development assistance on the other. ... I recommend that longterm
[sic] development assistance be provided from a Development Loan Fund.
... Such loans should not compete with or replace such existing
sources of credit as private investors, the International Bank [the
World Bank], or the Export-Import Bank. ... I believe the Fund should
be established and administered in the International Cooperation
Administration. ... The technical cooperation program is one of the
most valuable elements of our entire mutual security effort. It also
should be continued on a long-term basis and must be closely related
to the work of the Fund."
As a result, the Development Loan Fund was established in August 1957.
The DLF largely financed infrastructure (such as railroads, highways,
and power plants), factories, and agriculture with loans whose terms
were relatively "soft" in the sense of charging interest rates lower
than commercial levels and being repayable in local currency rather
than U.S. dollars. Some projects were financed by a combination of
a DLF soft loan and a harder World Bank loan. Operationally, the
DLF became administratively self-contained by 1959 after contracting
for administrative support from ICA for its first two years. Also,
the Export-Import Bank's lending limit was raised in 1958 from $5
billion to $7 billion, and the administration advocated in January
1959 an expanded "food for peace" program.
In 1958, the administration's shift toward a more expansive policy on
development assistance was joined by an increasing number of members
of Congress. The President and Congress particularly shifted
towards promoting multilateral development assistance, which the
European countries and
Japan had become able to co-finance thanks to
their economic recoveries having reached the point by the late 1950s
where they could resume convertibility of their currencies. The USG
proposed doubling the World Bank's capitalization in 1958 and approved
the final measure that raised it from $10 billion to $21 billion in
September 1959. In addition, Senator Mike Monroney was
instrumental in winning Congressional approval in July 1958 for a new
soft-loan facility for the World Bank, the International Development
Association (IDA). This had been recommended as early as 1949 and
had been supported by the International Development Advisory Board
established by President Truman in 1950 and chaired by Nelson
Rockefeller, but it took years before it received Congressional
backing. The IDA formally came into being in September 1960, with the
U.S. contributing 42% of its initial resources. On the other
hand, the U.S. did not support the proposal for a
Special UN Fund for
Economic Development (SUNFED). The UN "
Special Fund" that was created
in 1957 was limited to developing projects for the UN's technical
assistance program, EPTA, and could not finance public works.
Assistance to developing countries took a different course in Latin
America than in Asia, continuing through most of the 1950s to focus on
technical assistance, with financial assistance sources being limited
to the Eximbank and the World Bank. However, events in
1958—notably a riot during Vice President Nixon's visit to Caracas,
Venezuela in May 1958—drew USG attention back to the region. In
August 1958, the USG reversed decades-long opposition to proposals for
a regional development bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank
was established by the Organization of American States in April 1959,
with capital mostly contributed by the borrowing countries.
To further engage other wealthy countries in global development
assistance, the USG supported the creation of the Aid
in August 1958, the first of several informal groupings of donors. The
USG also supported creation of the Development Assistance Group for
Marshall Plan organization, the OEEC (Organization of
European Economic Co-operation), in January 1960.
USAID and the Development Decade
At the end of the 1950s, the momentum in favor of development
assistance—as represented by PL-480, new mechanisms for financial
assistance, and larger budgets—picked up support from Senator John
F. Kennedy, who was preparing to be a candidate for the presidency. In
1957, JFK proposed, in bipartisan collaboration with Sen. John Sherman
Cooper (a former U.S. Ambassador to India), a major expansion of U.S.
economic support for India. As a candidate in 1960, he supported the
emphasis on humanitarian goals for PL-480 set by Sen. Hubert
Humphrey's "Food for Peace" Act of 1959 and supported the idea of
Peace Corps that was under development thanks to the initiatives of
Sen. Humphrey, Rep. Reuss, and Sen. Neuberger.
After his inauguration on January 20, 1961, Pres. Kennedy created the
Peace Corps by Executive Order on March 1, 1961. On March 22, he sent
a special message to Congress on foreign aid, asserting that the 1960s
should be a "Decade of Development" and proposing to unify U.S.
development assistance administration into a single agency. He sent a
proposed "Act for International Development" to Congress in May and
the resulting "Foreign Assistance Act" was approved in September,
repealing the Mutual Security Act. In November, Pres. Kennedy signed
the act and issued an Executive Order tasking the Secretary of State
to create, within the State Department, the "Agency for International
Development" (or A.I.D.: subsequently re-branded as USAID), as the
successor to both ICA and the Development Loan Fund.
With these actions, the U.S. created a permanent agency working with
administrative autonomy under the policy guidance of the State
Department to implement, through resident field missions, a global
program of both technical and financial development assistance for
low-income countries. This structure has continued to date.
Taking this momentum onto the world stage via an address to the UN
General Assembly in September 1961, Pres. Kennedy called for a "United
Nations Decade of Development." This initiative was endorsed by a
General Assembly resolution in December, establishing the concepts of
development and development assistance as global priorities.
"New Directions" in the 1970s
In the late 1960s, foreign aid became one of the focal points in
Legislative-Executive differences over the Vietnam War. In
September 1970, President Nixon proposed abolishing
replacing it with three new institutions: one for development loans,
one for technical assistance and research, and one for trade,
investment and financial policy. USAID's field missions would
have been eliminated in the new institutional setup. Consistent
with this approach, in early 1971 President Nixon transferred the
administration of private investment programs from
USAID to the
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), which had been
established by foreign aid legislation at the end of 1969.
Congress did not act on the President's proposal for replacing USAID
but rather amended the
Foreign Assistance Act
Foreign Assistance Act to direct that USAID
emphasize "Basic Human Needs": food and nutrition; population planning
and health; and education and human resources development.
Specifically, USAID's budget would be reformed to account for
expenditures for each of these Basic Human Needs, a system referred to
as "functional accounts." (Previously, budgets had been divided
between categories such as "development loans, technical assistance,
Alliance for Progress
Alliance for Progress [for Latin America], loans and grants, and
population.") The new system was based on a proposal developed by
a bipartisan group of House members and staff working with USAID
management and outside advisors. President Nixon signed the
New Directions act into law (PL 93-189) in December 1973.
Also in 1973, the "Percy Amendment" of the Foreign Assistance Act
required U.S. development assistance to integrate women into its
programs, leading to USAID's creation of its Women in Development
(WID) office in 1974. However, the
Helms Amendment of 1973 banned use
of U.S. Government funds for abortion as a method of family planning,
which effectively required
USAID to eliminate all support for
A further amendment of the
Foreign Assistance Act
Foreign Assistance Act in 1974 prohibited
assistance for police, thus ending USAID's involvement in Public
Safety programs in Latin America, which in the 1960s were, along with
the Vietnam War, part of the U.S. Government's anti-Communist
The reforms also ended the practice of the 1960s and 1970s in which
USAID officers in
Latin America and Southeast
Asia had worked in
joint offices led by State Department diplomats or in units with U.S.
Evolving organizational linkages with the State Department
Foreign aid has always operated within the framework of U.S. foreign
policy and the organizational linkages between the Department of State
USAID have been reviewed on many occasions.
In 1978, legislation drafted at the request of Senator Hubert Humphrey
was introduced to create a Cabinet-level International Development
Cooperation Agency (IDCA), whose intended role was to supervise USAID
in place of the State Department. However, although IDCA was
established by Executive Order in September 1979, it did not in
In 1995, legislation to abolish
USAID was introduced by Senator Jesse
Helms, the Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, who
aimed to replace
USAID with a grant-making foundation. Although
the House of Representatives passed a bill abolishing USAID, the
measure did not become law. In order to gain Congressional cooperation
for his foreign affairs agenda, however, President Clinton adopted in
1997 a State Department proposal to integrate more foreign affairs
agencies into the Department. The "Foreign Affairs Agencies
Consolidation Act of 1998" (Division G of PL 105-277) abolished IDCA,
the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the United States
Information Agency, which formerly maintained American libraries
overseas. Although the law authorized the President to abolish USAID,
President Clinton did not exercise this option.
In 2003, President Bush established PEPFAR, the President's Emergency
AIDS Relief, putting USAID's HIV/
AIDS programs under the
direction of the State Department's new Office of the Global AIDS
In 2004, the Bush Administration created the Millennium Challenge
Corporation (MCC) as a new foreign aid agency to provide financial
assistance to a limited number of countries selected for good
performance in socioeconomic development. The MCC also finances
some USAID-administered development assistance projects.
In January 2006, Secretary of State
Condoleezza Rice created the
Office of the Director of U.S. Foreign Assistance ('F') within the
State Department. Under a Director with the rank of Deputy Secretary,
F's purpose was to ensure that foreign assistance would be used as
much as possible to meet foreign policy objectives. F integrated
foreign assistance planning and resource management across State and
USAID, directing all
USAID offices' budgets according to a detailed
"Standardized Program Structure" comprising hundreds of "Program
USAID accordingly closed its Washington office that had
been responsible for development policy and budgeting.
On September 22, 2010, President
Barack Obama signed a Presidential
Policy Determination (PPD) on Global Development. (Although the
Administration considered the PPD too sensitive for release to the
public, it was finally released in February 2014 as required by a U.S.
court order. The Administration had initially provided a fact sheet to
describe the policy.) The PPD promised to elevate the role of
development assistance within U.S. policy and rebuild "
USAID as the
U.S. Government's lead development agency." It also established an
Interagency Policy Committee on Global Development led by the National
Security Staff and added to U.S. development efforts an emphasis on
innovation. To implement the PPD's instruction that "
develop robust policy, planning, and evaluation capabilities," USAID
re-created in mid-2010 a development planning office, the Bureau of
Policy, Planning, and Learning.
On November 23, 2010,
USAID announced the creation of a new Bureau for
Food Security to lead the implementation of President Obama's
Feed the Future Initiative, which had formerly been managed by the
On December 21, 2010, Secretary of State Clinton released the
Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review
Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR). Modeled after the
military's Quadrennial Defense Review, the QDDR of 2010 reaffirmed the
plan to re-build USAID's Foreign Service staffing while also
emphasizing the increased role that staff from the State Department
and domestic agencies would play in implementing U.S. assistance. In
addition, it laid out a program for a future transfer of health sector
assistance back from the State Department to USAID. The follow-on
QDDR released in April 2015 reaffirmed the Administration's policies.
The 20 Countries with the Largest Budgets for U.S. Economic Assistance
in Fiscal Year 2012
Billions of Dollars
Democratic Republic of Congo
West Bank and Gaza
The cost of supplying USAID's assistance includes the agency's
"Operating Expenses," $1.35 billion in fiscal year 2012, and
"Bilateral Economic Assistance" program costs, $20.83 billion in
fiscal year 2012 (the vast bulk of which was administered by USAID).
Up-to-date details of the budget for USAID's assistance and other
aspects of the USG's foreign assistance are available from USAID's
budget webpage. This page contains a link to the Congressional Budget
Justification, which shows the U.S. Government's Foreign Operations
budget (the "150 Account") for all International Affairs programs and
operations for civilian agencies, including USAID. This page also has
a link to a "Where Does the Money Go?" table, which shows the
recipients of USAID's financial assistance (foreign governments as
well as NGOs), the totals that were spent for various countries, and
the sources (U.S. government agencies, universities, and private
companies) from which
USAID procured the goods and services that it
provided as technical assistance.
U.S. assistance budget totals are shown along with other countries'
total assistance budgets in tables in a webpage of the Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Earth Summit in
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro in 1992, most of the world's
governments adopted a program for action under the auspices of the
United Nations Agenda 21, which included an Official Development
Assistance (ODA) aid target of 0.7% of gross national product (GNP)
for rich nations, specified as roughly 22 members of the
known as the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, most
countries do not adhere to this target, as the OECD's table indicates
that the DAC average ODA in 2011 was 0.31% of GNP. The U.S. figure for
2011 was 0.20% of GNP, which still left the U.S. as the largest single
source of ODA among individual countries.
Bilateral relationships in the news
Response to 2010
Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti,
USAID helped provide
safer housing for almost 200,000 displaced Haitians; supported
vaccinations for more than 1 million people; cleared more than 1.3
million cubic meters of the approximately 10 million cubic meters of
rubble generated; helped more than 10,000 farmers double the yields of
staples like corn, beans, and sorghum; and provided short-term
employment to more than 350,000 Haitians, injecting more than $19
million into the local economy.
USAID has provided nearly $42 million
to help combat cholera, helping to decrease the number of cases
requiring hospitalization and reduce the case fatality rate.
Main article: Reconstruction of Iraq
The interactions between
USAID and other U.S. Government agencies in
the period of planning the
Iraq operation of 2003 are described by the
Office of the
Special Inspector General for
Iraq Reconstruction in its
book, Hard Lessons: The
Iraq Reconstruction Experience.
USAID played a major role in the USG's reconstruction
and development effort in Iraq. As of June 2009[update], USAID
had invested approximately $6.6 billion on programs designed to
stabilize communities; foster economic and agricultural growth; and
build the capacity of the national, local, and provincial governments
to represent and respond to the needs of the Iraqi people.
Rebuilding Iraq –
C-SPAN 4 Part Series In June 2003, C-SPAN
Andrew Natsios as he toured Iraq. The special
C-SPAN produced aired over four nights.
USAID has periodically supported the
Lebanese American University and
American University of Beirut
American University of Beirut financially, with major
contributions to the Lebanese American University's Campaign for
USAID is known to have run a multimillion-dollar program, disguised as
humanitarian aid, aiming to incite rebellion in Cuba. The program
consisted of two operations: one to establish an anti-regime social
network called ZunZuneo, and the other to attract potential dissidents
contacted by undercover operatives posing as tourists and aid
USAID engineered a subversive program using social media aimed at
fueling political unrest in
Cuba to overthrow the Cuban government. On
3 April 2014 the
Associated Press published an investigative report
bringing to light how
USAID was behind the creation of a social
networking text messaging service aimed at creating political dissent
and trigger an uprising against the Cuban government. The name of
the messaging network was called ZunZuneo, which is Cuban slang for a
hummingbird's tweet, designed to be a play on 'Twitter'. According to
the AP's report, the plan was to build an audience by initially
presenting non-controversial content like sports, music and weather.
Once a critical mass of users was reached they would change the
content to spark political dissent and mobilize the users into
organized political gatherings called 'smart mobs' that would trigger
an uprising against the Cuban government.
The messaging service was launched in 2010 and gained 40,000 followers
at its peak. Extensive efforts were made to conceal the USAID
involvement in the program, using offshore bank accounts, front
companies and servers based overseas. According to a memo from
the one of the project's contractors, Mobile Accord: "There will be
absolutely no mention of United States government involvement," "This
is absolutely crucial for the long-term success of the service and to
ensure the success of the Mission." ZunZuneo's subscribers were
never aware that it was created by the US government or that
gathering their private data to gain useful demographics that would
gauge their levels of dissent and help
USAID 'maximize our
possibilities to extend our reach.'
USAID officials realized they needed an exit strategy in order to
conceal their involvement in the program, at one point seeking funding
from Jack Dorsey, the
Twitter co-founder, as part of a plan for it to
go independent. The service was abruptly closed down around
USAID says was due to the program running out of
In light of the AP's report
Rajiv Shah the head of
USAID was scheduled
to testify before the Senate Appropriations State Department and
Foreign Operations Subcommittee on 8 April 2014.
ZunZuneo operation was part of a larger program together with
another operation that started in October 2009 and was financed
jointly. That operation involved contracting Venezuelan, Costa Rican
and Peruvian youngsters to contact Cubans who could be recruited into
anti-regime political activities. The operatives posed as traveling
aid workers and tourists. Some of the covert operations were
HIV prevention workshops, which leaked memos called
"the perfect excuse".
The Guardian criticized the operation as
possibly undermining US efforts to work toward improving health
The travelers operation was also criticized for putting the operatives
themselves at risk. After Alan Gross, a development specialist and
USAID subcontractor was arrested in Cuba, the US government warned
USAID about the safety of covert operatives. Regardless of safety
USAID refused to end the operation. The covert operatives
were given some, but apparently lacking training about personal safety
and avoiding coming into contact with Cuban authorities suspicious of
See also: Bolivia–United States relations
This subsection titled "Bolivia" needs additional citations for
verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to
reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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In 2008, the coca growers union affiliated with Bolivian President Evo
Morales ejected the 100 employees and contractors from
in the Chapare region, citing frustration with U.S. efforts to
persuade them to switch to growing unviable alternatives. From 1998 to
2003, Bolivian farmers could receive
USAID funding for help planting
other crops only if they eliminated all their coca, according to the
Andean Information Network. Other rules, such as the requirement that
participating communities declare themselves "terrorist-free zones" as
required by U.S. law irritated people, said Kathryn Ledebur, director
of the organization. "Eradicate all your coca and then you grow an
orange tree that will get fruit in eight years but you don't have
anything to eat in the meantime? A bad idea," she said. "The thing
about kicking out USAID, I don't think it's an anti-American sentiment
overall but rather a rejection of bad programs".
Evo Morales expelled
Bolivia on May 1, 2013 for
allegedly seeking to undermine his government.
On September 19, 2011,
USAID and the
Ad Council launched the "Famine,
War, and Drought" (FWD) campaign to raise awareness about that year's
severe drought in East Africa. Through TV and internet ads as well as
social media initiatives, FWD encouraged Americans to spread awareness
about the crisis, support the humanitarian organizations that were
conducting relief operations, and consult the Feed the Future global
initiative for broader solutions. Celebrities Geena Davis, Uma
Josh Hartnett and
Chanel Iman took part in the campaign via a
series of Public Service Announcements. Corporations like Cargill,
General Mills also signed on to support
Controversies and criticism
USAID and U.S. foreign economic assistance in general have been the
subject of debate, controversy, and criticism continuously since the
USAID has been criticized for the goals of some of its programs. For
example, this page includes sections where writers criticize
the choice of geopolitical influence over poverty alleviation in
certain programs. Debates of this kind are arbitrated in Washington by
Congress and the Administration before budgets are decided and before
USAID staff undertake detailed programming in the field. The result is
normally that USAID's programs in a given country pursue a mix of
Modes of assistance
Some feel that
USAID overemphasizes technical assistance and should
instead provide more financial assistance (budget support, or debt
relief). They argue that financial assistance allows recipients to
spend as they like with less influence from donors. Others feel that
financial assistance does not result in durable improvements and that
person-to-person technical assistance has the advantage of sharing
knowledge and experience, leading to permanent improvements.
In practice, many
USAID missions find that their counterparts
appreciate having both forms of aid: an assistance package that
includes some financial assistance for things that can simply be
bought and some technical assistance to confront problems and issues
whose solutions are not so clear.
Cost of delivering assistance
USAID is frequently criticized for providing expensive expert services
to counterparts. The majority of the staff that
USAID finances are
from the country itself, but
USAID is also able to recruit
internationally when necessary to meet the counterpart's needs. USAID
uses competition to arrive at market rates for the staff it recruits,
and has experimented with volunteer programs for expertise from high
USAID frequently contracts with private firms or individuals for
specialist services lasting from a few weeks to several years. It has
long been asked whether
USAID should more often assign such tasks to
career U.S. Government employees instead. USG staff directly performed
technical assistance in the earliest days of the program in the 1940s.
However, it soon became necessary for the USG's technical experts to
plan and manage larger assistance programs than they could perform by
themselves. The global expansion of TA in the early 1950s reinforced
the need to draw on outside experts, which was also accelerated by
Congress's requirement of major reductions of USG staffing in 1953. By
1955, observers commented on a perceived shift towards more use of
shorter-term contracts (rather than using employees with career-length
contracts). The facts and policy regarding alternative methods of
contracting expert services have been debated continuously since then.
In situations where the U.S. is hostile to the government of a
USAID may be asked to undertake programs that the government
would not accept and thus to operate without the government's
knowledge. This might include
USAID support for opposition political
movements that seek to remove the government. Such "political aid" is
criticized by some as being incompatible with USAID's role as an
assistance or cooperation agency and as exposing
USAID staff worldwide
to the suspicion of being covertly engaged in subversion. Similarly,
USAID's participation in actions against foreign governments led by
the U.S. military is criticized by some as inappropriate and as
USAID civilian staff to the dangers of military combat.
However, such political aid and joint civilian-military programs are
supported by others as necessary to support U.S. geopolitical
interests and to build democracy.
USAID states that "U.S. foreign assistance has always had the twofold
purpose of furthering America's foreign policy interests in expanding
democracy and free markets while improving the lives of the citizens
of the developing world." However, non-government organization watch
groups have noted that as much as 40% of aid to
Afghanistan has found
its way back to donor countries through awarding contracts at inflated
USAID officially selects contractors on a competitive and
objective basis, watch dog groups, politicians, foreign governments
and corporations have occasionally accused the agency of allowing its
bidding process to be unduly influenced by the political and financial
interests of its current Presidential administration. Under the Bush
administration, for instance, it emerged that all five implementing
partners selected to bid on a $600 million
contract enjoyed close ties to the administration.
Critical graffiti on a
USAID Advertisement saying "We dont need your
aid", West Bank, Jan 2007
Some critics say that the US government gives aid
to reward political and military partners rather than to advance
genuine social or humanitarian causes abroad.
William Blum has said
that in the 1960s and early 1970s
USAID has maintained "a close
working relationship with the CIA, and Agency officers often operated
USAID cover." The 1960s-era Office of Public Safety,
a now-disbanded division of USAID, has been mentioned as an example of
this, having served as a front for training foreign police in
counterinsurgency methods (including torture techniques).
Folha de S.Paulo, Brazil's largest newspaper, accused
USAID of trying
to influence political reform in Brazil in a way that would have
purposely benefited right-wing parties.
USAID spent $95,000 US in 2005
on a seminar in the Brazilian Congress to promote a reform aimed at
pushing for legislation punishing party infidelity. According to USAID
papers acquired by Folha under the Freedom of Information Act, the
seminar was planned to coincide with the eve of talks in that
country's Congress on a broad political reform. The papers read that
although the "pattern of weak party discipline is found across the
political spectrum, it is somewhat less true of parties on the liberal
left, such as the [ruling] Worker's Party." The papers also expressed
a concern about the "'indigenization' of the conference so that it is
not viewed as providing a U.S. perspective." The event's main sponsor
was the International Republican Institute.
In the summer of 2012, ALBA countries (Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador,
Bolivia, Nicaragua, San Vicente y Las Granadinas, Dominica, Antigua y
Barbuda) called on its members to expel
USAID from their
Influence on the United Nations
Several studies[which?] suggest that foreign aid is used as a
political weapon for the U.S. to elicit desired actions from other
nations. A state's membership of the U.N. Security Council can give a
considerable raise of U.S. assistance.
In 1990 when the Yemeni Ambassador to the United Nations, Abdullah
Saleh al-Ashtal, voted against a resolution for a U.S.-led coalition
to use force against Iraq, U.S. Ambassador to the UN Thomas Pickering
walked to the seat of the Yemeni Ambassador and retorted: "That was
the most expensive No vote you ever cast". Immediately afterwards,
USAID ceased operations and funding in Yemen.
State Department terrorist list
NGOs to sign a document renouncing terrorism, as a
condition of funding. Issam Abdul Rahman, media coordinator for the
Palestinian Non-Governmental Organizations' Network, a body
NGOs in the
West Bank and Gaza Strip, said his
organization "takes issue with politically conditioned funding." In
addition, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, listed as
a terrorist organization by the US Department of State, said that the
USAID condition was nothing more than an attempt "to impose political
solutions prepared in the kitchens of Western intelligence agencies to
weaken the rights and principles of Palestinians, especially the right
Renouncing prostitution and sex trafficking
In 2003, Congress passed a law providing U.S. government funds to
private groups to help fight
AIDS and other diseases all over the
USAID grants. However, one of the conditions imposed by
the law on grant recipients was a requirement to have "a policy
explicitly opposing prostitution and sex trafficking". In 2013,
the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Agency for International Development
v. Alliance for Open Society International, Inc. that the requirement
violated the First Amendment's prohibition against compelled
United States portal
Hunger relief portal
African Development Foundation
Bretton Woods system
Development Alternatives Inc.
Development Credit Authoirty
Development Experience Clearinghouse
Feed the Future Initiative
Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition
List of development aid agencies
Mexico City policy
Office of Transition Initiatives
The INFO Project
Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations
United States foreign aid
United States Foreign Military Financing
United States military aid
For sources with short references, see "References" below for full
^ "Agency Financial Report, FY 2016" (PDF). USAID. Retrieved 22
December 2016. Page 3.
^ "Agency Financial Report, FY 2016" (PDF). USAID. Retrieved 22
December 2016. Page 28.
USAID History". USAID. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15.
USAID HISTORY". usaid.gov. USAID. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
^ "USAID: Automated Directives System 400" (PDF). Retrieved
^ USAID. "ADS Chapter 101.2 Agency Programs and Functions" (PDF).
Retrieved 22 December 2011.
USAID Official Website". Usaid.gov. 2013-05-10. Retrieved
USAID Primer: What We Do and How We Do It" (PDF). Retrieved
^ "Global Climate Change: Capacity Building". USAID. Archived from the
original on 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
^ Tarnoff (2015), p. 13.
Foreign Assistance Act
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (as amended), Section 531.
USAID Primer: What We Do and How We Do It". Usaid.gov. 2010-12-08.
^ "USAID: Organization". Usaid.gov. 2011-03-04. Retrieved
USAID (2003). "ADS Chapter 349" (PDF). p. Section 322.214.171.124.
Retrieved 19 June 2017.
USAID (2004). "ADS Chapter 155" (PDF). p. Section 126.96.36.199.c.
Retrieved 19 June 2017.
^ Tarnoff, Curt (July 21, 2015). "U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID): Background, Operations, and Issues" (PDF).
Retrieved 13 June 2017.
^ Mohammed, Arshad (September 18, 2012). "
USAID mission in Russia to
close following Moscow decision". Reuters. Retrieved September 19,
^ "Bolivia's President Morales expels USAID, accused it of working
against him". Washington Post. May 1, 2013.
^ Morris, Scott. "Maybe the Trump Administration Just Elevated
Development Policy, or Maybe Not". Center for Global
USAID Organization". Retrieved 2011-07-21.
USAID Staffing Report to Congress" (PDF). USAID. Retrieved 27
USAID (2014). "ADS Chapter 495: Foreign Service National Personnel
Administration" (PDF). Retrieved 15 June 2017.
^ See ADS section 495.3.1.
^ ADS section 495.3.4; Koehring et al. (1992), pp. 17, 28.
USAID Foreign Service". USAID. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
^ "Foreign Service Test Information". U.S. Department of State.
Retrieved 22 December 2016.
^ "Survey of USAID's Development Leadership Initiative in Southern and
Eastern Africa" (PDF).
USAID Inspector General. p. 1. Retrieved
22 December 2016.
^ "Mission". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 22 December
USAID (2012). "ADS Chapter 102: Agency Organization" (PDF).
p. 23. Retrieved 13 June 2017. See in particular the
definitions of "Large mission" and "Office."
^ USG staff directly performed technical assistance in the earliest
days of the program in the 1940s. However, it soon became necessary
for the USG's technical experts to plan and manage larger assistance
programs than they could perform by themselves. The global expansion
of TA in the early 1950s reinforced the need to draw on outside
experts, which was also accelerated by Congress's requirement of major
reductions of USG staffing in 1953. See Richardson. Partners in
Development. pp. 13–14, 37. Also Butterfield. U.S.
Development Aid. pp. 25–26.
USAID (November 15, 2016). "Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster
Assistance". Retrieved 13 June 2017.
^ "Operational Policy (ADS) U.S. Agency for International
Development". Usaid.gov. 2014-01-02. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
^ Butterfield. U.S. Development Aid. p. 60.
^ Butterfield. U.S. Development Aid. p. 37.
^ A history of all the programs that
USAID has supported since 1961,
in scores of countries, plus the evolution of USG policies and
academic theories about development and development assistance, to say
nothing of the development in the low-income countries themselves,
would require enough books to fill a library. For a start, see Samuel
Butterfield's U.S. Development Aid (2004).
^ Merle Curti and Kendall Birr, "Prelude to Point Four: American
Technical Missions Overseas, 1838–1938" (Madison: University of
Wisconsin Press, 1954).
^ "China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture".
^ For information on the Near East Foundation, see "Near East
Foundation". Also Badeau, John S.; Stevens, G. G. (1966). Bread
from stones: fifty years of technical assistance. Englewood Cliffs,
^ Fosdick, R. B. (1952). The story of the Rockefeller Foundation (1st
ed.). New York City: Harper.
^ Brown, William A.; Opie, Redvers (1953). American Foreign
Assistance. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
^ "Records of Interdepartmental Committees". National Archives and
Records Administration. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
^ Glick, Philip (1957). The Administration of Technical Assistance.
The University of Chicago Press. pp. 7–9.
^ Erb, Claude (1985). "Prelude to Point Four: The Institute of
Inter-American Affairs". Diplomatic History. 9 (3).
^ Office of Inter-American Affairs, History of the Office of the
Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs: Historical Reports on War
Administration (Government Printing Office; Washington, DC, 1947).
^ Anthony, Edwin D. (1973). Records of the Office of Inter-American
Affairs (PDF). Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records
Service, General Services Administration. Retrieved 8 February
^ Ruttan (1996), p. 37
^ Glick (1957), pp. 17ff and Mosher (1957), pp. 323–328
^ Glick (1957), pp. 26–28
^ OFAR was an office in USDA between 1939 and 1953. In this period,
Foreign Agricultural Service
Foreign Agricultural Service reported to the Department of State
rather than to USDA. See National Archives and Records Administration.
"Records of the Foreign Agricultural Service". Retrieved 17 June
^ Butterfield. U.S. Development Aid. pp. 2–4.
^ Glick (1957), pp. 35–39. The revised operating procedure was
modeled on reforms that had been pioneered by IIAA in March 1951.]
^ Brown & Opie (1953).
^ Brown & Opie (1953), pp. 76–77.
^ Brown & Opie (1953), pp. 108–109.
^ Brown & Opie (1953), pp. 341–342.
^ Jolly, Richard; Emmerji, Louis; Ghai, Dharam; Lapeyre, Frederic
(2004). UN Contributions to Development Thinking and Practice.
Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 68–73.
^ Kirdar, Üner (1966). The Structure of United Nations Economic-Aid
to Underdeveloped Countries. The Hague: M. Nijhoff. p. 60.
^ Brown & Opie (1953), pp. 412–414.
^ The name under which Congress appropriates these funds has changed
over time, becoming “Supporting Assistance” in 1961, “Security
Supporting Assistance” in 1971, and finally “Economic Support
Funds” from 1978 to the present. See Nowels (1987), pp. 5–6.
^ Butterfield (2004), p. 37.
^ Bingham (2004), pp. 262–263.
^ The only times the Republican Party had a majority in either house
in the 48-year span from 1933 to 1981 was when it enjoyed small
majorities in both houses of the 80th Congress in 1947–1949 under
Pres. Truman and both houses of the 83rd Congress 1953–1955 under
^ The New Deal's Tennessee Valley Authority was the model for some
major development assistance projects. See Ekbladh (2002).
^ Kaufman (1982), p. 14.
^ Bingham (1953), p. 38.
^ Kaufman (1982), ch. 2, pp. 12–33.
^ U.S. documents of the 1950s usually referred to the World Bank as
"the International Bank."
^ Glick (1957), pp. 130–136: "The Relation of Technical Co-operation
to Economic Aid."
^ Dwight D. Eisenhower: "
Special Message to the Congress on the
Organization of the Executive Branch for the Conduct of Foreign
Affairs.," June 1, 1953. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley,
The American Presidency Project.
^ Bingham (2004), p. 240.
^ Glick (1957) p. 49.
^ U.S. Government (July 16, 1953). "
Mutual Security Act
Mutual Security Act of 1953"
(PDF). Section 706(a). Retrieved 21 June 2017.
^ Ruttan (1996), p. 205.
^ Kaufman (1982), pp. 29–33.
^ Kaufman (1982), pp. 37–46.
Hubert Humphrey was a prominent supporter of the PL-480
^ Kaufman (1982), pp. 26–29. A currency is "inconvertible" when the
government forbids it to be used to buy foreign exchange, so that it
can only be spent in the country that issues it.
USAID (2017). "Food Assistance". Retrieved 19 June 2017.
^ Mason, Kim 'et al.' (1980), chapter 6.
^ Ruttan (1996), pp. 259–260.
^ Ruttan (1996), pp. 72–73.
^ Kaufman (1982), p. 32.
^ U.S. Government (1953). "
Mutual Security Act
Mutual Security Act of 1953" (PDF).
Retrieved 21 June 2017.
^ a b c Kaufman (1982), p. 52.
^ Kaufman (1982), pp. 46–49.
^ International Development Advisory Board, (1951). "Partners in
Progress: A Report to President Truman," (Simon & Schuster, 1951),
pp. 77, 84–85. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNABT570.pdf.
^ Kaufman (1982), p. 37.
^ H. Field Haviland, Jr., "Foreign Aid and the Policy Process: 1957"
The American Political Science Review, Vol. 52, No. 3 (Sept. 1958),
pp. 689–724. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1951900. Accessed:
^ Kaufman (1982), pp. 96ff.
^ An expanding academic literature also featured models that assumed
that low-income countries would grow virtually automatically if
sufficient macroeconomic financing was provided. See Ruttan (1996),
^ Haviland (1958), pp. 690, 691, 696.
^ Dwight D. Eisenhower: "
Special Message to the Congress on the Mutual
Security Programs.," May 21, 1957. Online by Gerhard Peters and John
T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
^ Local-currency repayments were adjusted when exchange rates changed
to maintain their value in terms of U.S. dollars.
USAID (1962). "Terminal Report of the Development Loan Fund" (PDF).
pp. 3–4. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
^ Terminal Report of the DLF, p. 6.
^ Kaufman (1982), p. 167
^ Dwight D. Eisenhower: "
Special Message to the Congress on
Agriculture," January 29, 1959. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T.
Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
^ Kaufman (1982), pp. 168, 171–172.
^ Kapur, D., Lewis, J. P, & Webb, R. Charles. (1997). The World
Bank : its first half century (Washington, D.C.: Brookings
Institution), p. 929.
^ Kaufman (1982), p. 141-145.
^ International Development Advisory Board, (1951). "Partners in
Progress: A Report to President Truman," (Simon & Schuster, 1951),
p. 73. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNABT570.pdf.
^ Mason, Edward; Asher, Robert (1973). The World Bank Since Bretton
Woods. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. pp. 381–389.
^ International Development Association. "Articles of Agreement,
Schedule A" http://ida.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/
IDA-articles-of-agreement.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
^ Jolly et al. (2004), pp. 73–83.
^ Kaufman (1982), p. 161-162.
^ Kaufman (1982), pp. 165–166
^ As the OEEC broadened its membership and became the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1961, the Group was
re-named the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). See
"DAC in Dates: The History of OECD's Development Assistance
^ Ruttan (1996), pp. 156–159.
^ Starting in 1953, TCA and its successors supported a private NGO,
International Voluntary Services (IVS), whose operations provided a
model for the Peace Corps. See Andrews (1970), 86–99; McFarland,
Colleen, “International Voluntary Services.” Mennonite Archival
^ In 1966, the UN would also integrate its EPTA and the
into a new agency, the UN Development Program, or UNDP.
^ The Fulbright educational and cultural exchange program was also
strengthened by the Fulbright-Hays Act in September 1961.
^ Ruttan (1996). pp. 107–108.
^ See Pres. Nixon's April 1971 message to Congress: "For a Generation
of Peaceful Development" (PDF). Retrieved 22 May 2017.
^ See the "Peterson Report": "Report to the President from the Task
Force on International Development" (PDF). p. 36. Retrieved 22
^ Ruttan (1996). pp. 94, 98–100, 543 fn. 2.
^ Butterfield. U.S. Development Aid. pp. 177–179.
^ Pastor, Robert A. (1980). Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign
Economic Policy 1929–1976. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University
of California Press. pp. 278–279.
USAID Public website USAID's Family Planning Guiding Principles and
U.S. Legislative and Policy Requirements Archived 2013-03-29 at the
Wayback Machine. Retrieved September 10, 2012
^ Greenhouse, Steven (March 16, 1995). "Helms Seeks to Merge Foreign
Policy Agencies". The New York Times.
^ Epstein, Susan B.; Nowels, Larry Q.; Hildreth, Steven A. (May 28,
1998). "Foreign Policy Agency Reorganization in the 105th Congress"
(PDF). Retrieved 2 March 2017.
^ "Department of State (DoS)". Pepfar.gov. 2006-11-15. Retrieved
^ "About MCC MCC Washington, DC". Mcc.gov. Archived from the
original on 2016-12-28. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
^ "Director of U.S. Foreign Assistance". State.gov. Retrieved
^ "Fact Sheet: U.S. Global Development Policy The White House".
Whitehouse.gov. 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
^ Scott Gruber, LPA/PIPOS (2010-07-02). "
USAID FrontLines: Insights
From Administrator Dr. Rajiv Shah". Usaid.gov. Retrieved
USAID Impact » Bread for the World Applauds New Bureau of
Food Security". Blog.usaid.gov. 2010-11-24. Retrieved
^ "Leading Through Civilian Power" (PDF). USAID. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2013-02-21. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
^ "Aid statistics". OECD. 2013-12-23. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
^ "Hard Lessons: The
Iraq Reconstruction Experience" (PDF). US Special
Inspector General –
Iraq Reconstruction. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2013-05-16. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
^ "Assistance for Iraq". USAID. Archived from the original on
2011-11-14. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
^ "Rebuilding Iraq". C-SPAN. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17.
^ "The Legacy and the promise (Lebanese American University)".
^ a b c "
USAID programme used young Latin Americans to incite Cuba
rebellion". The Guardian. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August
^ a b c d e "US secretly created 'Cuban Twitter' to stir unrest".
Associated Press. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
^ "White House denies 'Cuban Twitter'
ZunZuneo programme was covert".
The Guardian. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
^ "US government harassed Castro with a fake
Twitter service". The
Verge. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
^ "US agency that created 'Cuban Twitter' faces political firestorm".
ArsTechnica. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
^ Andean Information Network, 27 June 2008, "Bolivian coca growers cut
ties with USAID"
^ BBC News, May 1, 2013, "Bolivian President
Evo Morales expels USAid"
^ "New PSAs: 'FWD' Awareness About the Horn of
Africa Crisis". Ad Age.
October 26, 2011
^ See Richardson. Partners in Development. pp. 13–14, 37.
Also Butterfield. U.S. Development Aid. pp. 25–26.
^ Richard Norton-Taylor 40% of Afghan aid returns to donor countries,
says report guardian.co.uk 25 March 2008
^ Barbara Slavin Another
Iraq deal rewards company with connections
USA Today 4/17/2003
^ Mark Tran Halliburton misses $600m
Iraq contract guardian.oc.uk 31
^ "Robert Sandels:
Cuba Crackdown: a Revolt Against Bush National
Security Strategy?". Counterpunch.org. 2002-05-20. Retrieved
^ "Undermining Bolivia". The Progressive. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
^ "Bush aide resigns - Politics - White House - msnbc.com". MSNBC.
2008-03-28. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
^ Golinger, Eva (2007-09-12). "
Bolivia and Venezuela: The
Silent Subversion". venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
^ William Blum, Killing hope : U.S. military and CIA
interventions since World War II Zed Books, 2003,
ISBN 978-1-84277-369-7 pp.142, 200, 234.
^ Michael Otterman, American torture: from the Cold War to Abu Ghraib
and beyond (Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2007), p. 60.
^ "''EUA tentaram influenciar reforma política do Brasil''".
.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
^ ALBA Expels
USAID from Member Countries Retrieved 2012-09-16
^ "Security Council Seat Tied to Aid". Globalpolicy.org. 2006-11-01.
^ Hornberger, Jacob" But Foreign Aid Is Bribery! And Blackmail,
Extortion, and Theft Too!" September 26, 2003
^ U.S. State Department, Country Fact Sheets – Background Note:
Yemen. 12 March 2012
^ Sterman, Adiv (2013-01-31). "How dare you make us cooperate with
NGOs protest to EU". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved
^ Liptak, Adam (20 June 2013). "Justices Say U.S. Cannot Impose
Antiprostitution Condition on
AIDS Grants". The New York Times.
Retrieved 25 June 2013.
^ Roberts, John (20 June 2013). "AGENCY FOR INT'L DEVELOPMENT v.
ALLIANCE FOR". Legal Information Institute. Cornell Law School.
Retrieved 17 July 2013.
Andrews, Stanley (1970). "Oral History Interview with Stanley
Andrews". Harry S. Truman Library. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
Bollen, Kenneth; Paxton, Pamela; Morishima, Rumi (June 2005).
"Assessing international evaluations: An example from USAID's
Democracy and Governance Programs" (PDF). American Journal
of Evaluation. 26 (2): 189–203. doi:10.1177/1098214005275640.
Evaluation performed on behalf of the Social Science Research Council
(SSRC), at the request of and with funding from the Strategic and
Operational Research Agenda (SORA) of
USAID (Office of
Governance in the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian
Assistance), according to the National Research Council (2008,
p. 28). [permanent dead link]
Butterfield, Samuel Hale (2004). U.S. Development Aid – An Historic
First: Achievements and Failures in the Twentieth Century. Westport,
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