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Peacekeeping

UNPK logo

Founded 1948

Website United Nations
United Nations
Peacekeeping

Leadership

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix

Manpower

Active personnel 90,905 uniformed, 111,512 total[1]

Expenditures

Budget $7.9 billion[2]

Related articles

History United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping missions

Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
by the United Nations
United Nations
is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace."[3] It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.[4] Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. Accordingly, UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel. The United Nations
United Nations
Charter gives the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations through Chapter VII authorizations.[5] Most of these operations are established and implemented by the United Nations itself, with troops serving under UN operational control. In these cases, peacekeepers remain members of their respective armed forces, and do not constitute an independent "UN army," as the UN does not have such a force. In cases where direct UN involvement is not considered appropriate or feasible, the Council authorizes regional organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO),[5] the Economic Community of West African States, or coalitions of willing countries to undertake peacekeeping or peace-enforcement tasks. Mr. Jean-Pierre Lacroix is the Head of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. He took over from the former Under-Secretary-General Mr. Hérve Ladsous on 1 April 2017. DPKO's highest level doctrine document, entitled " United Nations
United Nations
Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations: Principles and Guidelines" was issued in 2008.[6]

Contents

1 Process and structure 2 Formation

2.1 Financing 2.2 Structure

3 History

3.1 Cold War
Cold War
peacekeeping 3.2 Since 1991

4 Participation 5 Results 6 Crimes by peacekeepers

6.1 Peacekeeping, human trafficking, and forced prostitution 6.2 Human rights violations in United Nations
United Nations
missions

7 Proposed reform

7.1 Brahimi analysis 7.2 Rapid reaction force 7.3 Restructuring of the UN secretariat

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

Process and structure[edit] In 2007, a peacekeeper volunteer was required to be over the age of 25 with no maximum age limit.[7] Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
forces are contributed by member states on a voluntary basis. As of 31 December 2013, the total size of the peacekeeping force is 98,200 police, troops, and military experts. European nations contribute nearly 6,000 units[clarification needed] to this total. Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
are among the largest individual contributors with around 8,000 units each. African nations contributed nearly half the total, almost 44,000 units.[8] Every peacekeeping mission is authorized by the Security Council. Formation[edit]

Guard of Honor during UN Medal Awarding Parade at Bunia, Orientale. Republique democratique du Congo by Bangladesh
Bangladesh
UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Force

A multinational UN battalion at the 2008 Bastille Day military parade

Once a peace treaty has been negotiated, the parties involved might ask the United Nations
United Nations
for a peacekeeping force to oversee various elements of the agreed upon plan. This is often done because a group controlled by the United Nations
United Nations
is less likely to follow the interests of any one party, since it itself is controlled by many groups, namely the 15-member Security Council and the intentionally diverse United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat. If the Security Council approves the creation of a mission, then the Department of Peacekeeping Operations begins planning for the necessary elements. At this point, the senior leadership team is selected. The department will then seek contributions from member nations. Since the UN has no standing force or supplies, it must form ad hoc coalitions for every task undertaken. Doing so results in both the possibility of failure to form a suitable force, and a general slowdown in procurement once the operation is in the field. Romeo Dallaire, force commander in Rwanda
Rwanda
during the Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
there, described the problems this poses by comparison to more traditional military deployments:

He told me the UN was a "pull" system, not a "push" system like I had been used to with NATO, because the UN had absolutely no pool of resources to draw on. You had to make a request for everything you needed, and then you had to wait while that request was analyzed... For instance, soldiers everywhere have to eat and drink. In a push system, food and water for the number of soldiers deployed is automatically supplied. In a pull system, you have to ask for those rations, and no common sense seems to ever apply. — (Shake Hands With the Devil, Dallaire, pp. 99–100)

While the peacekeeping force is being assembled, a variety of diplomatic activities are being undertaken by UN staff. The exact size and strength of the force must be agreed to by the government of the nation whose territory the conflict is on. The Rules of Engagement must be developed and approved by both the parties involved and the Security Council. These give the specific mandate and scope of the mission (e.g. when may the peacekeepers, if armed, use force, and where may they go within the host nation). Often, it will be mandated that peacekeepers have host government minders with them whenever they leave their base. This complexity has caused problems in the field. When all agreements are in place, the required personnel are assembled, and final approval has been given by the Security Council, the peacekeepers are deployed to the region in question. Financing[edit]

Australian peacekeepers in East Timor

The financial resources of UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
operations are the collective responsibility of UN Member States. Decisions about the establishment, maintenance or expansion of peacekeeping operations are taken by the Security Council. According to UN Charter
UN Charter
every Member State is legally obligated to pay their respective share for peacekeeping. Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
expenses are divided by the General Assembly based upon a formula established by Member States which takes into account the relative economic wealth of Member States among other things.[9] In 2017, the UN agreed to reduce the peacekeeping budget by $600 million after the US initially proposed a larger cut of approximately $900 million.[10]

Year Funding sources by country/source Description Total

2015-2016

$8.3bn[11]

2016-2017  US 28.57%   China
China
10.29%   Japan
Japan
9.68%   Germany
Germany
6.39%   France
France
6.31%   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
5.80%  Russian Federation 4.01%   Italy
Italy
3.75%   Canada
Canada
2.92%   Spain
Spain
2.44%

Less than 0.5% of world military expenditures (estimated at $1,747 billion in 2013). The resources financed 14 of the 16 United Nations peacekeeping missions with the two remaining ones getting financed through the UN regular budget. Many countries have also voluntarily made additional resources available to support UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
efforts such as by transportation, supplies, personnel and financial contributions beyond their assessed share of peacekeeping costs.[9]

$7.87bn[9]

2017-2018

While many have praised the Ivory Coast UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
mission's stabilizing effects on the country, the mission was ended on 30 June 2017.[12] $7.3bn[10]

Structure[edit] A United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping mission has three power centers. The first is the Special
Special
Representative of the Secretary-General, the official leader of the mission. This person is responsible for all political and diplomatic activity, overseeing relations with both the parties to the peace treaty and the UN member-states in general. They are often a senior member of the Secretariat. The second is the Force Commander, who is responsible for the military forces deployed. They are a senior officer of their nation's armed services, and are often from the nation committing the highest number of troops to the project. Finally, the Chief Administrative Officer oversees supplies and logistics, and coordinates the procurement of any supplies needed. History[edit] Main article: History of United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping Cold War
Cold War
peacekeeping[edit]

Peacekeepers' Panhard
Panhard
armoured car in the Musée des Blindés, Saumur, France. These vehicles have served with the UN since the inception of UNFICYP.

A Pakistani UNOSOM armed convoy making the rounds in Mogadishu.

United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping was initially developed during the Cold War as a means of resolving conflicts between states by deploying unarmed or lightly armed military personnel from a number of countries, under UN command, to areas where warring parties were in need of a neutral party to observe the peace process. Peacekeepers could be called in when the major international powers (the five permanent members of the Security Council) tasked the UN with bringing closure to conflicts threatening regional stability and international peace and security. These included a number of so-called "proxy wars" waged by client states of the superpowers. As of February 2009, there have been 63 UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
operations since 1948, with sixteen operations ongoing. Suggestions for new missions arise every year. The first peacekeeping mission was launched in 1948. This mission, the United Nations
United Nations
Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), was sent to the newly created State of Israel, where a conflict between the Israelis and the Arab states over the creation of Israel
Israel
had just reached a ceasefire. The UNTSO remains in operation to this day, although the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
has certainly not abated. Almost a year later, the United Nations
United Nations
Military Observer Group in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
(UNMOGIP) was authorized to monitor relations between the two nations, which were split off from each other following the United Kingdom's decolonization of the Indian subcontinent. As the Korean War
Korean War
ended with the Korean Armistice Agreement
Korean Armistice Agreement
in 1953,[13] UN forces remained along the south side of demilitarized zone until 1967, when American and South Korean forces took over.[citation needed] Returning its attention to the conflict between Israel
Israel
and its Arab neighbors, the United Nations
United Nations
responded to Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
of 1956, a war between the alliance of the United Kingdom, France, and Israel, and Egypt, which was supported by other Arab nations. When a ceasefire was declared in 1957, Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs[14] (and future Prime Minister) Lester Bowles Pearson
Lester Bowles Pearson
suggested that the United Nations
United Nations
station a peacekeeping force in the Suez
Suez
in order to ensure that the ceasefire was honored by both sides. Pearson had initially suggested that the force consist of mainly Canadian soldiers, but the Egyptians were suspicious of having a Commonwealth nation defend them against the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and her allies. In the end, a wide variety of national forces were drawn upon to ensure national diversity. Pearson would win the Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize for this work, and he is today considered a father of modern peacekeeping.[citation needed] In 1988, the Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize was awarded to the United Nations peacekeeping forces. The press release stated that the forces "represent the manifest will of the community of nations" and have "made a decisive contribution" to the resolution of conflict around the world. Since 1991[edit]

Norwegian Peacekeeper during the Siege of Sarajevo, 1992 - 1993.

Indian soldiers patrol under UN mission in Congo, Africa

Indian Army
Indian Army
doctors attend to a child in Congo

The end of the Cold War
Cold War
precipitated a dramatic shift in UN and multilateral peacekeeping. In a new spirit of cooperation, the Security Council established larger and more complex UN peacekeeping missions, often to help implement comprehensive peace agreements between belligerents in intra-State conflicts and civil wars. Furthermore, peacekeeping came to involve more and more non-military elements that ensured the proper functioning of civic functions, such as elections. The UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations was created in 1992 to support this increased demand for such missions. By and large, the new operations were successful. In El Salvador
El Salvador
and Mozambique, for example, peacekeeping provided ways to achieve self-sustaining peace. Some efforts failed, perhaps as the result of an overly optimistic assessment of what UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
could accomplish. While complex missions in Cambodia
Cambodia
and Mozambique
Mozambique
were ongoing, the Security Council dispatched peacekeepers to conflict zones like Somalia, where neither ceasefires nor the consent of all the parties in conflict had been secured. These operations did not have the manpower, nor were they supported by the required political will, to implement their mandates. The failures—most notably the 1994 Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
and the 1995 massacre in Srebrenica
Srebrenica
and Bosnia and Herzegovina—led to a period of retrenchment and self-examination in UN peacekeeping. That period led, in part, to the United Nations
United Nations
Peacebuilding Commission, which works to implement stable peace through some of the same civic functions that peacekeepers also work on, such as elections. The Commission currently works with six countries, all in Africa.[15] Participation[edit]

Alpine Helicopters contract Bell 212
Bell 212
on UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
duty in Guatemala, 1998.

San Martin Camp in Cyprus. The Argentine contingent includes troops from other Latin American
Latin American
countries.

Indian Army
Indian Army
T-72
T-72
tanks with UN markings as part of Operation CONTINUE HOPE.

The UN Charter
UN Charter
stipulates that to assist in maintaining peace and security around the world, all member states of the UN should make available to the Security Council necessary armed forces and facilities. Since 1948, close to 130 nations have contributed military and civilian police personnel to peace operations. While detailed records of all personnel who have served in peacekeeping missions since 1948 are not available, it is estimated that up to one million soldiers, police officers and civilians have served under the UN flag in the last 56 years. As of June 2013, 114 countries were contributing a total 91,216 military observers, police, and troops to United Nations Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations. As of 29 February 2016, 124 countries were contributing a total of 105,314 personnel in Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations, with Ethiopia
Ethiopia
leading the tally (8,324), followed by India
India
(7,695) and Bangladesh (7,525).[16] In June 2013. Pakistan
Pakistan
contributed the highest number overall with 8,186 personnel, followed by India
India
(7,878), Bangladesh (7,799), Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(6,502), Rwanda
Rwanda
(4,686), Nigeria
Nigeria
(4,684), Nepal (4,495), Jordan
Jordan
(3,374), Ghana
Ghana
(2,859), and Egypt
Egypt
(2,750).[17] As of 28 February 2015, 120 countries were contributing a total of 104,928 personnel in Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations, with Bangladesh
Bangladesh
leading the tally (9446).[18] As of March 2008, in addition to military and police personnel, 5,187 international civilian personnel, 2,031 UN Volunteers and 12,036 local civilian personnel worked in UN peacekeeping missions.[19]

A peacekeeping soldier of Poland
Poland
in Syria

Through April 2008, 2,468 people from over 100 countries have been killed while serving on peacekeeping missions.[20] Many of those came from India
India
(127), Canada
Canada
(114) and Ghana
Ghana
(113). Thirty percent of the fatalities in the first 55 years of UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
occurred in the years 1993-1995. About 4.5% of the troops and civilian police deployed in UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
missions come from the European Union
European Union
and less than one percent from the United States
United States
(USA).[21] The rate of reimbursement by the UN for troop-contributing countries per peacekeeper per month include: $1,028 for pay and allowances; $303 supplementary pay for specialists; $68 for personal clothing, gear and equipment; and $5 for personal weaponry.[22] Results[edit] According to scholar Page Fortna, there is strong evidence that the presence of peacekeepers significantly reduces the risk of renewed warfare; more peacekeeping troops leads to fewer battlefield deaths; and more peacekeeping troops leads to fewer civilian deaths.[23] There is also evidence that the promise to deploy peacekeepers can help an international organizations bring combatants to the negotiation table and increase the likelihood that they will agree to a cease-fire.[24] However, there have been several reports during UN peacekeeping missions of human rights abuse by UN soldiers, notably in Central African Republic in 2015. Cost of these missions is also significant, with UNMISS in South Sudan costing $1 billion per year for 12,500 UN soldiers unable to prevent the country's movement towards civil war. Often missions require approval from local governments before deploying troops which can also limit effectiveness of UN missions.[25] Nicholas Sambanis asserts that the presence of a UN peacekeeping mission is correlated with a positive effect on the achievement of peace, especially in the short-term. However, he notes that this effect is lessened over time. Thus, the longer that peacekeepers remain in a country, the greater the likelihood that peace will maintain. Acknowledging the success that UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
operations have achieved in increasing political participation, Sambanis claims that a greater focus on economic development would further increase the efficacy of peacekeeping efforts.[26] Another study suggests that doubling the peacekeeping operation budget stronger peacekeeping operation mandates and a doubling of the PKO budget would reduce armed conflicts by up to two thirds relative to a scenario without PKOs.[27] Crimes by peacekeepers[edit] Peacekeeping, human trafficking, and forced prostitution[edit] Further information: Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
§ Peacekeeping, human trafficking, and forced prostitution Reporters witnessed a rapid increase in prostitution in Cambodia
Cambodia
and Mozambique
Mozambique
after UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
forces moved in. In the 1996 UN study "The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children", former first lady of Mozambique
Mozambique
Graça Machel documented: "In 6 out of 12 country studies on sexual exploitation of children in situations of armed conflict prepared for the present report, the arrival of peacekeeping troops has been associated with a rapid rise in child prostitution."[28] Gita Sahgal
Gita Sahgal
spoke out in 2004 with regard to the fact that prostitution and sex abuse crops up wherever humanitarian intervention efforts are set up. She observed: "The issue with the UN is that peacekeeping operations unfortunately seem to be doing the same thing that other militaries do. Even the guardians have to be guarded."[29] Human rights violations in United Nations
United Nations
missions[edit]

Brazilian Army
Brazilian Army
participating in a UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
mission in Haiti.

The following table chart illustrates confirmed accounts of crimes and human rights violations committed by United Nations
United Nations
soldiers, peacekeepers, and employees.[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41]

A comparison of incidents involving United Nations
United Nations
peacekeepers, troops, and employees.

Conflict United Nations
United Nations
Mission Sexual abuse1 Murder2 Extortion/Theft3

Second Congo War United Nations
United Nations
Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo 150 3 44

Somali Civil War United Nations
United Nations
Operation in Somalia
Somalia
II 5 24 5

Sierra Leone Civil War United Nations
United Nations
Mission in Sierra Leone 50 7 15

Eritrean-Ethiopian War United Nations
United Nations
Mission in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea 70 15 0

Burundi Civil War United Nations
United Nations
Operation in Burundi 80 5 0

Rwanda
Rwanda
Civil War United Nations
United Nations
Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda 65 15 0

Second Liberian Civil War United Nations
United Nations
Mission in Liberia 30 4 1

Second Sudanese Civil War United Nations
United Nations
Mission in Sudan 400 5 0

Côte d'Ivoire Civil War United Nations
United Nations
Operation in Côte d'Ivoire 500 2 0

2004 Haitian coup d'état United Nations
United Nations
Stabilization Mission in Haiti 110 57 0

Kosovo War United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo 800 70 100

Israeli–Lebanese conflict United Nations
United Nations
Interim Force in Lebanon 0 6 0

Proposed reform[edit] Brahimi analysis[edit] In response to criticism, particularly of the cases of sexual abuse by peacekeepers, the UN has taken steps toward reforming its operations. The Brahimi Report was the first of many steps to recap former peacekeeping missions, isolate flaws, and take steps to patch these mistakes to ensure the efficiency of future peacekeeping missions. The UN has vowed to continue to put these practices into effect when performing peacekeeping operations in the future. The technocratic aspects of the reform process have been continued and revitalised by the DPKO in its " Peace
Peace
Operations 2010" reform agenda. This included an increase in personnel, the harmonization of the conditions of service of field and headquarters staff, the development of guidelines and standard operating procedures, and improving the partnership arrangement between the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and the United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), African Union and European Union. 2008 capstone doctrine entitled "United Nations Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations: Principles and Guidelines"[6] incorporates and builds on the Brahimi analysis. Rapid reaction force[edit] One suggestion to account for delays such as the one in Rwanda, is a rapid reaction force: a standing group, administered by the UN and deployed by the Security Council, that receives its troops and support from current Security Council members and is ready for quick deployment in the event of future genocides.[42] Restructuring of the UN secretariat[edit] The UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
capacity was enhanced in 2007 by augmenting the DPKO with the new Department of Field Support (DFS). Whereas the new entity serves as a key enabler by co-ordinating the administration and logistics in UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
operations, DPKO concentrates on policy planning and providing strategic directions.[citation needed] See also[edit]

United Nations
United Nations
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping missions.

UN Department of Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations International Day of United Nations
United Nations
Peacekeepers List of United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping missions List of countries by number of UN peacekeepers Multinational Force and Observers Timeline of UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
missions List of non- UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
missions NATO peacekeeping White Helmets Commission PKSOI International security Responsibility to protect Security-related bills

References[edit]

^ UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Fact Sheet: 30 June 2013; accessed: August 7, 2013 ^ "Financing peacekeeping".  ^ United Nations
United Nations
Peacekeeping ^ " Peace
Peace
and Security". United Nations. Retrieved 2017-05-18.  ^ a b Nau, Henry (2015). Perspectives on International Relations. Washington DC: CQ Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-4522-4148-7.  ^ a b DPKO Capstone Doctrine ^ http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/UNDPKO.html ^ " United Nations
United Nations
troop and police contributors archive (1990 - 2013)". Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ a b c "Financing peacekeeping. United Nations
United Nations
Peacekeeping". www.un.org. Retrieved 2017-05-31.  ^ a b Nichols, By Michelle. "U.N. states agree $7.3 bln peacekeeping budget, U.S. share cut 7.5 pct". Reuters. Retrieved 1 July 2017.  ^ "General Assembly Authorizes $8.3 billion for 15 Peacekeeping Operations in 2015/16 as It Adopts 25 Resolutions, 1 Decision in Reports of Fifth Committee Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". www.un.org. Retrieved 1 July 2017.  ^ "UN ends peacekeeping mission in Ivory Coast after 13 years". ABC News. Retrieved 1 July 2017.  ^ "The Korean War
Korean War
armistice". BBC News. 2015-03-05. Retrieved 2017-02-09.  ^ "Lester B. Pearson: 1957 Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize Recipient".  ^ "Beyond Peace
Peace
Deals: The United Nations
United Nations
Experiment in "Peacebuilding"".  ^ "Contribution to United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping operations, 29th February, 2016" (PDF).  ^ Ranking of Military and Police Contributions to UN Operations accessed August 7, 2013. ^ Monthly Summary of Contributions (Police, UN Military Experts on Mission and Troops)accessed February, 2015. ^ Background Note – United Nations
United Nations
Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations ^ United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping – Fatalities By Year up to 31 Dec 2008 ^ " Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Fact Sheet". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-12-20.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
Peacekeepers - How are peacekeepers compensated? ^ "Enough with the Pessimism about Peacekeeping". Political Violence @ a Glance. Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ Lundgren, Magnus (2016). "Which international organizations can settle civil wars?". Review of International Organizations. DOI 10.1007/s11558-016-9253-0.  ^ "Peacekeepers in name only". The Economist. Retrieved 2017-11-14.  ^ Sambanis, Nicholas (2008). "Short- and Long-Term Effects of United Nations Peace
Peace
Operations". The World Bank Economic Review. 22: 9–32.  ^ "Evaluating the conflict-reducing effect of UN peacekeeping operations" (PDF).  ^ The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children ^ "Sex charges haunt UN forces; In places like Congo and Kosovo, peacekeepers have been accused of abusing the people they're protecting," Christian Science Monitor, 26 November 2004, accessed 16 February 2010 ^ 1 : compiled from the corresponding articles. When a range was given, the median was used. ^ 2 http://www.unwire.org/unwire/20030411/33133_story.asp United Nations Foundation. ^ 3https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52333-2005Mar20.html Congo's Desperate 'One-Dollar U.N. Girls' ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6195830.stm UN troops face child abuse claims ^ http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/005/081zxelz.asp The U.N. Sex Scandal ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/un-troops-buy-sex-from-teenage-refugees-in-congo-camp-756666.html UN troops buy sex from teenage refugees in Congo camp ^ http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/199/40816.html UN Peacekeepers Criticized ^ http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/190/32956.html Global Rules Now Apply to Peacekeepers ^ http://law.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3113&context=expresso Victims of Peace: Current Abuse Allegations against U.N. Peacekeepers and the Role of Law in Preventing Them in the Future ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/27_05_08_savethechildren.pdf No One to Turn To - BBC Analysis ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1538476/UN-staff-accused-of-raping-children-in-Sudan.html UN staff accused of raping children in Sudan ^ https://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/2002/bosnia/ TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN AND GIRLS TO POST-CONFLICT BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA FOR FORCED PROSTITUTION - Human Rights Watch ^ Report of the Panel on United Nations
United Nations
Peace
Peace
Operations, 2000.

Further reading[edit]

Bureš, Oldřich (June 2006). "Regional Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations: Complementing or Undermining the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council?". Global Change, Peace
Peace
& Security. 18 (2): 83–99. doi:10.1080/14781150600687775. 

Fortna, Virginia Page (2004). "Does Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Keep Peace? International Intervention and the Duration of Peace
Peace
After Civil War". International Studies Quarterly. 48 (2): 269–292. doi:10.1111/j.0020-8833.2004.00301.x. 

Goulding, Marrack (July 1993). "The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping". International Affairs. International Affairs, Vol. 69, No. 3. 69 (3): 451–64. doi:10.2307/2622309. JSTOR 2622309. 

Pushkina, Darya (June 2006). "A Recipe for Success? Ingredients of a Successful Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Mission". International Peacekeeping. 13 (2): 133–149. doi:10.1080/13533310500436508. 

Worboys, Katherine (2007). "The Traumatic Journey from Dictatorship to Democracy: Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations and Civil-Military Relations in Argentina, 1989-1999". Armed Forces & Society. 33 (2): 149–168. doi:10.1177/0095327X05283843.  Dandeker, Christopher; Gow, James (1997). "The Future of Peace
Peace
Support Operations: Strategic Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
and Success". Armed Forces & Society. 23 (3): 327–347. doi:10.1177/0095327X9702300302.  Blocq, Daniel. 2009. "Western Soldiers and the Protection of Local Civilians in UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations: Is a Nationalist Orientation in the Armed Forces Hindering Our Preparedness to Fight?" Armed Forces & Society,abstract Bridges, Donna and Debbie Horsfall. 2009. "Increasing Operational Effectiveness in UN Peacekeeping: Toward a Gender-Balanced Force." Armed Forces & Society, May 2009. abstract Howard, Lise Morjé. 2008. UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
in Civil Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.abstract Fortna, Virginia Page; Lise Morjé, Howard (2008). "Pitfalls and Prospects in the Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Future". Annual Review of Political Science. 11: 283–301. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.9.041205.103022.  Reed, Brian; Segal, David (2000). "The Impact of Multiple Deployments on Soldiers' Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Attitudes, Morale and Retention". Armed Forces & Society. 27: 57–78. doi:10.1177/0095327X0002700105.  Sion, Liora (2006). "'Too Sweet and Innocent for War'?: Dutch Peacekeepers and the Use of Violence". Armed Forces & Society. 32 (3): 454–474. doi:10.1177/0095327X05281453. 

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Laureates of the Nobel Peace
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1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace
Peace
Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

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