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(i) (i)

Council President Amr Abdellatif Aboulatta Egypt
Egypt

WEBSITE un.org/en/sc/

The UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations
United Nations
, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations
United Nations
and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter . Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions , and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions ; it is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states. The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946.

Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War
War
II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations
League of Nations
, in maintaining world peace. In its early decades, the body was largely paralyzed by the Cold War division between the US and USSR and their respective allies, though it authorized interventions in the Korean War
War
and the Congo Crisis
Congo Crisis
and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, and West New Guinea . With the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping efforts increased dramatically in scale, and the Security Council authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait , Namibia , Cambodia , Bosnia , Rwanda , Somalia , Sudan , and the Democratic Republic of Congo .

The Security Council consists of fifteen members . The great powers that were the victors of World War
War
II —the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(now represented by Russia
Russia
), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, France
France
, Republic of China
China
(now represented by the People\'s Republic of China
China
), and the United States
United States
—serve as the body's five permanent members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General. The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body's presidency rotates monthly among its members.

Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers , military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016 , 103,510 peacekeepers and 16,471 civilians were deployed on sixteen peacekeeping operations and one special political mission. Permanent members: 5 seats (China, France, Russia, UK, US) Temporary members: 10 seats

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Background and creation * 1.2 Cold War
War
* 1.3 Post-Cold War
War

* 2 Role

* 3 Members

* 3.1 Permanent members

* 3.1.1 Veto power

* 3.2 Non-permanent members * 3.3 President

* 4 Meeting locations

* 4.1 Consultation room

* 5 Subsidiary organs/bodies * 6 United Nations
United Nations
peacekeepers * 7 Criticism and evaluations * 8 Membership reform * 9 See also * 10 Notes

* 11 References

* 11.1 Citations * 11.2 Sources

* 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

BACKGROUND AND CREATION

In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations and conferences had been formed to regulate conflicts between nations, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
. Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War
War
I , the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations
League of Nations
to maintain harmony between the nations. This organization successfully resolved some territorial disputes and created international structures for areas such as postal mail, aviation, and opium control, some of which would later be absorbed into the UN. However, the League lacked representation for colonial peoples (then half the world's population) and significant participation from several major powers, including the US, USSR, Germany, and Japan; it failed to act against the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria , the Second Italo-Ethiopian War
War
in 1935, the 1937 Japanese occupation of China
China
, and Nazi expansions under Adolf Hitler that escalated into World War
War
II . British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
, and Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
, February 1945

The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations
United Nations
to describe the Allied countries ."On New Year’s Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov , of the USSR, and T. V. Soong
T. V. Soong
, of China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures." The term United Nations
United Nations
was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. By 1 March 1945, 21 additional states had signed. " Four Policemen
Four Policemen
" was coined to refer to the four major Allied countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China, which was emerged in Declaration by United Nations
United Nations
and became the foundation of an executive branch of the United Nations, the Security Council.

In mid-1944, the delegations from the Allied "Big Four ", the Soviet Union , the UK , the US and China
China
, met for the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington, D.C. to negotiate the UN's structure, and the composition of the UN Security Council quickly became the dominant issue. France, the Republic of China
China
, the Soviet Union, the UK, and US were selected as permanent members of the Security Council; the US attempted to add Brazil
Brazil
as a sixth member, but was opposed by the heads of the Soviet and British delegations. The most contentious issue at Dumbarton and in successive talks proved to be the veto rights of permanent members. The Soviet delegation argued that each nation should have an absolute veto that could block matters from even being discussed, while the British argued that nations should not be able to veto resolutions on disputes to which they were a party. At the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
of February 1945, the American, British, and Russian delegations agreed that each of the "Big Five" could veto any action by the council, but not procedural resolutions, meaning that the permanent members could not prevent debate on a resolution.

On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter . At the conference, H. V. Evatt
H. V. Evatt
of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the veto power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conference's failure, his proposal was defeated twenty votes to ten.

The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the Security Council and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. On 17 January 1946, the Security Council met for the first time at Church House, Westminster , in London, United Kingdom. Church House in London
London
where the first Security Council Meeting took place on 17 January 1946

COLD WAR

The Security Council was largely paralysed in its early decades by the Cold War
War
between the US and USSR and their allies, and the Council generally was only able to intervene in unrelated conflicts. (A notable exception was the 1950 Security Council resolution authorizing a US-led coalition to repel the North Korean invasion of South Korea , passed in the absence of the USSR.) In 1956, the first UN peacekeeping force was established to end the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
; however, the UN was unable to intervene against the USSR's simultaneous invasion of Hungary following that country\'s revolution . Cold War divisions also paralysed the Security Council's Military Staff Committee , which had been formed by Articles 45–47 of the UN Charter to oversee UN forces and create UN military bases. The committee continued to exist on paper but largely abandoned its work in the mid-1950s.

In 1960, the UN deployed the United Nations
United Nations
Operation in the Congo (UNOC), the largest military force of its early decades, to restore order to the breakaway State of Katanga
State of Katanga
, restoring it to the control of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
by 1964. However, the Security Council found itself bypassed in favour of direct negotiations between the superpowers in some of the decade's larger conflicts, such as the Cuban missile crisis
Cuban missile crisis
or the Vietnam War
War
. Focusing instead on smaller conflicts without an immediate Cold War connection, the Security Council deployed the United Nations
United Nations
Temporary Executive Authority in West New Guinea
West New Guinea
in 1962 and the United Nations Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Force in Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1964, the latter of which would become one of the UN's longest-running peacekeeping missions.

On 25 October 1971, over US opposition but with the support of many Third World
Third World
nations, the mainland, communist People\'s Republic of China
China
was given the Chinese seat on the Security Council in place of Taiwan
Taiwan
; the vote was widely seen as a sign of waning US influence in the organization. With an increasing Third World
Third World
presence and the failure of UN mediation in conflicts in the Middle East , Vietnam , and Kashmir , the UN increasingly shifted its attention to its ostensibly secondary goals of economic development and cultural exchange. By the 1970s, the UN budget for social and economic development was far greater than its budget for peacekeeping.

POST-COLD WAR

US Secretary of State
US Secretary of State
Colin Powell
Colin Powell
holds a model vial of anthrax while giving a presentation to the Security Council in February 2003.

After the Cold War, the UN saw a radical expansion in its peacekeeping duties, taking on more missions in ten years' time than it had in its previous four decades. Between 1988 and 2000, the number of adopted Security Council resolutions more than doubled, and the peacekeeping budget increased more than tenfold. The UN negotiated an end to the Salvadoran Civil War
War
, launched a successful peacekeeping mission in Namibia , and oversaw democratic elections in post-apartheid South Africa and post- Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
Cambodia. In 1991, the Security Council demonstrated its renewed vigor by condemning the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on the same day of the attack, and later authorizing a US-led coalition that successfully repulsed the Iraqis. Undersecretary-General Brian Urquhart later described the hopes raised by these successes as a "false renaissance" for the organization, given the more troubled missions that followed.

Though the UN Charter had been written primarily to prevent aggression by one nation against another, in the early 1990s, the UN faced a number of simultaneous, serious crises within nations such as Somalia, Haiti, Mozambique, and the former Yugoslavia. The UN mission in Somalia was widely viewed as a failure after the US withdrawal following casualties in the Battle of Mogadishu , and the UN mission to Bosnia faced "worldwide ridicule" for its indecisive and confused mission in the face of ethnic cleansing. In 1994, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda failed to intervene in the Rwandan Genocide in the face of Security Council indecision.

In the late 1990s, UN-authorised international interventions took a wider variety of forms. The UN mission in the 1991–2002 Sierra Leone Civil War
War
was supplemented by British Royal Marines
Royal Marines
, and the UN-authorised 2001 invasion of Afghanistan was overseen by NATO
NATO
. In 2003, the US invaded Iraq despite failing to pass a UN Security Council resolution for authorization, prompting a new round of questioning of the organization's effectiveness. In the same decade, the Security Council intervened with peacekeepers in crises including the War
War
in Darfur
Darfur
in Sudan and the Kivu conflict
Kivu conflict
in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2013, an internal review of UN actions in the final battles of the Sri Lankan Civil War
War
in 2009 concluded that the organization had suffered "systemic failure". In November/December 2014, Egypt
Egypt
presented a motion proposing an expansion of the NPT (non-Proliferation Treaty ), to include Israel
Israel
and Iran
Iran
; this proposal was due to increasing hostilities and destruction in the Middle-East connected to the Syrian Conflict as well as others. All members of the Security Council are signatory to the NPT.

ROLE

UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS

SOURCES: UN Security Council · UNBISnet · Wikisource
Wikisource

1 to 100 (1946–1953)

101 to 200 (1953–1965)

201 to 300 (1965–1971)

301 to 400 (1971–1976)

401 to 500 (1976–1982)

501 to 600 (1982–1987)

601 to 700 (1987–1991)

701 to 800 (1991–1993)

801 to 900 (1993–1994)

901 to 1000 (1994–1995)

1001 to 1100 (1995–1997)

1101 to 1200 (1997–1998)

1201 to 1300 (1998–2000)

1301 to 1400 (2000–2002)

1401 to 1500 (2002–2003)

1501 to 1600 (2003–2005)

1601 to 1700 (2005–2006)

1701 to 1800 (2006–2008)

1801 to 1900 (2008–2009)

1901 to 2000 (2009–2011)

2001 to 2100 (2011–2013)

2101 to 2200 (2013–2015)

2201 to 2300 (2015–2016)

2301 to 2400 (2016–present)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: PORTAL:UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS

The UN's role in international collective security is defined by the UN Charter, which authorizes the Security Council to investigate any situation threatening international peace; recommend procedures for peaceful resolution of a dispute; call upon other member nations to completely or partially interrupt economic relations as well as sea, air, postal, and radio communications, or to sever diplomatic relations; and enforce its decisions militarily, or by any means necessary. The Security Council also recommends the new Secretary-General to the General Assembly and recommends new states for admission as member states of the United Nations
United Nations
. The Security Council has traditionally interpreted its mandate as covering only military security, though US Ambassador Richard Holbrooke controversially persuaded the body to pass a resolution on HIV/AIDS in Africa in 2000.

Under Chapter VI of the Charter, "Pacific Settlement of Disputes", the Security Council "may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute". The Council may "recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment" if it determines that the situation might endanger international peace and security. These recommendations are generally considered to not be binding, as they lack an enforcement mechanism. A minority of scholars, such as Stephen Zunes , have argued that resolutions made under Chapter VI are "still directives by the Security Council and differ only in that they do not have the same stringent enforcement options, such as the use of military force".

Under Chapter VII , the Council has broader power to decide what measures are to be taken in situations involving "threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression". In such situations, the Council is not limited to recommendations but may take action, including the use of armed force "to maintain or restore international peace and security". This was the legal basis for UN armed action in Korea in 1950 during the Korean War
War
and the use of coalition forces in Iraq and Kuwait in 1991 and Libya in 2011. Decisions taken under Chapter VII, such as economic sanctions , are binding on UN members; the Security Council is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions.

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
recognizes that the Security Council has authority to refer cases to the Court in which the Court could not otherwise exercise jurisdiction. The Council exercised this power for the first time in March 2005, when it referred to the Court "the situation prevailing in Darfur
Darfur
since 1 July 2002"; since Sudan is not a party to the Rome Statute, the Court could not otherwise have exercised jurisdiction. The Security Council made its second such referral in February 2011 when it asked the ICC to investigate the Libyan government's violent response to the Libyan Civil War
War
.

Security Council Resolution 1674 , adopted on 28 April 2006, "reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity". The Security Council reaffirmed this responsibility to protect in Resolution 1706 on 31 August of that year. These resolutions commit the Security Council to take action to protect civilians in an armed conflict, including taking action against genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity.

MEMBERS

PERMANENT MEMBERS

Main article: Permanent members of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council See also: China
China
and the United Nations
United Nations
, France
France
and the United Nations
United Nations
, Russia
Russia
and the United Nations
United Nations
, Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United Nations
United Nations
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United Nations
United Nations
, and United States and the United Nations
United Nations

The Security Council's five permanent members, below, have the power to veto any substantive resolution; this allows a permanent member to block adoption of a resolution, but not to prevent or end debate.

COUNTRY REGIONAL GROUP CURRENT STATE REPRESENTATION FORMER STATE REPRESENTATION

China
China
Asia-Pacific People\'s Republic of China
China
(since 1971) Republic of China
China
(1946–49) (on the Mainland ) Republic of China
China
(1949–71) (on Taiwan
Taiwan
)

France
France
Western Europe and Others French Fifth Republic (since 1958) Provisional Government of the French Republic
Provisional Government of the French Republic
(1945–46) French Fourth Republic (1946–58)

Russia
Russia
Eastern Europe Russian Federation (since 1992) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1946–91)

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Western Europe and Others United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (since 1946) —

United States
United States
Western Europe and Others United States
United States
of America (since 1946) —

At the UN's founding in 1945, the five permanent members of the Security Council were the Republic of China
China
, the French Republic , the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the United States
United States
. There have been two major seat changes since then. China\'s seat was originally held by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
's Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
, the Republic of China. However, the Nationalists were forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1949, during the Chinese Civil War
War
. The Communist government assumed control of mainland China
China
, henceforth known as the People's Republic of China. In 1971, General Assembly Resolution 2758 recognized the People's Republic as the rightful representative of China
China
in the UN and gave it the seat on the Security Council that had been held by the Republic of China, which was expelled from the UN altogether with no opportunity of membership as a separate nation. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, the Russian Federation was recognized as the legal successor state of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and maintained the latter's position on the Security Council. Additionally, France
France
reformed its government into the French Fifth Republic in 1958, under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
. France
France
maintained its seat as there was no change in its international status or recognition, although many of its overseas possessions eventually became independent.

The five permanent members of the Security Council were the victorious powers in World War
War
II and have maintained the world's most powerful military forces ever since. They annually topped the list of countries with the highest military expenditures . In 2013, they spent over US$1 trillion combined on defence, accounting for over 55% of global military expenditures (the US alone accounting for over 35%). They are also among the world's largest arms exporters and are the only nations officially recognized as "nuclear-weapon states " under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), though there are other states known or believed to be in possession of nuclear weapons.

Veto Power

Number of resolutions vetoed by each of the five permanent members of the Security Council between 1946 and 2017 Current permanent and other members of UNSC Main article: United Nations Security Council veto power

Under Article 27 of the UN Charter, Security Council decisions on all substantive matters require the affirmative votes of nine members. A negative vote or "veto" by a permanent member prevents adoption of a proposal, even if it has received the required votes. Abstention is not regarded as a veto in most cases, though all five permanent members must actively concur to amend the UN Charter or to recommend the admission of a new UN member state. Procedural matters are not subject to a veto, so the veto cannot be used to avoid discussion of an issue. The same holds for certain decisions that directly regard permanent members. A majority of vetoes are used not in critical international security situations, but for purposes such as blocking a candidate for Secretary-General or the admission of a member state.

In the negotiations building up to the creation of the UN, the veto power was resented by many small countries, and in fact was forced on them by the veto nations – US, UK, China, France
France
and the Soviet Union – through a threat that without the veto there will be no UN. Here is a description by Francis O. Wilcox, an adviser to US delegation to the 1945 conference: "At San Francisco, the issue was made crystal clear by the leaders of the Big Five: it was either the Charter with the veto or no Charter at all. Senator Connally dramatically tore up a copy of the Charter during one of his speeches and reminded the small states that they would be guilty of that same act if they opposed the unanimity principle. "You may, if you wish," he said, "go home from this Conference and say that you have defeated the veto. But what will be your answer when you are asked: 'Where is the Charter'?"

As of 2012, 269 vetoes had been cast since the Security Council's inception. In this period, China
China
(ROC/PRC) used the veto 9 times, France
France
18, USSR/ Russia
Russia
128, the UK 32, and the US 89. Roughly two-thirds of Soviet/Russian vetoes were in the first ten years of the Security Council's existence. Between 1996 and 2012, China
China
vetoed 5 resolutions, Russia
Russia
7, and the US 13, while France
France
and the UK did not use the veto.

An early veto by Soviet Commissar Andrei Vishinsky blocked a resolution on the withdrawal of French forces from the then-colonies of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon in February 1946; this veto established the precedent that permanent members could use the veto on matters outside of immediate concerns of war and peace. The USSR went on to veto matters including the admission of Austria, Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Laos, Libya, Portugal, South Vietnam, and Transjordan as UN member states, delaying their joining by several years. Britain and France
France
used the veto to avoid Security Council condemnation of their actions in the 1956 Suez Crisis. The first veto by the US came in 1970, blocking General Assembly action in Southern Rhodesia . From 1985–90, the US vetoed 27 resolutions, primarily to block resolutions it perceived as anti- Israel
Israel
but also to protect its interests in Panama and Korea. The USSR, US, and China
China
have all vetoed candidates for Secretary-General, with the US using the veto to block the re-election of Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Boutros Boutros-Ghali
in 1996. A chart representing the Security Council seats held by each of the United Nations Regional Groups . The United States, a WEOG observer, is treated as if it were a full member. This is not how the seats are arranged in actual meetings of the Council. African Group Asia-Pacific Group Eastern European Group
Eastern European Group
Group of Latin American and Caribbean States (GRULAC) Western European and Others Group (WEOG)

NON-PERMANENT MEMBERS

See also: List of members of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council ; United Nations
United Nations
Security Council election, 2015 ; and United Nations Security Council election, 2017

Along with the five permanent members, the Security Council has temporary members that hold their seats on a rotating basis by geographic region. Non-permanent members may be involved in global security briefings. In its first two decades, the Security Council had six non-permanent members, the first of which were Australia, Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Poland. In 1965, the number of non-permanent members was expanded to ten.

These ten non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms starting on 1 January, with five replaced each year. To be approved, a candidate must receive at least two-thirds of all votes cast for that seat, which can result in deadlock if there are two roughly evenly matched candidates. In 1979, a standoff between Cuba and Colombia only ended after three months and a record 154 rounds of voting; both eventually withdrew in favour of Mexico as a compromise candidate. A retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election.

The African Group is represented by three members; the Latin America and the Caribbean , Asia-Pacific, and Western European and Others groups by two apiece; and the Eastern European Group
Eastern European Group
by one. Traditionally, one of the seats assigned to either the Asia-Pacific Group or the African Group is filled by a nation from the Arab world
Arab world
. Currently, elections for terms beginning in even-numbered years select two African members, and one each within Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Terms beginning in odd-numbered years consist of two Western European and Other members, and one each from Asia-Pacific, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

The current elected members, with the regions they were elected to represent, are as follows:

TERM AFRICA ASIA-PACIFIC Latin America and Caribbean Western Europe and Other EASTERN EUROPE

2016 Egypt
Egypt
Senegal
Senegal

Japan
Japan

Uruguay
Uruguay

Ukraine
Ukraine

2017 Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Bolivia
Bolivia
Sweden
Sweden
Italy
Italy

2018

Netherlands
Netherlands

The 2017–18 term will be the first time in over five decades that two members have agreed to split a term; intractable deadlocks have instead usually been resolved by the candidate countries withdrawing in favour of a third member state.

PRESIDENT

Main article: President of the United Nations Security Council
President of the United Nations Security Council

The role of president of the Security Council involves setting the agenda, presiding at its meetings and overseeing any crisis. The president is authorized to issue both presidential statements (subject to consensus among Council members) and notes, which are used to make declarations of intent that the full Security Council can then pursue. The presidency of the Council is held by each of the members in turn for one month, following the English alphabetical order of the Member States names.

The list of nations that will hold the Presidency in 2017 is as follows:

Security Council Presidency in 2017 COUNTRY MONTH

Sweden
Sweden
January

Ukraine
Ukraine
February

UK March

USA April

Uruguay
Uruguay
May

Bolivia
Bolivia
June

China
China
July

Egypt
Egypt
August

Ethiopia
Ethiopia
September

France
France
October

Italy
Italy
November

Japan
Japan
December

MEETING LOCATIONS

US President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
chairs a United Nations
United Nations
Security Council meeting

Unlike the General Assembly, the Security Council meets year-round. Each Security Council member must have a representative available at UN Headquarters at all times in case an emergency meeting becomes necessary.

The Security Council generally meets in a designated chamber in the United Nations
United Nations
Conference Building in New York City, U.S. The chamber was designed by the Norwegian architect Arnstein Arneberg
Arnstein Arneberg
and was a gift from Norway. The mural painted by the Norwegian artist Per Krohg depicts a phoenix rising from its ashes, symbolic of the world's rebirth after World War
War
II.

The Security Council has also held meetings in cities including Addis Ababa , Ethiopia; Panama City
Panama City
, Panama; and Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland. In March 2010, the Security Council moved into a temporary facility in the General Assembly Building as its chamber underwent renovations as part of the UN Capital Master Plan. The renovations were funded by Norway, the chamber's original donor, for a total cost of US$5 million. The chamber reopened on 16 April 2013.

CONSULTATION ROOM

Because meetings in the Security Council Chamber are covered by the international press, proceedings are highly theatrical in nature. Delegates deliver speeches to claim their points and justify their positions and attack their opponents, playing to the cameras and the audience at home. Delegations also stage walkouts to express their disagreement with actions of the Security Council. All of the real work of the Security Council is done behind closed doors in "informal consultations." No formal record is kept of the informal consultations.

In 1978, the West German government funded the construction of a conference room next to the Security Council Chamber. Only members of the Security Council are permitted in the conference room for consultations. The press is not admitted, and other members of the United Nations
United Nations
cannot be invited into the consultations. As a result, the delegations can negotiate with each other in secret, striking deals and compromises without having their every word transcribed into the permanent record. The privacy of the conference room also makes it possible for the delegates to deal with each other in a friendly manner. In one early consultation, a new delegate from a Communist nation began a propaganda attack on the United States, only to be told by the Soviet delegate, "We don't talk that way in here."

By the time a resolution reaches the Security Council Chamber, it has already been discussed, debated, and amended in the consultations. The open meeting of the Security Council has become a public ratification of a decision that has already been reached in private. A permanent member can cast a "pocket veto" during the informal consultation by declaring its opposition to a measure. Since a veto would prevent the resolution from being passed, the sponsor will usually refrain from putting the resolution to a vote. Resolutions are only vetoed if the sponsor feels so strongly about a measure that it wishes to force the permanent member to cast a formal veto.

The Security Council holds far more consultations than public meetings. In 2012, the Security Council held 160 consultations, 16 private meetings, and 9 public meetings. In times of crisis, the Security Council still meets primarily in consultations, but it also holds more public meetings. After the outbreak of the Ukraine
Ukraine
crisis in 2013, the Security Council returned to the patterns of the Cold War, as Russia
Russia
and the Western countries engaged in verbal duels in front of the television cameras. In 2016, the Security Council held 150 consultations, 19 private meetings, and 68 public meetings.

SUBSIDIARY ORGANS/BODIES

Article 29 of the Charter provides that the Security Council can establish subsidiary bodies in order to perform its functions. This authority is also reflected in Rule 28 of the Provisional Rules of Procedure. The subsidiary bodies established by the Security Council are extremely heterogenous. On the one hand, they include bodies such as the Security Council Committee on Admission of New Members. On the other hand, both the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda were also created as subsidiary bodies of the Security Council. The by now numerous Sanctions Committees (see Category: United Nations
United Nations
Security Council sanctions regimes ) established in order to oversee implementation of the various sanctions regimes are also subsidiary bodies of the Council.

UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPERS

Main articles: United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping and List of United Nations peacekeeping missions

After approval by the Security Council, the UN may send peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states. These soldiers are sometimes nicknamed "Blue Helmets" for their distinctive gear. The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1988. Bolivian "Blue Helmet " at an exercise in Chile

In September 2013, the UN had 116,837 peacekeeping soldiers and other personnel deployed on 15 missions. The largest was the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), which included 20,688 uniformed personnel. The smallest, United Nations
United Nations
Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), included 42 uniformed personnel responsible for monitoring the ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
. Peacekeepers with the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) have been stationed in the Middle East since 1948, the longest-running active peacekeeping mission.

UN peacekeepers have also drawn criticism in several postings. Peacekeepers have been accused of child rape, soliciting prostitutes, or sexual abuse during various peacekeeping missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Liberia, Sudan and what is now South Sudan, Burundi and Ivory Coast. Scientists cited UN peacekeepers from Nepal as the likely source of the 2010–13 Haiti cholera outbreak , which killed more than 8,000 Haitians following the 2010 Haiti earthquake .

The budget for peacekeeping is assessed separately from the main UN organisational budget; in the 2013–2014 fiscal year, peacekeeping expenditures totalled $7.54 billion. UN peace operations are funded by assessments, using a formula derived from the regular funding scale, but including a weighted surcharge for the five permanent Security Council members. This surcharge serves to offset discounted peacekeeping assessment rates for less developed countries. In 2013, the top 10 providers of assessed financial contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations were the US (28.38%), Japan
Japan
(10.83%), France
France
(7.22%), Germany (7.14%), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(6.68%), China (6.64%), Italy
Italy
(4.45%), Russian Federation (3.15%), Canada (2.98%), and Spain (2.97%).

CRITICISM AND EVALUATIONS

Main article: Criticism of the United Nations
United Nations

In examining the first sixty years of the Security Council's existence, British historian Paul Kennedy concludes that "glaring failures had not only accompanied the UN's many achievements, they overshadowed them", identifying the lack of will to prevent ethnic massacres in Bosnia and Rwanda as particular failures. Kennedy attributes the failures to the UN's lack of reliable military resources, writing that "above all, one can conclude that the practice of announcing (through a Security Council resolution) a new peacekeeping mission without ensuring that sufficient armed forces will be available has usually proven to be a recipe for humiliation and disaster."

A 2005 RAND Corporation study found the UN to be successful in two out of three peacekeeping efforts. It compared UN nation-building efforts to those of the United States, and found that seven out of eight UN cases are at peace. Also in 2005, the Human Security Report documented a decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights abuses since the end of the Cold War, and presented evidence, albeit circumstantial, that international activism—mostly spearheaded by the UN—has been the main cause of the decline in armed conflict since the end of the Cold War.

Scholar Sudhir Chella Rajan argued in 2006 that the five permanent members of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, who are all nuclear powers, have created an exclusive nuclear club that predominately addresses the strategic interests and political motives of the permanent members—for example, protecting the oil-rich Kuwaitis in 1991 but poorly protecting resource-poor Rwandans in 1994. Since three of the five permanent members are also European, and three or four are predominantly white Western nations, the Security Council has been described as a pillar of global apartheid by Titus Alexander , former Chair of Westminster United Nations
United Nations
Association.

The Security Council's effectiveness and relevance is questioned by some because, in most high-profile cases, there are essentially no consequences for violating a Security Council resolution. During the Darfur
Darfur
crisis , Janjaweed militias, allowed by elements of the Sudanese government, committed violence against an indigenous population, killing thousands of civilians. In the Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre , Serbian troops committed genocide against Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, although Srebrenica
Srebrenica
had been declared a UN safe area , protected by 400 armed Dutch peacekeepers.

The UN Charter gives all three powers of the legislative , executive, and judiciary branches to the Security Council.

In his inaugural speech at the 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in August 2012, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei criticized the United Nations Security Council as having an "illogical, unjust and completely undemocratic structure and mechanism" and called for a complete reform of the body.

The Security Council has been criticized for failure in resolving many conflicts, including Cyprus, Sri Lanka, Syria, Kosovo and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
, reflecting the wider short-comings of the UN. For example; At the 68th Session of the UN General Assembly, New Zealand Prime Minister John Key heavily criticized the UN's inaction on Syria
Syria
, more than two years after the Syrian civil war began.

MEMBERSHIP REFORM

Main article: Reform of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council The G4 nations
G4 nations
: Brazil, Germany, India, Japan. Uniting for Consensus core members Countries that explicitly and openly support India for UNSC permanent seat. India Support by UN Members

Proposals to reform the Security Council began with the conference that wrote the UN Charter and have continued to the present day. As British historian Paul Kennedy writes, "Everyone agrees that the present structure is flawed. But consensus on how to fix it remains out of reach."

There has been discussion of increasing the number of permanent members. The countries who have made the strongest demands for permanent seats are Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan. Japan
Japan
and Germany, the main defeated powers in WWII, are now the UN's second- and third-largest funders respectively, while Brazil
Brazil
and India are two of the largest contributors of troops to UN-mandated peace-keeping missions.

Italy, the third main defeated power in WWII and now the UN's sixth-largest funder, leads a movement known as the Uniting for Consensus in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats. Core members of the group include Canada, South Korea, Spain, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey, Argentina and Colombia. Their proposal is to create a new category of seats, still non-permanent, but elected for an extended duration (semi-permanent seats). As far as traditional categories of seats are concerned, the UfC proposal does not imply any change, but only the introduction of small and medium size states among groups eligible for regular seats. This proposal includes even the question of veto, giving a range of options that goes from abolition to limitation of the application of the veto only to Chapter VII matters.

Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
asked a team of advisers to come up with recommendations for reforming the United Nations
United Nations
by the end of 2004. One proposed measure is to increase the number of permanent members by five, which, in most proposals, would include Brazil, Germany, India, Japan
Japan
(known as the G4 nations
G4 nations
), one seat from Africa (most likely between Egypt, Nigeria or South Africa) and/or one seat from the Arab League
Arab League
. On 21 September 2004, the G4 nations issued a joint statement mutually backing each other's claim to permanent status, together with two African countries. Currently the proposal has to be accepted by two-thirds of the General Assembly (128 votes).

The permanent members, each holding the right of veto, announced their positions on Security Council reform reluctantly. The United States has unequivocally supported the permanent membership of Japan and lent its support to India and a small number of additional non-permanent members. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France
France
essentially supported the G4 position, with the expansion of permanent and non-permanent members and the accession of Germany, Brazil, India and Japan
Japan
to permanent member status, as well as an increase in the presence by African countries on the Council. China
China
has supported the stronger representation of developing countries and firmly opposed Japan's membership.

In 2017, it was reported that the G4 nations
G4 nations
were willing to temporarily forgo veto power if granted permanent UNSC seat . .

SEE ALSO

* United Nations
United Nations
portal

* Reform of the United Nations
United Nations
* United Nations
United Nations
Department of Political Affairs , provides secretarial support to the Security Council * United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee , a standing committee of the Security Council

NOTES

* ^ This figure and the figures that follow exclude vetoes cast to block candidates for Secretary-General, as these occur in closed session; 43 such vetoes have occurred.

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

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FURTHER READING

* Bailey, Sydney D.; Daws, Sam (1998). The Procedure of the UN Security Council (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-828073-6 . * Bosco, David L. (2009). Five to Rule Them All: The UN Security Council and the Making of the Modern World. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532876-9 . * Cockayne, James; Mikulaschek, Christoph; Perry, Chris (2010). The United Nations
United Nations
Security Council and Civil War: First Insights from a New Dataset. New York: International Peace Institute. Retrieved 8 February 2016. * Grieger, Gisela (2013). Reform of the UN Security Council (PDF). Library of the European Parliament. Retrieved 8 February 2016. * Hannay, David (2008). New World Disorder: The UN after the Cold War
War
– An Insider's View. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-719-1 . * Hurd, Ian (2007). After Anarchy: Legitimacy and Power in the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12866-5 . * Köchler, Hans (1991). The Voting Procedure in the United Nations Security Council: Examining a Normative Contradiction in the UN Charter and its Consequences on International Relations (PDF). Studies in International Relations. 17. Vienna: International Progress Organization. ISBN 978-3-90070410-0 . * Lowe, Vaughan ; Roberts, Adam ; Welsh, Jennifer ; Zaum, Dominik, eds. (2008). The United Nations
United Nations
Security Council and War: The Evolution of Thought and Practice since 1945. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953343-5 . * Malone, David (1998). Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The Case of Haiti, 1990–1997. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829483-2 . * Matheson, Michael J. (2006). Council Unbound: