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The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), UMTS
UMTS
is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA2000
CDMA2000
standard set for networks based on the competing cdmaOne technology. UMTS
UMTS
uses wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators. UMTS
UMTS
specifies a complete network system, which includes the radio access network ( UMTS
UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN), the core network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the authentication of users via SIM (subscriber identity module) cards. The technology described in UMTS
UMTS
is sometimes also referred to as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access
Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access
(FOMA)[1] or 3GSM. Unlike EDGE
EDGE
(IMT Single-Carrier, based on GSM) and CDMA2000
CDMA2000
(IMT Multi-Carrier), UMTS
UMTS
requires new base stations and new frequency allocations.

Contents

1 Features 2 Air interfaces

2.1 W- CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-FDD)

2.1.1 Development 2.1.2 Rationale for W-CDMA 2.1.3 Deployment

2.2 UTRA-TDD

2.2.1 TD- CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-TDD 3.84 Mcps High Chip Rate (HCR)) 2.2.2 TD-S CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps Low Chip Rate (LCR))

2.2.2.1 Objectives 2.2.2.2 Technical highlights 2.2.2.3 History 2.2.2.4 Frequency bands & Deployments

2.2.3 Unlicensed UMTS-TDD 2.2.4 Comparison with UMTS-FDD 2.2.5 Deployment 2.2.6 Competing Standards

3 Radio access network 4 Core network 5 Frequency bands and channel bandwidths

5.1 UARFCN 5.2 Spectrum allocation

6 Interoperability and global roaming

6.1 Handsets and modems

7 Other competing standards 8 Migrating from GSM/ GPRS
GPRS
to UMTS 9 Problems and issues

9.1 Security issues

10 Releases

10.1 Release '99 10.2 Release 4 10.3 Release 5 10.4 Release 6 10.5 Release 7 10.6 Release 8 10.7 Release 9

11 See also 12 References

12.1 Citations 12.2 Bibliography

13 Documentation 14 External links

Features[edit] UMTS
UMTS
supports maximum theoretical data transfer rates of 42 Mbit/s when Evolved HSPA (HSPA+) is implemented in the network.[2] Users in deployed networks can expect a transfer rate of up to 384 kbit/s for Release '99 (R99) handsets (the original UMTS
UMTS
release), and 7.2  Mbit/s for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
(HSDPA) handsets in the downlink connection. These speeds are significantly faster than the 9.6 kbit/s of a single GSM
GSM
error-corrected circuit switched data channel, multiple 9.6 kbit/s channels in High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD) and 14.4 kbit/s for CDMAOne channels. Since 2006, UMTS
UMTS
networks in many countries have been or are in the process of being upgraded with High-Speed Downlink
Downlink
Packet Access (HSDPA), sometimes known as 3.5G. Currently, HSDPA
HSDPA
enables downlink transfer speeds of up to 21 Mbit/s. Work is also progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-Speed Uplink
Uplink
Packet Access (HSUPA). Longer term, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) project plans to move UMTS
UMTS
to 4G speeds of 100 Mbit/s down and 50 Mbit/s up, using a next generation air interface technology based upon orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. The first national consumer UMTS
UMTS
networks launched in 2002 with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. The high data speeds of UMTS
UMTS
are now most often utilised for Internet
Internet
access: experience in Japan
Japan
and elsewhere has shown that user demand for video calls is not high, and telco-provided audio/video content has declined in popularity in favour of high-speed access to the World Wide Web—either directly on a handset or connected to a computer via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth
Bluetooth
or USB.[citation needed] Air interfaces[edit]

UMTS
UMTS
network architecture

UMTS
UMTS
combines three different terrestrial air interfaces, GSM's Mobile Application Part (MAP) core, and the GSM
GSM
family of speech codecs. The air interfaces are called UMTS
UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA).[3] All air interface options are part of ITU's IMT-2000. In the currently most popular variant for cellular mobile telephones, W- CDMA
CDMA
(IMT Direct Spread) is used. Please note that the terms W-CDMA, TD- CDMA
CDMA
and TD-S CDMA
CDMA
are misleading. While they suggest covering just a channel access method (namely a variant of CDMA), they are actually the common names for the whole air interface standards.[4] W- CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-FDD)[edit]

3G sign shown in notification bar on an Android powered smartphone.

UMTS
UMTS
base station on the roof of a building

W- CDMA
CDMA
or W CDMA
CDMA
(Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), along with UMTS-FDD, UTRA-FDD, or IMT-2000 CDMA
CDMA
Direct Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile telecommunications networks. It supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can also carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access.[5] W- CDMA
CDMA
uses the DS- CDMA
CDMA
channel access method with a pair of 5  MHz
MHz
wide channels. In contrast, the competing CDMA2000
CDMA2000
system uses one or more available 1.25  MHz
MHz
channels for each direction of communication. W- CDMA
CDMA
systems are widely criticized for their large spectrum usage, which delayed deployment in countries that acted relatively slowly in allocating new frequencies specifically for 3G services (such as the United States). The specific frequency bands originally defined by the UMTS
UMTS
standard are 1885–2025  MHz
MHz
for the mobile-to-base (uplink) and 2110–2200  MHz
MHz
for the base-to-mobile (downlink). In the US, 1710–1755  MHz
MHz
and 2110–2155  MHz
MHz
are used instead, as the 1900  MHz
MHz
band was already used.[6] While UMTS2100 is the most widely deployed UMTS
UMTS
band, some countries' UMTS
UMTS
operators use the 850  MHz
MHz
and/or 1900  MHz
MHz
bands (independently, meaning uplink and downlink are within the same band), notably in the US by AT&T Mobility, New Zealand
New Zealand
by Telecom New Zealand
Telecom New Zealand
on the XT Mobile Network and in Australia
Australia
by Telstra
Telstra
on the Next G
Next G
network. Some carriers such as T-Mobile use band numbers to identify the UMTS
UMTS
frequencies. For example, Band I (2100 MHz), Band IV (1700/2100 MHz), and Band V (850 MHz). UMTS-FDD
UMTS-FDD
is an acronym for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) - frequency-division duplexing (FDD) and a 3GPP standardized version of UMTS
UMTS
networks that makes use of frequency-division duplexing for duplexing over an UMTS
UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) air interface.[7] W- CDMA
CDMA
is the basis of Japan's NTT DoCoMo's FOMA
FOMA
service and the most-commonly used member of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) family and sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS.[8] It uses the DS- CDMA
CDMA
channel access method and the FDD duplexing method to achieve higher speeds and support more users compared to most previously used time division multiple access (TDMA) and time division duplex (TDD) schemes. While not an evolutionary upgrade on the airside, it uses the same core network as the 2G GSM
GSM
networks deployed worldwide, allowing dual mode mobile operation along with GSM/EDGE; a feature it shares with other members of the UMTS
UMTS
family. Development[edit] In the late 1990s, W- CDMA
CDMA
was developed by NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
as the air interface for their 3G network FOMA. Later NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
submitted the specification to the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) as a candidate for the international 3G standard known as IMT-2000. The ITU eventually accepted W- CDMA
CDMA
as part of the IMT-2000 family of 3G standards, as an alternative to CDMA2000, EDGE, and the short range DECT
DECT
system. Later, W- CDMA
CDMA
was selected as an air interface for UMTS. As NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
did not wait for the finalisation of the 3G Release 99 specification, their network was initially incompatible with UMTS.[9] However, this has been resolved by NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
updating their network. Code Division Multiple Access
Code Division Multiple Access
communication networks have been developed by a number of companies over the years, but development of cell-phone networks based on CDMA
CDMA
(prior to W-CDMA) was dominated by Qualcomm, the first company to succeed in developing a practical and cost-effective CDMA
CDMA
implementation for consumer cell phones and its early IS-95
IS-95
air interface standard has evolved into the current CDMA2000
CDMA2000
(IS-856/IS-2000) standard. Qualcomm
Qualcomm
created an experimental wideband CDMA
CDMA
system called CDMA2000
CDMA2000
3x which unified the W-CDMA (3GPP) and CDMA2000
CDMA2000
(3GPP2) network technologies into a single design for a worldwide standard air interface. Compatibility with CDMA2000 would have beneficially enabled roaming on existing networks beyond Japan, since Qualcomm
Qualcomm
CDMA2000
CDMA2000
networks are widely deployed, especially in the Americas, with coverage in 58 countries as of 2006[update]. However, divergent requirements resulted in the W-CDMA standard being retained and deployed globally. W- CDMA
CDMA
has then become the dominant technology with 457 commercial networks in 178 countries as of April 2012.[10] Several CDMA2000
CDMA2000
operators have even converted their networks to W- CDMA
CDMA
for international roaming compatibility and smooth upgrade path to LTE. Despite incompatibility with existing air-interface standards, late introduction and the high upgrade cost of deploying an all-new transmitter technology, W- CDMA
CDMA
has become the dominant standard. Rationale for W-CDMA[edit] W- CDMA
CDMA
transmits on a pair of 5 MHz-wide radio channels, while CDMA2000
CDMA2000
transmits on one or several pairs of 1.25  MHz
MHz
radio channels. Though W- CDMA
CDMA
does use a direct sequence CDMA
CDMA
transmission technique like CDMA2000, W- CDMA
CDMA
is not simply a wideband version of CDMA2000. The W- CDMA
CDMA
system is a new design by NTT DoCoMo, and it differs in many aspects from CDMA2000. From an engineering point of view, W- CDMA
CDMA
provides a different balance of trade-offs between cost, capacity, performance, and density[citation needed]; it also promises to achieve a benefit of reduced cost for video phone handsets. W-CDMA may also be better suited for deployment in the very dense cities of Europe and Asia. However, hurdles remain, and cross-licensing of patents between Qualcomm
Qualcomm
and W- CDMA
CDMA
vendors has not eliminated possible patent issues due to the features of W- CDMA
CDMA
which remain covered by Qualcomm
Qualcomm
patents.[11] W- CDMA
CDMA
has been developed into a complete set of specifications, a detailed protocol that defines how a mobile phone communicates with the tower, how signals are modulated, how datagrams are structured, and system interfaces are specified allowing free competition on technology elements. Deployment[edit] The world's first commercial W- CDMA
CDMA
service, FOMA, was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan
Japan
in 2001. Elsewhere, W- CDMA
CDMA
deployments are usually marketed under the UMTS brand. W- CDMA
CDMA
has also been adapted for use in satellite communications on the U.S. Mobile User Objective System
Mobile User Objective System
using geosynchronous satellites in place of cell towers. J-Phone
J-Phone
Japan
Japan
(once Vodafone
Vodafone
and now SoftBank Mobile) soon followed by launching their own W- CDMA
CDMA
based service, originally branded "Vodafone Global Standard" and claiming UMTS
UMTS
compatibility. The name of the service was changed to " Vodafone
Vodafone
3G" (now "SoftBank 3G") in December 2004. Beginning in 2003, Hutchison Whampoa
Hutchison Whampoa
gradually launched their upstart UMTS
UMTS
networks. Most countries have, since the ITU
ITU
approved of the 3G mobile service, either "auctioned" the radio frequencies to the company willing to pay the most, or conducted a "beauty contest"—asking the various companies to present what they intend to commit to if awarded the licences. This strategy has been criticised for aiming to drain the cash of operators to the brink of bankruptcy in order to honour their bids or proposals. Most of them have a time constraint for the rollout of the service—where a certain "coverage" must be achieved within a given date or the licence will be revoked. Vodafone
Vodafone
launched several UMTS
UMTS
networks in Europe in February 2004. MobileOne
MobileOne
of Singapore
Singapore
commercially launched its 3G (W-CDMA) services in February 2005. New Zealand
New Zealand
in August 2005 and Australia
Australia
in October 2005. AT&T Wireless (now a part of Cingular
Cingular
Wireless) has deployed UMTS in several cities. Though advancements in its network deployment have been delayed due to the merger with Cingular, Cingular
Cingular
began offering HSDPA
HSDPA
service in December 2005. Rogers in Canada
Canada
March 2007 has launched HSDPA
HSDPA
in the Toronto Golden Horseshoe district on W- CDMA
CDMA
at 850/1900  MHz
MHz
and plan the launch the service commercial in the top 25 cities October, 2007. TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera
opened W- CDMA
CDMA
service in Finland
Finland
October 13, 2004 with speeds up to 384 kbit/s. Availability only in main cities. Pricing is approx. €2/MB.[citation needed] SK Telecom
SK Telecom
and KTF, two largest mobile phone service providers in South Korea, have each started offering W- CDMA
CDMA
service in December 2003. Due to poor coverage and lack of choice in handhelds, the W-CDMA service has barely made a dent in the Korean market which was dominated by CDMA2000. By October 2006 both companies are covering more than 90 cities while SK Telecom
SK Telecom
has announced that it will provide nationwide coverage for its W CDMA
CDMA
network in order for it to offer SBSM (Single Band Single Mode) handsets by the first half of 2007. KT Freecel will thus cut funding to its CDMA2000
CDMA2000
network development to the minimum. In Norway, Telenor
Telenor
introduced W- CDMA
CDMA
in major cities by the end of 2004, while their competitor, NetCom, followed suit a few months later. Both operators have 98% national coverage on EDGE, but Telenor has parallel WLAN roaming networks on GSM, where the UMTS
UMTS
service is competing with this. For this reason Telenor
Telenor
is dropping support of their WLAN service in Austria (2006). Maxis Communications
Maxis Communications
and Celcom, two mobile phone service providers in Malaysia, started offering W- CDMA
CDMA
services in 2005. In Sweden, Telia introduced W- CDMA
CDMA
March 2004. UTRA-TDD[edit] UMTS-TDD, an acronym for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) - time-division duplexing (TDD), is a 3GPP standardized version of UMTS
UMTS
networks that use UTRA-TDD.[7] UTRA-TDD is a UTRA
UTRA
that uses time-division duplexing for duplexing.[7] While a full implementation of UMTS, it is mainly used to provide Internet
Internet
access in circumstances similar to those where WiMAX
WiMAX
might be used.[citation needed] UMTS-TDD is not directly compatible with UMTS-FDD: a device designed to use one standard cannot, unless specifically designed to, work on the other, because of the difference in air interface technologies and frequencies used.[citation needed] It is more formally as IMT-2000 CDMA-TDD or IMT 2000 Time-Division (IMT-TD).[12][13] The two UMTS
UMTS
air interfaces (UTRAs) for UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
are TD- CDMA
CDMA
and TD-SCDMA. Both air interfaces use a combination of two channel access methods, code division multiple access (CDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA): the frequency band is divided into time slots (TDMA), which are further divided into channels using CDMA
CDMA
spreading codes. These air interfaces are classified as TDD, because time slots can be allocated to either uplink or downlink traffic. TD- CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-TDD 3.84 Mcps High Chip Rate (HCR))[edit] TD-CDMA, an acronym for Time-division-Code division multiple access, is a channel access method based on using spread spectrum multiple access (CDMA) across multiple time slots (TDMA). TD- CDMA
CDMA
is the channel access method for UTRA-TDD HCR, which is an acronym for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access-Time Division Duplex High Chip Rate.[12] UMTS-TDD's air interfaces that use the TD- CDMA
CDMA
channel access technique are standardized as UTRA-TDD HCR, which uses increments of 5  MHz
MHz
of spectrum, each slice divided into 10 ms frames containing fifteen time slots (1500 per second).[12] The time slots (TS) are allocated in fixed percentage for downlink and uplink. TD- CDMA
CDMA
is used to multiplex streams from or to multiple transceivers. Unlike W-CDMA, it does not need separate frequency bands for up- and downstream, allowing deployment in tight frequency bands.[14] TD- CDMA
CDMA
is a part of IMT-2000, defined as IMT-TD Time-Division (IMT CDMA
CDMA
TDD), and is one of the three UMTS
UMTS
air interfaces (UTRAs), as standardized by the 3GPP in UTRA-TDD HCR. UTRA-TDD HCR is closely related to W-CDMA, and provides the same types of channels where possible. UMTS's HSDPA/ HSUPA
HSUPA
enhancements are also implemented under TD-CDMA.[15] In the United States, the technology have been used for public safety and government use in the New York City
New York City
and a few other area.[16] In Japan, IPMobile planned to provide TD- CDMA
CDMA
service in year 2006, but it was delayed, changed to TD-SCDMA, and bankrupt before the service officially started. TD-S CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps Low Chip Rate (LCR))[edit] Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access
Code Division Multiple Access
(TD-SCDMA) or UTRA
UTRA
TDD 1.28 mcps low chip rate (UTRA-TDD LCR)[13][4] is an air interface[13] found in UMTS
UMTS
mobile telecommunications networks in China
China
as an alternative to W-CDMA. TD-S CDMA
CDMA
uses the TDMA channel access method combined with an adaptive synchronous CDMA
CDMA
component[13] on 1.6  MHz
MHz
slices of spectrum, allowing deployment in even tighter frequency bands than TD-CDMA. It is standardized by the 3GPP and also referred to as "UTRA-TDD LCR". However, the main incentive for development of this Chinese-developed standard was avoiding or reducing the license fees that have to be paid to non-Chinese patent owners. Unlike the other air interfaces, TD-S CDMA
CDMA
was not part of UMTS
UMTS
from the beginning but has been added in Release 4 of the specification. Like TD-CDMA, TD-S CDMA
CDMA
is known as IMT CDMA
CDMA
TDD within IMT-2000. The term "TD-SCDMA" is misleading. While it suggests covering only a channel access method, it is actually the common name for the whole air interface specification.[4] TD-S CDMA
CDMA
/ UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
(LCR) networks are incompatible with W- CDMA
CDMA
/ UMTS-FDD
UMTS-FDD
and TD- CDMA
CDMA
/ UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
(HCR) networks. Objectives[edit] TD-S CDMA
CDMA
was developed in the People's Republic of China
China
by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT), Datang Telecom, and Siemens AG
Siemens AG
in an attempt to avoid dependence on Western technology. This is likely primarily for practical reasons, since other 3G formats require the payment of patent fees to a large number of Western patent holders. TD-S CDMA
CDMA
proponents also claim it is better suited for densely populated areas.[13] Further, it is supposed to cover all usage scenarios, whereas W- CDMA
CDMA
is optimised for symmetric traffic and macro cells, while TD- CDMA
CDMA
is best used in low mobility scenarios within micro or pico cells.[13] TD-S CDMA
CDMA
is based on spread spectrum technology which makes it unlikely that it will be able to completely escape the payment of license fees to western patent holders. The launch of a national TD-S CDMA
CDMA
network was initially projected by 2005[17] but only reached large scale commercial trials with 60,000 users across eight cities in 2008.[18] On January 7, 2009, China
China
granted a TD-S CDMA
CDMA
3G licence to China Mobile.[19] On September 21, 2009, China Mobile
China Mobile
officially announced that it had 1,327,000 TD-S CDMA
CDMA
subscribers as of the end of August, 2009. While TD is primarily a China-only system, it may well be exported to developing countries. It is likely to be replaced with a newer TD-LTE system over the next 5 years. Technical highlights[edit] TD-S CDMA
CDMA
uses TDD, in contrast to the FDD scheme used by W-CDMA. By dynamically adjusting the number of timeslots used for downlink and uplink, the system can more easily accommodate asymmetric traffic with different data rate requirements on downlink and uplink than FDD schemes. Since it does not require paired spectrum for downlink and uplink, spectrum allocation flexibility is also increased. Using the same carrier frequency for uplink and downlink also means that the channel condition is the same on both directions, and the base station can deduce the downlink channel information from uplink channel estimates, which is helpful to the application of beamforming techniques. TD-S CDMA
CDMA
also uses TDMA in addition to the CDMA
CDMA
used in WCDMA. This reduces the number of users in each timeslot, which reduces the implementation complexity of multiuser detection and beamforming schemes, but the non-continuous transmission also reduces coverage (because of the higher peak power needed), mobility (because of lower power control frequency) and complicates radio resource management algorithms. The "S" in TD-S CDMA
CDMA
stands for "synchronous", which means that uplink signals are synchronized at the base station receiver, achieved by continuous timing adjustments. This reduces the interference between users of the same timeslot using different codes by improving the orthogonality between the codes, therefore increasing system capacity, at the cost of some hardware complexity in achieving uplink synchronization. History[edit] On January 20, 2006, Ministry of Information Industry
Ministry of Information Industry
of the People's Republic of China
China
formally announced that TD-S CDMA
CDMA
is the country's standard of 3G mobile telecommunication. On February 15, 2006, a timeline for deployment of the network in China
China
was announced, stating pre-commercial trials would take place starting after completion of a number of test networks in select cities. These trials ran from March to October, 2006, but the results were apparently unsatisfactory. In early 2007, the Chinese government instructed the dominant cellular carrier, China
China
Mobile, to build commercial trial networks in eight cities, and the two fixed-line carriers, China Telecom
China Telecom
and China Netcom, to build one each in two other cities. Construction of these trial networks was scheduled to finish during the fourth quarter of 2007, but delays meant that construction was not complete until early 2008. The standard has been adopted by 3GPP since Rel-4, known as " UTRA
UTRA
TDD 1.28Mbps Option".[13] On March 28, 2008, China Mobile
China Mobile
Group announced TD-S CDMA
CDMA
"commercial trials" for 60,000 test users in eight cities from April 1, 2008. Networks using other 3G standards (W CDMA
CDMA
and CDMA2000
CDMA2000
EV/DO) had still not been launched in China, as these were delayed until TD-S CDMA
CDMA
was ready for commercial launch. In January 2009 the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) in China
China
took the unusual step of assigning licences for 3 different third-generation mobile phone standards to three carriers in a long-awaited step that is expected to prompt $41 billion in spending on new equipment. The Chinese-developed standard, TD-SCDMA, was assigned to China
China
Mobile, the world's biggest phone carrier by subscribers. That appeared to be an effort to make sure the new system has the financial and technical backing to succeed. Licences for two existing 3G standards, W- CDMA
CDMA
and CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1xEV-DO, were assigned to China
China
Unicom and China
China
Telecom, respectively. Third-generation, or 3G, technology supports Web surfing, wireless video and other services and the start of service is expected to spur new revenue growth. Frequency bands & Deployments[edit] The following is a list of mobile telecommunications networks using third-generation TD-S CDMA
CDMA
/ UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
(LCR) technology.

Operator Country Frequency (MHz) Band Launch date Notes

China
China
Mobile  China 2100 A+ (Band 34) 000000002009-01-01-0000Jan 2009 [20][21][22] (↓↑) 2010  – 2025 MHz Network being phased out in favour of LTE.

China
China
Mobile  China 1900 A- (Band 33) 000000002009-01-01-0000Jan 2009 [20][21][22] (↓↑) 1900  – 1920  MHz
MHz
(Subset of Band 39) Previously used by Xiaolingtong (PHS). Network being phased out in favour of LTE.

none  China 1900 F (Band 39) N/A (↓↑) 1880  – 1920 MHz No deployments, later used for TD-LTE
TD-LTE
instead.

none  China 2300 E (Band 40) N/A (↓↑) 2300  – 2400 MHz No deployments, later used for TD-LTE
TD-LTE
instead.

Xinwei (CooTel)  Nicaragua 1800 N/A 000000002016-04-01-0000Apr 2016 [23][24][25] (↓↑) 1785  – 1805 MHz

Unlicensed UMTS-TDD[edit] In Europe, CEPT allocated the 2010-2020  MHz
MHz
range for a variant of UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
designed for unlicensed, self-provided use.[26] Some telecom groups and jurisdictions have proposed withdrawing this service in favour of licensed UMTS-TDD,[27] due to lack of demand, and lack of development of a UMTS
UMTS
TDD air interface technology suitable for deployment in this band. Comparison with UMTS-FDD[edit] Ordinary UMTS
UMTS
uses UTRA-FDD as an air interface and is known as UMTS-FDD. UMTS-FDD
UMTS-FDD
uses W- CDMA
CDMA
for multiple access and frequency division for duplexing, meaning that the up-link and down-link transmit on different frequencies. UMTS
UMTS
is usually transmitted on frequencies assigned for 1G, 2G, or 3G mobile telephone service in the countries of operation. UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
uses time division duplexing, allowing the up-link and down-link to share the same spectrum. This allows the operator to more flexibly divide the usage of available spectrum according to traffic patterns. For ordinary phone service, you would expect the up-link and down-link to carry approximately equal amounts of data (because every phone call needs a voice transmission in either direction), but Internet-oriented traffic is more frequently one-way. For example, when browsing a website, the user will send commands, which are short, to the server, but the server will send whole files, that are generally larger than those commands, in response. UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
tends to be allocated frequency intended for mobile/wireless Internet
Internet
services rather than used on existing cellular frequencies. This is, in part, because TDD duplexing is not normally allowed on cellular, PCS/PCN, and 3G frequencies. TDD technologies open up the usage of left-over unpaired spectrum. Europe-wide, several bands are provided either specifically for UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
or for similar technologies. These are 1900  MHz
MHz
and 1920  MHz
MHz
and between 2010  MHz
MHz
and 2025 MHz. In several countries the 2500-2690  MHz
MHz
band (also known as MMDS in the USA) have been used for UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
deployments. Additionally, spectrum around the 3.5 GHz range has been allocated in some countries, notably Britain, in a technology-neutral environment. In the Czech Republic UTMS-TDD is also used in a frequency range around 872 MHz.[28] Deployment[edit] UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
has been deployed for public and/or private networks in at least nineteen countries around the world, with live systems in, amongst other countries, Australia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, the UK, and the USA. Deployments in the US thus far have been limited. It has been selected for a public safety support network used by emergency responders in New York,[29] but outside of some experimental systems, notably one from Nextel, thus far the WiMAX
WiMAX
standard appears to have gained greater traction as a general mobile Internet
Internet
access system. Competing Standards[edit] A variety of Internet-access systems exist which provide broadband speed access to the net. These include WiMAX
WiMAX
and HIPERMAN. UMTS-TDD has the advantages of being able to use an operator's existing UMTS/ GSM
GSM
infrastructure, should it have one, and that it includes UMTS modes optimized for circuit switching should, for example, the operator want to offer telephone service. UMTS-TDD's performance is also more consistent. However, UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
deployers often have regulatory problems with taking advantage of some of the services UMTS compatibility provides. For example, UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
spectrum in the UK cannot be used to provide telephone service, though the regulator OFCOM
OFCOM
is discussing the possibility of allowing it at some point in the future. Few operators considering UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
have existing UMTS/GSM infrastructure. Additionally, the WiMAX
WiMAX
and HIPERMAN systems provide significantly larger bandwidths when the mobile station is in close proximity to the tower. Like most mobile Internet
Internet
access systems, many users who might otherwise choose UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
will find their needs covered by the ad hoc collection of unconnected Wifi
Wifi
access points at many restaurants and transportation hubs, and/or by Internet
Internet
access already provided by their mobile phone operator. By comparison, UMTS-TDD
UMTS-TDD
(and systems like WiMAX) offers mobile, and more consistent, access than the former, and generally faster access than the latter. Radio access network[edit] Main article: UTRAN UMTS
UMTS
also specifies the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN), which is composed of multiple base stations, possibly using different terrestrial air interface standards and frequency bands. UMTS
UMTS
and GSM/ EDGE
EDGE
can share a Core Network (CN), making UTRAN
UTRAN
an alternative radio access network to GERAN (GSM/ EDGE
EDGE
RAN), and allowing (mostly) transparent switching between the RANs according to available coverage and service needs. Because of that, UMTS's and GSM/EDGE's radio access networks are sometimes collectively referred to as UTRAN/GERAN. UMTS
UMTS
networks are often combined with GSM/EDGE, the latter of which is also a part of IMT-2000. The UE (User Equipment) interface of the RAN (Radio Access Network) primarily consists of RRC (Radio Resource Control), PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol), RLC (Radio Link Control) and MAC (Media Access Control) protocols. RRC protocol handles connection establishment, measurements, radio bearer services, security and handover decisions. RLC protocol primarily divides into three Modes—Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledge Mode (UM), Acknowledge Mode (AM). The functionality of AM entity resembles TCP operation whereas UM operation resembles UDP operation. In TM mode, data will be sent to lower layers without adding any header to SDU of higher layers. MAC handles the scheduling of data on air interface depending on higher layer (RRC) configured parameters. The set of properties related to data transmission is called Radio Bearer (RB). This set of properties decides the maximum allowed data in a TTI (Transmission Time Interval). RB includes RLC information and RB mapping. RB mapping decides the mapping between RB<->logical channel<->transport channel. Signaling messages are sent on Signaling Radio Bearers (SRBs) and data packets (either CS or PS) are sent on data RBs. RRC and NAS messages go on SRBs. Security includes two procedures: integrity and ciphering. Integrity validates the resource of messages and also makes sure that no one (third/unknown party) on the radio interface has modified the messages. Ciphering ensures that no one listens to your data on the air interface. Both integrity and ciphering are applied for SRBs whereas only ciphering is applied for data RBs. Core network[edit] Main article: Mobile Application Part With Mobile Application Part, UMTS
UMTS
uses the same core network standard as GSM/EDGE. This allows a simple migration for existing GSM operators. However, the migration path to UMTS
UMTS
is still costly: while much of the core infrastructure is shared with GSM, the cost of obtaining new spectrum licenses and overlaying UMTS
UMTS
at existing towers is high. The CN can be connected to various backbone networks, such as the Internet
Internet
or an Integrated Services Digital Network
Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN) telephone network. UMTS
UMTS
(and GERAN) include the three lowest layers of OSI model. The network layer (OSI 3) includes the Radio Resource Management protocol (RRM) that manages the bearer channels between the mobile terminals and the fixed network, including the handovers. Frequency bands and channel bandwidths[edit] UARFCN[edit] A UARFCN (abbreviation for UTRA
UTRA
Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number, where UTRA
UTRA
stands for UMTS
UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access) is used to identify a frequency in the UMTS
UMTS
frequency bands. Typically channel number is derived from the frequency in MHz
MHz
through the formula Channel Number = Frequency * 5. However, this is only able to represent channels that are centered on a multiple of 200 kHz, which do not align with licensing in North America. 3GPP added several special values for the common North American channels. Spectrum allocation[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2013)

Main article: UMTS
UMTS
frequency bands Over 130 licenses have already been awarded to operators worldwide (as of December 2004), specifying W- CDMA
CDMA
radio access technology that builds on GSM. In Europe, the license process occurred at the tail end of the technology bubble, and the auction mechanisms for allocation set up in some countries resulted in some extremely high prices being paid for the original 2100  MHz
MHz
licenses, notably in the UK and Germany. In Germany, bidders paid a total €50.8 billion for six licenses, two of which were subsequently abandoned and written off by their purchasers (Mobilcom and the Sonera/ Telefonica
Telefonica
consortium). It has been suggested that these huge license fees have the character of a very large tax paid on future income expected many years down the road. In any event, the high prices paid put some European telecom operators close to bankruptcy (most notably KPN). Over the last few years some operators have written off some or all of the license costs. Between 2007 and 2009, all three Finnish carriers began to use 900  MHz
MHz
UMTS
UMTS
in a shared arrangement with its surrounding 2G GSM base stations for rural area coverage, a trend that is expected to expand over Europe in the next 1–3 years.[needs update] The 2100  MHz
MHz
band (downlink around 2100  MHz
MHz
and uplink around 1900 MHz) allocated for UMTS
UMTS
in Europe and most of Asia is already used in North America. The 1900  MHz
MHz
range is used for 2G (PCS) services, and 2100  MHz
MHz
range is used for satellite communications. Regulators have, however, freed up some of the 2100  MHz
MHz
range for 3G services, together with a different range around 1700  MHz
MHz
for the uplink. AT&T Wireless launched UMTS
UMTS
services in the United States by the end of 2004 strictly using the existing 1900  MHz
MHz
spectrum allocated for 2G PCS services. Cingular
Cingular
acquired AT&T Wireless in 2004 and has since then launched UMTS
UMTS
in select US cities. Cingular renamed itself AT&T Mobility and rolled out[30] some cities with a UMTS
UMTS
network at 850  MHz
MHz
to enhance its existing UMTS
UMTS
network at 1900  MHz
MHz
and now offers subscribers a number of dual-band UMTS 850/1900 phones. T-Mobile's rollout of UMTS
UMTS
in the US was originally focused on the 1700  MHz
MHz
band. However, T-Mobile has been moving users from 1700  MHz
MHz
to 1900  MHz
MHz
(PCS) in order to reallocate the spectrum to 4G LTE services.[31] In Canada, UMTS
UMTS
coverage is being provided on the 850  MHz
MHz
and 1900  MHz
MHz
bands on the Rogers and Bell-Telus networks. Bell and Telus share the network. Recently, new providers Wind Mobile, Mobilicity
Mobilicity
and Videotron
Videotron
have begun operations in the 1700 MHz band. In 2008, Australian telco Telstra
Telstra
replaced its existing CDMA
CDMA
network with a national UMTS-based 3G network, branded as NextG, operating in the 850  MHz
MHz
band. Telstra
Telstra
currently provides UMTS
UMTS
service on this network, and also on the 2100  MHz
MHz
UMTS
UMTS
network, through a co-ownership of the owning and administrating company 3GIS. This company is also co-owned by Hutchison 3G
Hutchison 3G
Australia, and this is the primary network used by their customers. Optus
Optus
is currently rolling out a 3G network operating on the 2100  MHz
MHz
band in cities and most large towns, and the 900  MHz
MHz
band in regional areas. Vodafone
Vodafone
is also building a 3G network using the 900  MHz
MHz
band. In India, BSNL
BSNL
has started its 3G services since October 2009, beginning with the larger cities and then expanding over to smaller cities. The 850  MHz
MHz
and 900  MHz
MHz
bands provide greater coverage compared to equivalent 1700/1900/2100  MHz
MHz
networks, and are best suited to regional areas where greater distances separate base station and subscriber. Carriers in South America are now also rolling out 850 MHz networks. Interoperability and global roaming[edit] UMTS
UMTS
phones (and data cards) are highly portable—they have been designed to roam easily onto other UMTS
UMTS
networks (if the providers have roaming agreements in place). In addition, almost all UMTS
UMTS
phones are UMTS/ GSM
GSM
dual-mode devices, so if a UMTS
UMTS
phone travels outside of UMTS
UMTS
coverage during a call the call may be transparently handed off to available GSM
GSM
coverage. Roaming
Roaming
charges are usually significantly higher than regular usage charges. Most UMTS
UMTS
licensees consider ubiquitous, transparent global roaming an important issue. To enable a high degree of interoperability, UMTS phones usually support several different frequencies in addition to their GSM
GSM
fallback. Different countries support different UMTS frequency bands – Europe initially used 2100  MHz
MHz
while the most carriers in the USA use 850  MHz
MHz
and 1900 MHz. T-Mobile has launched a network in the US operating at 1700  MHz
MHz
(uplink) /2100  MHz
MHz
(downlink), and these bands also have been adopted elsewhere in the US and in Canada
Canada
and Latin America. A UMTS
UMTS
phone and network must support a common frequency to work together. Because of the frequencies used, early models of UMTS
UMTS
phones designated for the United States will likely not be operable elsewhere and vice versa. There are now 11 different frequency combinations used around the world—including frequencies formerly used solely for 2G services. UMTS
UMTS
phones can use a Universal Subscriber Identity Module, USIM (based on GSM's SIM) and also work (including UMTS
UMTS
services) with GSM SIM cards. This is a global standard of identification, and enables a network to identify and authenticate the (U)SIM in the phone. Roaming agreements between networks allow for calls to a customer to be redirected to them while roaming and determine the services (and prices) available to the user. In addition to user subscriber information and authentication information, the (U)SIM provides storage space for phone book contact. Handsets can store their data on their own memory or on the (U)SIM card (which is usually more limited in its phone book contact information). A (U)SIM can be moved to another UMTS
UMTS
or GSM
GSM
phone, and the phone will take on the user details of the (U)SIM, meaning it is the (U)SIM (not the phone) which determines the phone number of the phone and the billing for calls made from the phone. Japan
Japan
was the first country to adopt 3G technologies, and since they had not used GSM
GSM
previously they had no need to build GSM compatibility into their handsets and their 3G handsets were smaller than those available elsewhere. In 2002, NTT DoCoMo's FOMA
FOMA
3G network was the first commercial UMTS
UMTS
network—using a pre-release specification,[32] it was initially incompatible with the UMTS standard at the radio level but used standard USIM cards, meaning USIM card based roaming was possible (transferring the USIM card into a UMTS
UMTS
or GSM
GSM
phone when travelling). Both NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
and SoftBank Mobile (which launched 3G in December 2002) now use standard UMTS. Handsets and modems[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2015)

The Nokia 6650, an early (2003) UMTS
UMTS
handset

All of the major 2G phone manufacturers (that are still in business) are now manufacturers of 3G phones. The early 3G handsets and modems were specific to the frequencies required in their country, which meant they could only roam to other countries on the same 3G frequency (though they can fall back to the older GSM
GSM
standard). Canada
Canada
and USA have a common share of frequencies, as do most European countries. The article UMTS frequency bands is an overview of UMTS
UMTS
network frequencies around the world. Using a cellular router, PCMCIA or USB
USB
card, customers are able to access 3G broadband services, regardless of their choice of computer (such as a tablet PC or a PDA). Some software installs itself from the modem, so that in some cases absolutely no knowledge of technology is required to get online in moments. Using a phone that supports 3G and Bluetooth
Bluetooth
2.0, multiple Bluetooth-capable laptops can be connected to the Internet. Some smartphones can also act as a mobile WLAN access point. There are very few 3G phones or modems available supporting all 3G frequencies (UMTS850/900/1700/1900/2100 MHz). Nokia has recently released a range of phones that have Pentaband 3G coverage, including the N8 and E7. Many other phones are offering more than one band which still enables extensive roaming. For example, Apple's iPhone 4 contains a quadband chipset operating on 850/900/1900/2100 MHz, allowing usage in the majority of countries where UMTS-FDD
UMTS-FDD
is deployed. Other competing standards[edit] The main competitor to UMTS
UMTS
is CDMA2000
CDMA2000
(IMT-MC), which is developed by the 3GPP2. Unlike UMTS, CDMA2000
CDMA2000
is an evolutionary upgrade to an existing 2G standard, cdmaOne, and is able to operate within the same frequency allocations. This and CDMA2000's narrower bandwidth requirements make it easier to deploy in existing spectra. In some, but not all, cases, existing GSM
GSM
operators only have enough spectrum to implement either UMTS
UMTS
or GSM, not both. For example, in the US D, E, and F PCS spectrum blocks, the amount of spectrum available is 5  MHz
MHz
in each direction. A standard UMTS
UMTS
system would saturate that spectrum. Where CDMA2000
CDMA2000
is deployed, it usually co-exists with UMTS. In many markets however, the co-existence issue is of little relevance, as legislative hurdles exist to co-deploying two standards in the same licensed slice of spectrum. Another competitor to UMTS
UMTS
is EDGE
EDGE
(IMT-SC), which is an evolutionary upgrade to the 2G GSM
GSM
system, leveraging existing GSM
GSM
spectrums. It is also much easier, quicker, and considerably cheaper for wireless carriers to "bolt-on" EDGE
EDGE
functionality by upgrading their existing GSM
GSM
transmission hardware to support EDGE
EDGE
rather than having to install almost all brand-new equipment to deliver UMTS. However, being developed by 3GPP just as UMTS, EDGE
EDGE
is not a true competitor. Instead, it is used as a temporary solution preceding UMTS
UMTS
roll-out or as a complement for rural areas. This is facilitated by the fact that GSM/ EDGE
EDGE
and UMTS
UMTS
specification are jointly developed and rely on the same core network, allowing dual-mode operation including vertical handovers. China's TD-S CDMA
CDMA
standard is often seen as a competitor, too. TD-SCDMA has been added to UMTS' Release 4 as UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps Low Chip Rate (UTRA-TDD LCR). Unlike TD- CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-TDD 3.84 Mcps High Chip Rate, UTRA-TDD HCR) which complements W- CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-FDD), it is suitable for both micro and macro cells. However, the lack of vendors' support is preventing it from being a real competitor. While DECT
DECT
is technically capable of competing with UMTS
UMTS
and other cellular networks in densely populated, urban areas, it has only been deployed for domestic cordless phones and private in-house networks. All of these competitors have been accepted by ITU
ITU
as part of the IMT-2000 family of 3G standards, along with UMTS-FDD. On the Internet
Internet
access side, competing systems include WiMAX
WiMAX
and Flash-OFDM. Migrating from GSM/ GPRS
GPRS
to UMTS[edit] From a GSM/ GPRS
GPRS
network, the following network elements can be reused:

Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) (vendor dependent) Authentication Center (AUC) Serving GPRS
GPRS
Support Node (SGSN) (vendor dependent) Gateway GPRS
GPRS
Support Node (GGSN)

From a GSM/ GPRS
GPRS
communication radio network, the following elements cannot be reused:

Base station
Base station
controller (BSC) Base transceiver station (BTS)

They can remain in the network and be used in dual network operation where 2G and 3G networks co-exist while network migration and new 3G terminals become available for use in the network. The UMTS
UMTS
network introduces new network elements that function as specified by 3GPP:

Node B
Node B
(base transceiver station) Radio Network Controller
Radio Network Controller
(RNC) Media Gateway (MGW)

The functionality of MSC and SGSN changes when going to UMTS. In a GSM system the MSC handles all the circuit switched operations like connecting A- and B-subscriber through the network. SGSN handles all the packet switched operations and transfers all the data in the network. In UMTS
UMTS
the Media gateway (MGW) take care of all data transfer in both circuit and packet switched networks. MSC and SGSN control MGW operations. The nodes are renamed to MSC-server and GSN-server. Problems and issues[edit] Some countries, including the United States, have allocated spectrum differently from the ITU
ITU
recommendations, so that the standard bands most commonly used for UMTS
UMTS
(UMTS-2100) have not been available.[citation needed] In those countries, alternative bands are used, preventing the interoperability of existing UMTS-2100 equipment, and requiring the design and manufacture of different equipment for the use in these markets. As is the case with GSM900 today[when?], standard UMTS
UMTS
2100  MHz
MHz
equipment will not work in those markets. However, it appears as though UMTS
UMTS
is not suffering as much from handset band compatibility issues as GSM
GSM
did, as many UMTS
UMTS
handsets are multi-band in both UMTS
UMTS
and GSM
GSM
modes. Penta-band (850, 900, 1700, 2100, and 1900  MHz
MHz
bands), quad-band GSM
GSM
(850, 900, 1800, and 1900  MHz
MHz
bands) and tri-band UMTS
UMTS
(850, 1900, and 2100 MHz bands) handsets are becoming more commonplace.[citation needed] In its early days[when?], UMTS
UMTS
had problems in many countries: Overweight handsets with poor battery life were first to arrive on a market highly sensitive to weight and form factor.[citation needed] The Motorola A830, a debut handset on Hutchison's 3 network, weighed more than 200 grams and even featured a detachable camera to reduce handset weight. Another significant issue involved call reliability, related to problems with handover from UMTS
UMTS
to GSM. Customers found their connections being dropped as handovers were possible only in one direction ( UMTS
UMTS
→ GSM), with the handset only changing back to UMTS
UMTS
after hanging up. In most networks around the world this is no longer an issue.[citation needed] Compared to GSM, UMTS
UMTS
networks initially required a higher base station density. For fully-fledged UMTS
UMTS
incorporating video on demand features, one base station needed to be set up every 1–1.5 km (0.62–0.93 mi). This was the case when only the 2100 MHz band was being used, however with the growing use of lower-frequency bands (such as 850 and 900 MHz) this is no longer so. This has led to increasing rollout of the lower-band networks by operators since 2006.[citation needed] Even with current technologies and low-band UMTS, telephony and data over UMTS
UMTS
requires more power than on comparable GSM
GSM
networks. Apple Inc. cited[33] UMTS
UMTS
power consumption as the reason that the first generation iPhone only supported EDGE. Their release of the iPhone 3G quotes talk time on UMTS
UMTS
as half that available when the handset is set to use GSM. Other manufacturers indicate different battery lifetime for UMTS
UMTS
mode compared to GSM
GSM
mode as well. As battery and network technology improve, this issue is diminishing. Security issues[edit] As early as 2008 it was known that carrier networks can be used to surreptitiously gather user location information.[34] In August 2014, the Washington Post reported on widespread marketing of surveillance systems using Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) protocols to locate callers anywhere in the world.[34] In December 2014, news broke that SS7's very own functions can be repurposed for surveillance, because of its lax security, in order to listen to calls in real time or to record encrypted calls and texts for later decryption, or to defraud users and cellular carriers.[35] Deutsche Telekom
Deutsche Telekom
and Vodafone
Vodafone
declared the same day that they had fixed gaps in their networks, but that the problem is global and can only be fixed with a telecommunication system-wide solution.[36] Releases[edit] The evolution of UMTS
UMTS
progresses according to planned releases. Each release is designed to introduce new features and improve upon existing ones. Release '99[edit]

Bearer services 64 kbit/s circuit switch 384 kbit/s packet switched Location services Call service: compatible with Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), based on Universal Subscriber Identity Module
Universal Subscriber Identity Module
(USIM) Voice quality features – Tandem Free Operation Frequency 2.1 GHz

Release 4[edit]

Edge radio Multimedia messaging MExE (Mobile Execution Environment) Improved location services IP Multimedia Services (IMS) TD-S CDMA
CDMA
(UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps low chip rate)

Release 5[edit]

IP Multimedia Subsystem
IP Multimedia Subsystem
(IMS) IPv6, IP transport in UTRAN Improvements in GERAN, MExE, etc. HSDPA

Release 6[edit]

WLAN integration Multimedia broadcast and multicast Improvements in IMS HSUPA Fractional DPCH

Release 7[edit]

Enhanced L2 64 QAM, MIMO Voice over HSPA CPC – continuous packet connectivity FRLC – Flexible RLC

Release 8[edit]

Dual-Cell HSDPA

Release 9[edit]

Dual-Cell HSUPA

See also[edit]

List of Deployed UMTS
UMTS
networks 3GPP: the body that manages the UMTS
UMTS
standard. 3GPP Long Term Evolution, the 3GPP project to evolve UMTS
UMTS
towards 4G capabilities. GAN/UMA: A standard for running GSM
GSM
and UMTS
UMTS
over wireless LANs. Opportunity Driven Multiple Access, ODMA: a UMTS
UMTS
TDD mode communications relaying protocol HSDPA, HSUPA: updates to the W- CDMA
CDMA
air interface. PDCP Subscriber Identity Module UMTS-TDD: a variant of UMTS
UMTS
largely used to provide wireless Internet service. UMTS
UMTS
frequency bands UMTS
UMTS
channels W-CDMA: the primary air interface standard used by UMTS. W- CDMA
CDMA
2100 TD-SCDMA

Other, non-UMTS, 3G and 4G standards

CDMA2000: evolved from cdmaOne (also known as IS-95
IS-95
or "CDMA"), managed by the 3GPP2 FOMA WiMAX GSM GPRS EDGE ETSI

Other information

3G, 4G, IMT-2000 Cellular frequencies CDMA Comparison of wireless data standards DECT Dynamic TDMA Evolution-Data Optimized/CDMA2000 FOMA GSM/EDGE HSPA PN sequences Spectral efficiency comparison table UMTS
UMTS
frequency bands WiMAX Telecommunications industry in China Communications in China Standardization in China Mobile modem Spectral efficiency comparison table Code Division Multiple Access
Code Division Multiple Access
(CDMA) Common pilot channel or CPICH, a simple synchronisation channel in WCDMA. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is the major issue of multiple antenna research. Wi-Fi: a local area wireless technology that is complementary to UMTS. List of device bandwidths Operations and Maintenance Centre Radio Network Controller UMTS
UMTS
security Huawei SingleRAN: a RAN technology allowing migration from GSM
GSM
to UMTS or simultaneous use of both

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ "Draft summary minutes, decisions and actions from 3GPP Organizational Partners Meeting#6, Tokyo, 9 October 2001" (PDF). 3GPP. p. 7.  ^ Tindal, Suzanne (8 December 2008). " Telstra
Telstra
boosts Next G
Next G
to 21Mbps". ZDNet Australia. Retrieved 2009-03-16.  ^ "3G Glossary – UTRA". 3GNewsroom.com. 2003-11-29. Archived from the original on 2011-04-06.  ^ a b c ITU-D Study Group 2. "Guidelines on the smooth transition of existing mobile networks to IMT-2000 for developing countries (GST); Report on Question 18/2" (PDF). pp. 4, 25–28. Retrieved 2009-06-15.  ^ "What is 3G/WCDMA?". GSMA.com. Retrieved 2014-06-24.  ^ The FCC's Advanced Wireless Services bandplan ^ a b c 3GPP. "TS 25.201". Retrieved 2009-02-23.  ^ 3GPP notes that “there currently existed many different names for the same system (eg FOMA, W-CDMA, UMTS, etc)”; 3GPP. "Draft summary minutes, decisions and actions from 3GPP Organizational Partners Meeting#6, Tokyo, 9 October 2001" (PDF). p. 7.  ^ Hsiao-Hwa Chen (2007), The Next Generation CDMA
CDMA
Technologies, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 105–106, ISBN 978-0-470-02294-8  ^ " GSM
GSM
Association HSPA Market update April 2012".  ^ " Qualcomm
Qualcomm
says it doesn't need Nokia patents".  ^ a b c Forkel; et al. (2002). "Performance Comparison Between UTRA-TDD High Chip Rate And Low Chip Rate Operation". Retrieved 2009-02-16.  ^ a b c d e f g Siemens (2004-06-10). "TD-S CDMA
CDMA
Whitepaper: the Solution for TDD bands" (PDF). TD Forum. pp. 6–9. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2014-03-30. Retrieved 2009-06-15.  ^ " UMTS
UMTS
World TD- CDMA
CDMA
information". umtsworld.com. Retrieved 2008-02-28.  ^ "IPWireless Ships First Commercial 3GPP Chipset with Full HSDPA Implementation". ipwireless.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2008-02-28.  ^ "IPWireless introduces TD- CDMA
CDMA
Network in a Box targeting rural operators, public safety - FierceWireless". www.fiercewireless.com.  ^ 3G in China
China
still held up, EE Times Asia, Global Sources ^ China Mobile
China Mobile
to Test Td-scdma on 60,000 Phones from April 1,, Cellular News ^ China
China
issues 3G licences to main carriers The Reuters UK ^ a b " China Mobile
China Mobile
Said to Begin Closing Its 3G Base Stations". CaixinOnline. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ a b " China
China
Mobile's Dead End on the 3G Highway". CaixinOnline. 2014-12-15. Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ a b " China Mobile
China Mobile
Announces Commercial Deployment of TD-SCDMA Technology". Spreadtrum Communications, Inc. 2008-03-28. Retrieved 2014-07-17.  ^ "Xinwei belatedly launches as CooTel in Nicaragua". TeleGeography. 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2016-04-29.  ^ "Xinwei finally stages user trials; will trade under CooTel brand". TeleGeography. 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2016-01-20.  ^ "Xinwei outlines November launch plan for Nicaragua". TeleGeography. 2015-10-14. Retrieved 2015-10-14.  ^ "ERC/DEC/(99)25 EU Recommendation on UMTS
UMTS
TDD" (PDF). ero.dk. Retrieved 2008-02-28.  ^ "Award_of_available_spectrum:_2500-2690_MHz,_2010-2025_MHz_and_2290-2300_MHz" (PDF). ofcom.org.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-02-28.  ^ "T-Mobile launches UMTS
UMTS
TDD network in the Czech Republic". 21 June 2005.  ^ "Northrop Grumman Wins $500 Million New York City
New York City
Broadband Mobile Wireless Contract". ipwireless.com. Retrieved 2008-02-28.  ^ Vries, Lloyd. "From AT&T To Cingular
Cingular
And Back Again". CBS News. Retrieved 30 June 2017.  ^ "T-Mobile shifting 1700  MHz
MHz
HSPA+ users to 1900  MHz
MHz
band". TeleGeography. 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2016-04-07.  ^ Hsiao-Hwa Chen (2007), The Next Generation CDMA
CDMA
Technologies, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 105–106, ISBN 978-0-470-02294-8  ^ Wingfield, Nick; Sharma, Amol (30 June 2007). "iPhone 'Surfing' On AT&T Network Isn't Fast, Jobs Concedes" – via www.wsj.com.  ^ a b Craig Timberg (24 August 2014). "For sale: Systems that can secretly track where cellphone users go around the globe". Washington Post. Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ Craig Timberg (18 December 2014). "German researchers discover a flaw that could let anyone listen to your cell calls". The Switch- Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ Peter Onneken (18 December 2014). "Sicherheitslücken im UMTS-Netz". Tagesschau (in German). ARD-aktuell / tagesschau.de. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

Martin Sauter: Communication Systems for the Mobile Information Society, John Wiley, September 2006, ISBN 0-470-02676-6 Ahonen and Barrett (editors), Services for UMTS
UMTS
(Wiley, 2002) first book on the services for 3G, ISBN 978-0-471-48550-6 Holma and Toskala (editors), W CDMA
CDMA
for UMTS, (Wiley, 2000) first book dedicated to 3G technology, ISBN 978-0-471-72051-5 Kreher and Ruedebusch, UMTS
UMTS
Signaling: UMTS
UMTS
Interfaces, Protocols, Message Flows and Procedures Analyzed and Explained (Wiley 2007), ISBN 978-0-470-06533-4 Laiho, Wacker and Novosad, Radio Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS
UMTS
(Wiley, 2002) first book on radio network planning for 3G, ISBN 978-0-470-01575-9 Muratore, Flavio. UMTS: mobile communications for the future. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000. ISBN 978-0-471-49829-2.

Documentation[edit]

3GPP specification series 25—Radio aspects of 3G, including UMTS TS 25.201 Physical Layer - General Description - Describes basic differences between FDD and TDD. TS 25.211 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (FDD) TS 25.221 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (TDD) TS 25.212 Multiplexing
Multiplexing
and channel coding (FDD) TS 25.222 Multiplexing
Multiplexing
and channel coding (TDD) TS 25.213 Spreading and modulation (FDD) TS 25.223 Spreading and modulation (TDD) TS 25.214 Physical layer procedures (FDD) TS 25.224 Physical layer procedures (TDD) TS 25.215 Physical layer - Measurements (FDD) TS 25.225 Physical layer - Measurements (TDD)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to UMTS.

3gpp.org - 3rd Generation Partnership Project Standard 3GPP Specifications Numbering Schemes Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications, up to Release 8 UMTS
UMTS
LTE Link Budget Comparison UMTS
UMTS
FAQ on UMTS
UMTS
World Worldwide W- CDMA
CDMA
frequency allocations on UMTS
UMTS
World UMTS
UMTS
TDD Alliance The Global UMTS
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TDD Alliance 3 GSM
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World Congress UMTS
UMTS
Provider Chart LTE Encyclopedia TD-S CDMA
CDMA
Forum TD-S CDMA
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Industry Alliance

v t e

Cellular network
Cellular network
standards

List of mobile phone generations

0G (radio telephones)

MTS MTA - MTB - MTC - MTD IMTS AMTS OLT Autoradiopuhelin B-Netz Altai AMR

1G (1985)

AMPS family

AMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-3, ANSI/TIA/EIA-553) N-AMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-91) TACS ETACS

Other

NMT C-450 Hicap Mobitex DataTAC

2G (1992)

GSM/ 3GPP family

GSM CSD HSCSD

3GPP2 family

cdmaOne (TIA/EIA/ IS-95
IS-95
and ANSI-J-STD 008)

AMPS family

D-AMPS ( IS-54 and IS-136)

Other

CDPD iDEN PDC PHS

2G transitional (2.5G, 2.75G)

GSM/ 3GPP family

GPRS EDGE/E GPRS
GPRS
(UWC-136/136HS/TDMA-EDGE)

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1X (TIA/EIA/IS-2000) CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1X Advanced

Other

WiDEN DECT

3G (2003)

3GPP family

UMTS

UTRA-FDD / W-CDMA UTRA-TDD LCR / TD-SCDMA UTRA-TDD HCR / TD-CDMA

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1xEV-DO
1xEV-DO
Release 0 (TIA/IS-856)

3G transitional (3.5G, 3.75G, 3.9G)

3GPP family

HSPA

HSDPA HSUPA

HSPA+ LTE (E-UTRA)

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1xEV-DO
1xEV-DO
Revision A (TIA/EIA/IS-856-A) EV-DO Revision B (TIA/EIA/IS-856-B) EV-DO Revision C

IEEE family

Mobile WiMAX

IEEE 802.16e

Flash-OFDM iBurst

IEEE 802.20

4G (2013) (IMT Advanced)

3GPP family

LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
(E-UTRA) LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
Pro (4.5G Pro/pre-5G/4.9G)

IEEE family

WiMAX
WiMAX
(IEEE 802.16m)

WiMax 2.1 (LTE-TDD)

5G (2020) (IMT-2020) (Under development)

LTE

 

5G-NR

 

Related articles

Cellular networks Mobile telephony History List of standards Comparison of standards Channel access methods Spectral efficiency comparison table Cellular frequencies (Bands: GSM UMTS LTE) Mobile broadband NGMN Alliance MIMO VoLTE

v t e

Channel access methods and Media access control

Channel-based

FDMA

OFDMA WDMA SC-FDMA

TDMA

MF-TDMA STDMA

CDMA

W-CDMA TD-CDMA TD-SCDMA DS-CDMA FH-CDMA MC-CDMA

SDMA

HC-SDMA

PDMA

PAMA

Packet-based

Collision recovery

ALOHA Slotted ALOHA R-ALOHA AX.25

Collision avoidance

MACA MACAW CSMA CSMA/CD CSMA/CA DCF PCF HCF CSMA/CARP

Collision-free

Token ring Token bus MS-ALOHA

Delay & disruption tolerant

MANET VANET DTN Dynamic Source Routing

Duplexing methods

TDD FDD

v t e

Internet
Internet
access

Wired

Cable Dial-up DOCSIS DSL Ethernet FTTx G.hn HD-PLC HomePlug HomePNA IEEE 1901 ISDN MoCA PON Power-line

Broadband

Wireless

Bluetooth DECT EVDO GPRS HSPA iBurst Li-Fi LTE MMDS Muni Wi-Fi Satellite UMTS-TDD Wi-Fi WiMAX

WiBro

Wireless USB

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

Cate

.