UDP-galactopyranose mutase
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In
enzymology Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts by accelerating chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. ...
, an UDP-galactopyranose mutase () is an
enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts by accelerating chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as product ...
that
catalyzes Catalysis () is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst (). Catalysts are not consumed in the reaction and remain unchanged after it. If the reaction is rapid and the catalyst recyc ...
the
chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breakin ...
:UDP-D-galactopyranose \rightleftharpoons UDP-D-galacto-1,4-furanose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-D-galactopyranose, and one
product Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project management), a deliverable or set of deliverables that contribute to a business solution Mathematics * Prod ...
, UDP-D-galacto-1,4-furanose. This enzyme belongs to the family of
isomerase Isomerases are a general class of enzymes that convert a molecule from one isomer to another. Isomerases facilitate intramolecular rearrangements in which bonds are broken and formed. The general form of such a reaction is as follows: A–B ...
s, specifically those intramolecular
transferase A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that catalyse the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). They are involved in hundreds of d ...
s transferring other groups. The
systematic name A systematic name is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance, out of a specific population or collection. Systematic names are usually part of a nomenclature. A semisystematic name or semitrivial ...
of this enzyme class is UDP-D-galactopyranose furanomutase. UDP-D-galactofuranose then serves as an activated sugar donor for the biosynthesis of galactofuranose glycoconjugates. The exocyclic 1,2-diol of galactofuranose is the epitope recognized by the putative chordate immune lectin
intelectin Intelectins are lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) expressed in humans and other chordates. Humans express two types of intelectins encoded by ITLN1 and ITLN2 genes respectively. Several intelectins bind microbe-specific carbohydrate resi ...
.


Structural studies

Because UGM is not present in the mammalian systems but is essential among several pathogenic microbes, the enzyme is an attractive antibiotic target. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes , , , , and .


References

* EC 5.4.99 Enzymes of known structure {{isomerase-stub