U.S. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs
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The United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources is a
standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than w ...
of the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politi ...
. It has jurisdiction over matters related to energy and mineral resources, including nuclear development; irrigation and reclamation, territorial possessions of the United States, trust lands appertaining to America's indigenous peoples, and the conservation, use, and disposition of federal lands. Its roots go back to the Committee on Interior and Insulars Affairs. In 1977, it became the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, and most matters regarding Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians were removed from its jurisdiction and transferred to the
Committee on Indian Affairs The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs is a committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters int ...
.


History

The Committee on Public Lands was created in 1816 during the 14th Congress chaired by senator
Jeremiah Morrow Jeremiah Morrow (October 6, 1771March 22, 1852) was a Democratic-Republican Party (United States), Democratic-Republican Party politician from Ohio. He served as the ninth governor of Ohio, and was the last Democratic-Republican to hold the offi ...

Jeremiah Morrow
. In its early years, it managed the settlement of the
recently purchased
recently purchased
Missouri Territory The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 4, 1812, until August 10, 1821. In 1819, the Territory of Arkansas was created from a portion of its southern area. In 1821, a southeas ...
. Over time, the committee oversaw the western expansion of the United States, including the
Texas annexation The Texas annexation was the 1845 annexation Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as ...
, the
Oregon Treaty The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym ...
, the
Mexican Cession The Mexican Cession ( es, Cesión mexicana) is the region in the modern-day southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions ...

Mexican Cession
, and the
Gadsden Purchase The Gadsden Purchase ( es, region=MX, la Venta de La Mesilla "The Sale of La Mesilla") is a region of present-day southern Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern Unite ...
. The
Homestead Act of 1860 The Homestead Act of 1860 in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...
, which would have benefited western settlers and migrants, was a result of jurisdiction of the Public Lands Committee. In 1849, the
Department of the Interior The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the U.S. government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the U ...
was established, with the Public Lands Committee serving as legislative oversight. The committee became responsible for enacting legislation to conserve nature and its resources. Due to the actions of the committee, Congress began working towards preservation of forests, wilderness, and historical landmarks with the signing of the
Antiquities Act The Antiquities Act of 1906, (, , ), is an act that was passed by the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a low ...
in 1906 and the establishment of the
National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mecha ...
in 1916. The committee has gone under a number of name changes, but the functions and policy have remained similar to its creation. In 1921, the committee merged with the Committee on Geological Surveys to become the Committee of Public Lands and Surveys. Following the
Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 (also known as the Congressional Reorganization Act, ch. 753, , enacted August 2, 1946) was the most comprehensive reorganization of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the l ...
, it became the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, absorbing the jurisdiction of the
Indian Affairs The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), also known as Indian Affairs (IA), is a United States federal government of the United States, federal agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior, Department of the Interior. It is responsible for im ...
, Territorial and Insular Affairs, Mines and Mining, and Irrigation and Reclamation committees. Its most recent iteration, the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, was established on February 4, 1977 after the Committee System Reorganization Amendments of 1977.


Jurisdiction

In accordance of Rule XXV of the United States Senate, all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects is referred to the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources: # Coal production, distribution, and coal power, utilization; # Energy policy of the United States, Energy policy; # Energy regulation and energy conservation, conservation; # Energy related aspects of deepwater port, deepwater ports; # Energy development, Energy research and development; # Mining, Extraction of minerals from ocean, oceans and Outer Continental Shelf lands; # Hydroelectricity, Hydroelectric power, irrigation, and Desertification#Countermeasures, reclamation; # Mining engineering, Mining education and research; # Mining, mineral rights, mineral lands, land_claim#Mining_claim_(United_States), mining claims, and mineral conservation; # List of areas in the United States National Park System, National parks, National recreation area, recreation areas, National Wilderness Preservation System, wilderness areas, National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, wild and scenic rivers, National Historic Site (United States), historical sites, National Military Park, military parks and battlefields, and on the Public domain (land), public domain, preservation of Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, prehistoric ruins and Antiquities Act, objects of interest; # National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, Naval petroleum reserves in Alaska; # Nonmilitary development of nuclear power, nuclear energy; # Hydrocarbon exploration, Oil and gas production and distribution; # National Conservation Lands, Public lands and United States National Forest, forests, including farming and grazing thereon, and mining, mineral extraction therefrom; # Solar energy systems; and, # Territories of the United States, Territorial possessions of the United States, including United Nations trust territories, trusteeships. The Committee is also charged to "study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to energy development, energy and exploitation of natural resources, resources development, and report thereon from time to time."


Members, 117th Congress


Subcommittees

The Energy Committee has four subcommittees:


Chairpersons


Committee on Public Lands, 1816–1921

*
Jeremiah Morrow Jeremiah Morrow (October 6, 1771March 22, 1852) was a Democratic-Republican Party (United States), Democratic-Republican Party politician from Ohio. He served as the ninth governor of Ohio, and was the last Democratic-Republican to hold the offi ...

Jeremiah Morrow
(R-OH) 1816–1819 *Thomas Hill Williams, Thomas Williams (R-MS) 1819–1820 *Jesse Thomas (Illinois politician), Jesse Thomas (R-IL) 1820–1823 *David Barton (politician), David Barton (NR-MO) 1823–1831 *William R. King (D-AL) 1831–1832 *Elias Kane (D-IL) 1832–1833 *George Poindexter (W-MS) 1833–1835 *Thomas Ewing (W-OH) 1835–1836 *Robert J. Walker, Robert Walker (D-MS) 1836–1841 *Oliver Hampton Smith (W-IN) 1841–1843 *William Woodbridge (W-MI) 1843–1845 *Sidney Breese (D-IL) 1845–1849 *Alpheus Felch (D-MI) 1849–1853 *Solon Borland (D-AR) 1853 *Augustus Dodge (D-IA) 1853–1855 *Charles E. Stuart (D-MI) 1855–1859 *Robert W. Johnson (senator), Robert W. Johnson (D-AR) 1859–1861 *James Harlan (senator), James Harlan (R-IA) 1861–1865 *Samuel Pomeroy (R-KS) 1865–1873 *William Sprague (1830–1915), William Sprague (R-RI) 1873–1875 *Richard Oglesby (R-IL) 1875–1879 *Joseph E. McDonald (D-IN) 1879–1881 *Preston Plumb (R-KS) 1881–1891 *Joseph N. Dolph (R-OR) 1891–1893 *James H. Berry (D-AR) 1893–1895 *Fred T. Dubois (R-ID) 1895–1897 *Henry C. Hansbrough (R-ND) 1897–1908 *Knute Nelson (R-MN) 1908–1912 *Reed Smoot (U. S. Senator), Reed Smoot (R-UT) 1912–1913 *George E. Chamberlain (D-OR) 1913–1915 *Henry L. Myers (D-MT) 1915–1919 *Reed Smoot (U. S. Senator), Reed Smoot (R-UT) 1919–1921


Committee on Public Lands and Surveys, 1921–1947

*Reed Smoot (U. S. Senator), Reed Smoot (R-UT) 1921–1923 *Irvine L. Lenroot (R-WI) 1923–1924 *Edwin F. Ladd (R-ND) 1924 *Robert Nelson Stanfield (R-OR) 1924–1927 *Gerald P. Nye (R-ND) 1927–1933 *John B. Kendrick (D-WY) 1933 *Robert F. Wagner (D-NY) 1933–1937 *Alva B. Adams (D-CO) 1937–1941 *Carl A. Hatch (D-NM) 1941–1947


Committee on Public Lands, 1947–1948

*Hugh A. Butler, Hugh Butler (R-NE) 1947–1948


Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 1948–1977

*Hugh A. Butler, Hugh Butler (R-NE) 1948–1949 *Joseph C. O'Mahoney (D-WY) 1949–1953 *Hugh A. Butler, Hugh Butler (R-NE) 1953–1954 *Guy Cordon (R-OR) 1954–1955 *James E. Murray (D-MT) 1955–1961 *Clinton P. Anderson (D-NM) 1961–1963 *Henry M. Jackson, Scoop Jackson (D-WA) 1963–1977


Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 1977–present

*Henry M. Jackson, Scoop Jackson (D-WA) 1977–1981 *James A. McClure, James McClure (R-ID) 1981–1987 *Bennett Johnston Jr., Bennett Johnston (D-LA) 1987–1995 *Frank Murkowski (R-AK) 1995–2001 *Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) 2001 *Frank Murkowski (R-AK) 2001 *Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) 2001–2003 *Pete Domenici (R-NM) 2003–2007 *Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) 2007–2013 *Ron Wyden (D-OR) 2013–2014 *Mary Landrieu (D-LA) 2014–2015 *Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) 2015–2021 *Joe Manchin (D-WV) 2021–present


Historical committee rosters


116th Congress

;Subcommittees


115th Congress

;Subcommittees Source


See also

*List of current United States Senate committees *The United States House Committee on Public Lands, was a predecessor of the United States House Committee on Resources


References


External links


Official Committee WebsiteArchive

Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee
– Legislation activity and reports, Congress.gov {{United States congressional committees Committees of the United States Senate, Energy Energy in the United States Environment of the United States 1816 establishments in Washington, D.C. Organizations established in 1816