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The UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU (USCB; officially the BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, as defined in Title 13 U.S.C. § 11) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System , responsible for producing data about the American people and economy . The Census
Census
Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Department of Commerce
and its director is appointed by the President of the United States
United States
.

The Census
Census
Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U.S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U.S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population. The Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states , local communities, and businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, hospitals, transportation infrastructure, and police and fire departments.

In addition to the decennial census, the Census
Census
Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys , including the American Community Survey , the U.S. Economic Census
Census
, and the Current Population
Population
Survey . Furthermore, economic and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census
Census
Bureau.

CONTENTS

* 1 Legal mandate

* 2 Data collection

* 2.1 Census
Census
regions and divisions * 2.2 Uses of census data * 2.3 Data stewardship * 2.4 Ongoing surveys * 2.5 Other surveys conducted

* 3 Organizational structure * 4 Computer equipment

* 5 Handheld computers (HHC)

* 5.1 Security precautions * 5.2 Success and failure

* 6 Notable Alumni * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

LEGAL MANDATE

Census
Census
headquarters in Suitland, Maryland

The Constitution of the United States
United States
(Article I, section II) directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College . The Census
Census
Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial " to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census
Census
Bureau makes population estimates and projections.

In addition, Census
Census
data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health , education, transportation and much more. The Census
Census
Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy. The Census
Census
Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States
United States
Code .

The Census
Census
Bureau also conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, crime, health, consumer expenditures , and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial (10-year) population counts. The Census Bureau also conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail, service, and other establishments and of domestic governments.

Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts. The Census
Census
Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census
Census
Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census
Census
Office was moved under the Department of Interior , and in 1903 it was renamed the Census
Census
Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor . The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department.

An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years. In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census
Census
. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code.

By law, the Census
Census
Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U.S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year.

DATA COLLECTION

U.S. Census
Census
Bureau Regions and Divisions

CENSUS REGIONS AND DIVISIONS

The United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census
Census
Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis." The Census
Census
Bureau definition is pervasive.

Regional divisions used by the United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau:

* Region 1: Northeast

* Division 1: New England
New England
( Connecticut
Connecticut
, Maine
Maine
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, New Hampshire , Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, and Vermont
Vermont
) * Division 2: Mid-Atlantic ( New Jersey
New Jersey
, New York , and Pennsylvania )

* Region 2: Midwest (Prior to June 1984, the Midwest Region was designated as the North Central Region.)

* Division 3: East North Central ( Illinois
Illinois
, Indiana
Indiana
, Michigan
Michigan
, Ohio
Ohio
, and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
) * Division 4: West North Central ( Iowa
Iowa
, Kansas
Kansas
, Minnesota
Minnesota
, Missouri
Missouri
, Nebraska
Nebraska
, North Dakota
North Dakota
, and South Dakota
South Dakota
)

* Region 3: South

* Division 5: South Atlantic ( Delaware
Delaware
, Florida
Florida
, Georgia , Maryland
Maryland
, North Carolina
North Carolina
, South Carolina
South Carolina
, Virginia
Virginia
, Washington D.C. , and West Virginia
Virginia
) * Division 6: East South Central ( Alabama
Alabama
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, Mississippi
Mississippi
, and Tennessee
Tennessee
) * Division 7: West South Central ( Arkansas
Arkansas
, Louisiana
Louisiana
, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
, and Texas
Texas
)

* Region 4: West

* Division 8: Mountain ( Arizona
Arizona
, Colorado
Colorado
, Idaho
Idaho
, Montana
Montana
, Nevada
Nevada
, New Mexico
New Mexico
, Utah
Utah
, and Wyoming
Wyoming
) * Division 9: Pacific ( Alaska
Alaska
, California
California
, Hawaii
Hawaii
, Oregon
Oregon
, and Washington )

USES OF CENSUS DATA

Many federal, state, local and tribal governments use census data to:

* Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, * Examine the demographic characteristics of communities, states, and the USA, * Plan transportation systems and roadways, * Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, and * Create localized areas for elections, schools, utilities, etc. * Gathers population information every 10 years

DATA STEWARDSHIP

The United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau is committed to confidentiality, and guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U.S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census
Census
employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment.

The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States
United States
or foreign government and law enforcement agencies such as the IRS or the FBI or Interpol. "Providing quality data, for public good—while respecting individual privacy and, at the same time, protecting confidentiality—is the Census
Census
Bureau's core responsibility", "Keeping the public's trust is critical to the Census's ability to carry out the mission as the leading source of quality data about the Nation's people and economy." Only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public.

Despite these guarantees of confidentiality, the Census
Census
Bureau has some history of disclosures to other government agencies. In 1918, the Census
Census
Bureau released individual information regarding several hundred young men to the Justice Department and Selective Service system for the purpose of prosecutions for draft evasion. During World War II, the United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau assisted the government's Japanese American internment efforts by providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese-Americans. The Bureau's role was denied for decades but was finally proven in 2007.

The Census
Census
Bureau distributes data it collects via censuses and surveys on its American FactFinder website.

ONGOING SURVEYS

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A survey is a method of collecting and analyzing social, economic, and geographic data . It provides information about the conditions of the United States, states, and counties. Throughout the decade between censuses, the bureau conducts surveys to produce a general view and comprehensive study of the United States' social and economic conditions.

Staff from the Current Surveys Program conduct over 130 ongoing and special surveys about people and their characteristics. A network of professional field representatives gathers information from a sample of households, responding to questions about employment, consumer expenditures, health, housing, and other topics. Surveys conducted between decades:

* American Community Survey
American Community Survey
* American Housing Survey * Consumer Expenditure Survey * Census
Census
of Governments * Current Population Survey * Economic Census
Census
* National Hospital Discharge Survey * National Health Interview Survey * National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey * National Crime Victimization Survey * National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) * National Nursing Home Survey * Survey of Income and Program Participation * Survey of Construction * Survey of Market Absorption * Survey of Program Dynamics * National Longitudinal Survey * National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, "> U.S. Census
Census
Bureau Regional Office Boundaries

Since 1903, the official census-taking agency of the United States government has been the Bureau of the Census. The Census
Census
Bureau is headed by a Director, assisted by a Deputy Director and an Executive Staff composed of the associate directors.

The Census
Census
Bureau has had headquarters in Suitland, Maryland , since 1942. A new headquarters complex was completed in 2007 and supports over 4,000 employees. The Bureau operates regional offices in 12 cities: Boston
Boston
, New York City
New York City
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Detroit
Detroit
, Chicago
Chicago
, Kansas
Kansas
City , Seattle
Seattle
, Charlotte
Charlotte
, Atlanta
Atlanta
, Dallas
Dallas
, Denver
Denver
, and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
. The National Processing Center is in Jeffersonville, Indiana
Indiana
. Additional temporary processing facilities facilitate the decennial census, which employs more than a million people. The cost of the 2000 Census
Census
was $4.5 billion. During the years just prior to the decennial census, parallel census offices, known as "Regional Census
Census
Centers" are opened in the field office cities. The decennial operations are carried out from these facilities. The Regional Census Centers oversee the openings and closings of smaller "Local Census Offices" within their collection jurisdictions. The estimated cost of the 2010 Census
Census
is $14.7 billion.

On January 1, 2013, the Census
Census
Bureau was to consolidate its 12 regional offices into 6. Increasing costs of data collection, changes in survey management tools such as laptops and the increasing use of multi-modal surveys (i.e. internet, telephone, and in-person) has led the Census
Census
Bureau to consolidate. The remaining regional offices will be in: New York City
New York City
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Chicago
Chicago
, Atlanta
Atlanta
, Denver
Denver
, and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
.

The Census
Census
Bureau also runs the Census
Census
Information Center cooperative program that involves 58 "national, regional, and local non-profit organizations." The CIC program aims to represent the interests of underserved communities.

COMPUTER EQUIPMENT

A card puncher, part of the tabulation system used to compile the thousands of facts gathered by the Bureau (circa 1940). Holes are punched in the card according to a prearranged code transferring the facts from the census questionnaire into statistics.

The 1890 census was the first to use the electric tabulating machines invented by Herman Hollerith . For 1890–1940 details, see Truesdell, Leon E. (1965). _The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census, 1890-1940: With outlines of actual tabulation programs_. US GPO . In 1946, knowing of the Bureau's funding of Hollerith and, later, Powers , John Mauchly approached the Bureau about early funding for UNIVAC
UNIVAC
development. A UNIVAC
UNIVAC
I computer was accepted by the Bureau in 1951.

HANDHELD COMPUTERS (HHC)

Historically, the census information was gathered via mailed forms. To reduce paper usage, reduce payroll expense and acquire the most comprehensive list of addresses ever compiled, 500,000 handheld computers (HHCs) (specifically designed, single purpose devices) were used for the first time in 2009 during the address canvassing portion of the 2010 Decennial Census
Census
Project. Projected savings were estimated to be over $1 billion.

SECURITY PRECAUTIONS

Main article: Device fingerprint

The HHC was manufactured by Harris Corporation , an established Department of Defense contractor, via a controversial contract with the Department of Commerce
Department of Commerce
. Secured access via a fingerprint swipe guaranteed only the verified user could access the unit. A GPS capacity was integral to the daily address management and the transfer of gathered information. Of major importance was the security and integrity of the populace's private information.

SUCCESS AND FAILURE

Enumerators (information gatherers) that had operational problems with the device understandably made negative reports. During the 2009 Senate confirmation hearings for Robert Groves
Robert Groves
, President Obama's Census
Census
Director appointee, there was much mention of contracting problems but very little criticism of the units. In rural areas, the sparsity of cell phone towers caused problems with data transmission to and from the HHC. Since the units were updated nightly with important changes and reprogramming, operator implementation of proper procedure was imperative. Dramatic dysfunction and delays occurred if the units were not put into sleep mode overnight.

NOTABLE ALUMNI

* John Shaw Billings * Rattan Chand * James Corbett * W. Edwards Deming * Davis Rich Dewey * Halbert L. Dunn * Murray Feshbach * Robert Groves
Robert Groves
* Henry Gannett * Morris H. Hansen * Roger Herriot * Joseph Adna Hill * Herman Hollerith * Shirley Kallek * Leslie Kish * John Wesley Langley * Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
* Thomas Commerford Martin * Warren Mitofsky * Ivan Petrof * Cyrus Guernsey Pringle * Richard M. Scammon * Julius Shiskin * Thelma Strabel * Howard Sutherland
Howard Sutherland
* Conrad Taeuber * Lafayette Parker "Pick" Temple

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * North America portal * United States
United States
portal * Government of the United States
United States
portal

* List of U.S. states and territories by population * List of metropolitan areas of the United States
United States
* List of United States
United States
cities by population * List of United States
United States
counties and county-equivalents

* United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget

* Primary statistical area – List of the 574 PSAs * Combined Statistical Area – List of the 169 CSAs * Core Based Statistical Area
Core Based Statistical Area
– List of the 929 CBSAs * Metropolitan Statistical Area – List of the 388 MSAs * Micropolitan Statistical Area – List of the 541 μSAs * United States
United States
urban area – List of United States
United States
urban areas

* Title 13 of the United States
United States
Code * Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations * Director of the United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ USCB DOC-D1026 QVC Manual 01/03/09 * ^ "U.S. Census
Census
Bureau Strategic Plan FY 2013 – 2017" (PDF). United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau. April 2013. * ^ "BNL Consulting". _bnlconsulting.com_. Retrieved 2017-01-20. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Analysis The U.S. census is in trouble. This is why it’s crucial to what the nation knows about itself.". _Washington Post_. Retrieved 2017-05-15. * ^ " Census
Census
Population
Population
Estimates". U.S. Bureau of the Census. * ^ History 1790. US Census
Census
Bureau. * ^ History 1840. US Census
Census
Bureau. * ^ History: 1900 Overview. US Census
Census
Bureau. * ^ _A_ _B_ History 1920. US Census
Census
Bureau. * ^ History 1954. US Census
Census
Bureau. * ^ United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau, Geography Division. "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States" (PDF). Retrieved February 3, 2016. * ^ "The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003" (Report #:DOE/EIA-0581, October 2009). United States
United States
Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration
Energy Information Administration
. * ^ "The most widely used regional definitions follow those of the U.S. Bureau of the Census." Seymour Sudman and Norman M. Bradburn, _Asking Questions: A Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design_ (1982). Jossey-Bass
Jossey-Bass
: p. 205. * ^ "Perhaps the most widely used regional classification system is one developed by the U.S. Census
Census
Bureau." Dale M. Lewison, _Retailing_, Prentice Hall (1997): p. 384. ISBN 978-0-13-461427-4 * ^ "(M)ost demographic and food consumption data are presented in this four-region format." Pamela Goyan Kittler, Kathryn P. Sucher, _Food and Culture_, Cengage Learning (2008): p.475. ISBN 9780495115410

* ^ _A_ _B_ " Census
Census
Bureau Regions and Divisions with State FIPS Codes" (PDF). US Census
Census
Bureau. Retrieved February 3, 2016. * ^ _ Census
Census
Employee Handbook_ (PDF), April 2009 * ^ "72-Year Rule". _www.census.gov_. Retrieved 20 November 2015. * ^ _The Myth of Census
Census
Confidentiality_, 8 (2), Amerasia Journal, UCLA Asian American Studies Center Press, Fall–Winter 1981, pp. 111–120, ISSN 0044-7471 * ^ David Kopel (May 4, 1990), _ Census
Census
Confidentiality? The Check\'s is in the Mail_, Cato Institute * ^ JR Minkel (March 30, 2007), _Confirmed: The U.S. Census
Census
Bureau Gave Up Names of Japanese- Americans
Americans
in WW II_, Scientific American * ^ Haya El Nasser (March 30, 2007), _Papers show Census
Census
role in WWII camps_, USA Today * ^ Harper, Beth (March 24, 2010). "American FactFinder Guide". University of Wisconsin–Madison
University of Wisconsin–Madison
. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2011. * ^ "List of All Surveys". _Census.gov_. Retrieved April 4, 2015. * ^ Census.gov * ^ "A Restructuring of Census
Census
Bureau Regional Offices". U.S. Bureau of the Census. Retrieved June 21, 2012. * ^ " Census
Census
Bureau Regional Office Boundaries" (PDF). U.S. Bureau of the Census. Retrieved June 21, 2012. * ^ " Census
Census
Information Centers". U.S. Bureau of the Census. Retrieved May 13, 2008. * ^ Herman Hollerith * ^ History 1890 US Census
Census
Bureau. * ^ Stern, Nancy (1981). _From ENIAC to UNIVAC: An appraisal of the Eckert-Mauchly Computers_. Digital Press. ISBN 0-932376-14-2 . * ^ Bashe, Charles J.; et. al (1986). _IBM's Early Computers_. MIT. ISBN 0-262-02225-7 . * ^ Govcomm.harris.com * ^ Weinberg, Daniel. "Management challenges of the 2010 U.S. Census" (PDF). U.S. Census
Census
Bureau. Retrieved 29 December 2015. * ^ House Committee on Oversight and Reform, Subcommittee on Information Policy, Census
Census
and National Archives, "Chairman Clay Pleased With Census
Census
Address Canvassing Progress". June 08, 2009. Dead link fixed via Internet Archive. Retrieved 9 August 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wade-Hahn ChanMar 28, 2008 (2008-03-28). "Have feds cheapened contract bonuses?". FCW. Retrieved 2013-08-09. * ^ " Census
Census
getting back on course, lawmakers told - Oversight". GovExec.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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