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U-boat
U-boat
is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot [ˈuːboːt] ( listen), a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".[1] While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one (in common with several other languages) refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role (commerce raiding) and enforcing a naval blockade against enemy shipping. The primary targets of the U-boat
U-boat
campaigns in both wars were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from Canada and other parts of the British Empire, and the United States to the United Kingdom and (during the Second World War) to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Allied territories in the Mediterranean. Austro-Hungarian navy submarines were also known as U-boats.

Contents

1 Early U-boats (1850–1914) 2 World War I
World War I
(1914–1918)

2.1 Classes 2.2 Surrender of the fleet

3 Interwar years (1919–1939) 4 World War II
World War II
(1939–1945)

4.1 Torpedoes 4.2 U-boat
U-boat
developments 4.3 Classes 4.4 Countermeasures 4.5 Enigma machine 4.6 Battle of Bell Island 4.7 Operation Deadlight

5 Memorial 6 Post– World War II
World War II
and Cold War (after 1945) 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early U-boats (1850–1914)[edit] The first submarine built in Germany, the three-man Brandtaucher, sank to the bottom of Kiel
Kiel
harbor on 1 February 1851 during a test dive.[2][3] The inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer
Wilhelm Bauer
had designed this vessel in 1850, and Schweffel & Howaldt constructed it in Kiel. Dredging
Dredging
operations in 1887 rediscovered Brandtaucher; it was later raised and put on historical display in Germany. There followed in 1890 the boats WW1 and WW2, built to a Nordenfelt design. In 1903 the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft dockyard in Kiel completed the first fully functional German-built submarine, Forelle,[4] which Krupp
Krupp
sold to Russia
Russia
during the Russo-Japanese War in April 1904.[5] The SM U-1 was a completely redesigned Karp-class submarine and only one was built. The Imperial German Navy commissioned it on 14 December 1906.[6] It had a double hull, a Körting kerosene engine, and a single torpedo tube. The 50%-larger SM U-2 (commissioned in 1908) had two torpedo tubes. The U-19 class of 1912–13 saw the first diesel engine installed in a German navy boat. At the start of World War I
World War I
in 1914, Germany had 48 submarines of 13 classes in service or under construction. During that war the Imperial German Navy
German Navy
used SM U-1 for training. Retired in 1919, it remains on display at the Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
in Munich.[7] World War I
World War I
(1914–1918)[edit] Main article: U-boat
U-boat
Campaign (World War I) On 5 September 1914, HMS Pathfinder was sunk by SM U-21, the first ship to have been sunk by a submarine using a self-propelled torpedo. On 22 September, U-9 sank the obsolete British warships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue (the "Live Bait Squadron") in a single hour. In the Gallipoli Campaign
Gallipoli Campaign
in early 1915 in the eastern Mediterranean, German U-boats, notably the U-21, prevented close support of allied troops by 18 pre- Dreadnought
Dreadnought
battleships by sinking two of them.[8] For the first few months of the war, U-boat
U-boat
anticommerce actions observed the "prize rules" of the time, which governed the treatment of enemy civilian ships and their occupants. On 20 October 1914, SM U-17 sank the first merchant ship, the SS Glitra, off Norway.[9] Surface commerce raiders were proving to be ineffective, and on 4 February 1915, the Kaiser assented to the declaration of a war zone in the waters around the British Isles. This was cited as a retaliation for British minefields and shipping blockades. Under the instructions given to U-boat
U-boat
captains, they could sink merchant ships, even potentially neutral ones, without warning. In February 1915, a submarine U-6 (Lepsius) was rammed and both periscopes were destroyed off Beachy Head
Beachy Head
by the collier SS Thordis commanded by Captain John Bell RNR after firing a torpedo.[10] On 7 May 1915, SM U-20 sank the liner RMS Lusitania. The sinking claimed 1,198 lives, 128 of them American civilians, and the attack of this unarmed civilian ship deeply shocked the Allies. According to the ship's manifest, Lusitania was carrying military cargo, though none of this information was relayed to the citizens of Britain and the United States who thought that the ship contained no ammunition or military weaponry whatsoever and it was an act of brutal murder. Munitions that it carried were thousands of crates full of ammunition for rifles, 3-inch artillery shells, and also various other standard ammunition used by infantry. The sinking of the Lusitania was widely used as propaganda against the German Empire and caused greater support for the war effort. A widespread reaction in the U.S was not seen until the sinking of the ferry SS Sussex. The sinking occurred in 1915 and the United States entered the war in 1917. The initial U.S. response was to threaten to sever diplomatic ties, which persuaded the Germans to issue the Sussex pledge that reimposed restrictions on U-boat
U-boat
activity. The U.S. reiterated its objections to German submarine warfare whenever U.S. civilians died as a result of German attacks, which prompted the Germans to fully reapply prize rules. This, however, removed the effectiveness of the U-boat
U-boat
fleet, and the Germans consequently sought a decisive surface action, a strategy that culminated in the Battle of Jutland. Although the Germans claimed victory at Jutland, the British Grand Fleet remained in control at sea. It was necessary to return to effective anticommerce warfare by U-boats. Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer, Commander
Commander
in Chief of the High Seas Fleet, pressed for all-out U-boat
U-boat
war, convinced that a high rate of shipping losses would force Britain to seek an early peace before the United States could react effectively.

Sinking of the Linda Blanche out of Liverpool by Willy Stöwer

The renewed German campaign was effective, sinking 1.4 million tons of shipping between October 1916 and January 1917. Despite this, the political situation demanded even greater pressure, and on 31 January 1917, Germany announced that its U-boats would engage in unrestricted submarine warfare beginning 1 February. On 17 March, German submarines sank three American merchant vessels, and the U.S. declared war on Germany in April 1917. Unrestricted submarine warfare
Unrestricted submarine warfare
in early 1917 was initially very successful, sinking a major part of Britain-bound shipping. With the introduction of escorted convoys, shipping losses declined and in the end the German strategy failed to destroy sufficient Allied shipping. An armistice became effective on 11 November 1918 and all surviving German submarines were surrendered. Of the 360 submarines that had been built, 178 were lost, but more than 11 million tons of shipping had been destroyed. Of the 178 submarines destroyed, SM U-103 was sunk when the troopship RMS Olympic
RMS Olympic
rammed it as it attempted to crash-dive, killing all on board. Classes[edit]

Körting kerosene-powered boats

Type U 1, Type U 2, Type U 3, Type U 5, Type U 9, Type U 13, Type U 16, Type U 17

Mittel-U MAN diesel boats

Type U 19, Type U 23, Type U 27, Type U 31, Type U 43, Type U 51, Type U 57, Type U 63, Type U 66, Type Mittel U

U-Cruisers and Merchant U-boats

Type U 139, Type U 142, Type U 151, Type UD 1

UB coastal torpedo attack boats

Type UB I, Type UB II, Type UB III, Type UF, Type UG

UC coastal minelayers

Type UC I, Type UC II, Type UC III

UE ocean minelayers

Type UE I, Type UE II

Surrender of the fleet[edit] Under the terms of armistice, all U-boats were to immediately surrender. Those in home waters sailed to the British submarine base at Harwich. The entire process was done quickly and in the main without difficulty, after which the vessels were studied, then scrapped or given to Allied navies. Stephen King-Hall
Stephen King-Hall
wrote a detailed eyewitness account of the surrender.[11] Interwar years (1919–1939)[edit] At the end of World War I, as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
restricted the total tonnage of the German surface fleet. The treaty also restricted the independent tonnage of ships and forbade the construction of submarines. However, a submarine design office was set up in the Netherlands and a torpedo research program was started in Sweden. Before the start of World War II, Germany started building U-boats and training crews, labeling these activities as "research" or concealing them using other covers. When this became known, the Anglo-German Naval Agreement
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
limited Germany to parity with Britain in submarines. When World War II started, Germany already had 65 U-boats, with 21 of those at sea, ready for war.[citation needed] World War II
World War II
(1939–1945)[edit] Main article: Battle of the Atlantic During World War II, U-boat
U-boat
warfare was the major component of the Battle of the Atlantic, which lasted the duration of the war. Germany had the largest submarine fleet of the revived German War Navy (Kriegsmarine) since 1935 into World War II
World War II
(1939-1945), since the Armistice of November 11th, 1918, scuttled most of the old Imperial German Navy
German Navy
from the First World War and the following Treaty of Versailles of 1919, had limited the surface navy of Germany's new Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
to only six battleships (of less than 10,000 tons each), six cruisers, and 12 destroyers.[12] British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
later wrote "The only thing that really frightened me during the war was the U-boat
U-boat
peril."

U-boat
U-boat
pens in Saint-Nazaire, France

In the early stages of the war the U-boats were extremely effective in destroying Allied shipping due to the large gap in mid-Atlantic air cover. Cross-Atlantic trade in war supplies and food was extensive and critical for Britain's survival. The continuous action surrounding British shipping became known as the Battle of the Atlantic, as the British developed technical defences such as ASDIC
ASDIC
and radar, and the German U-boats responded by hunting in what were called "wolfpacks" where multiple submarines would stay close together, making it easier for them to sink a specific target. Britain's vulnerable shipping situation existed until 1942, when the tides changed as the U.S. merchant marine and Navy entered the war, drastically increasing the amount of tonnage of supplies sent across the Atlantic. The combination of increased tonnage and increased naval protection of shipping convoys made it much more difficult for U-boats to make a significant dent in British shipping. Once the United States entered the war, U-boats ranged from the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Arctic
Arctic
to the west and southern African coasts and even as far east as Penang. The U.S. military engaged in various tactics against German incursions in the Americas; these included military surveillance of foreign nations in Latin America, particularly in the Caribbean, to deter any local governments from supplying German U-boats. Because speed and range were severely limited underwater while running on battery power, U-boats were required to spend most of their time surfaced running on diesel engines, diving only when attacked or for rare daytime torpedo strikes. The more ship-like hull design reflects the fact that these were primarily surface vessels that could submerge when necessary. This contrasts with the cylindrical profile of modern nuclear submarines, which are more hydrodynamic underwater (where they spend the majority of their time), but less stable on the surface. While U-boats were faster on the surface than submerged, the opposite is generally true of modern submarines. The most common U-boat
U-boat
attack during the early years of the war was conducted on the surface and at night. This period, before the Allied forces developed truly effective antisubmarine warfare tactics, which included convoys, was referred to by German submariners as "die glückliche Zeit" or The First Happy Time[13]

U-534, Birkenhead Docks, Merseyside, England

Torpedoes[edit] The U-boats' main weapon was the torpedo, though mines and deck guns (while surfaced) were also used. By the end of the war, almost 3,000 Allied ships (175 warships; 2,825 merchant ships) were sunk by U-boat torpedoes.[14] Early German World War II
World War II
torpedoes were straight runners, as opposed to the homing and pattern-running torpedoes that were fielded later in the war. They were fitted with one of two types of pistol triggers: impact, which detonated the warhead upon contact with a solid object, and magnetic, which detonated upon sensing a change in the magnetic field within a few meters. One of the most effective uses of magnetic pistols would be to set the torpedo's depth to just beneath the keel of the target. The explosion under the target's keel would create a detonation shock wave, which could cause a ship's hull to rupture under the concussive water pressure. In this way, even large or heavily armored ships could be sunk or disabled with a single, well-placed hit. In practice, however, the depth-keeping equipment and magnetic and contact exploders were notoriously unreliable in the first eight months of the war. Torpedoes often ran at an improper depth, detonated prematurely, or failed to explode altogether—sometimes bouncing harmlessly off the hull of the target ship. This was most evident in Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Norway, where various skilled U-boat
U-boat
commanders failed to inflict damage on British transports and warships because of faulty torpedoes. The faults were largely due to a lack of testing. The magnetic detonator was sensitive to mechanical oscillations during the torpedo run, and to fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field at high latitudes. These were eventually phased out, and the depth-keeping problem was solved by early 1942.[15] Later in the war, Germany developed an acoustic homing torpedo, the G7/T5. It was primarily designed to combat convoy escorts. The acoustic torpedo was designed to run straight to an arming distance of 400 m and then turn toward the loudest noise detected. This sometimes ended up being the U-boat
U-boat
itself; at least two submarines may have been sunk by their own homing torpedoes. Additionally, these torpedoes were found to be only effective against ships moving at greater than 15 knots (28 km/h). The Allies countered acoustic torpedoes with noisemaker decoys such as Foxer, FXR, CAT and Fanfare. The Germans, in turn, countered this by introducing newer and upgraded versions of the acoustic torpedoes, like the late-war G7es, and the T11 torpedo. However, the T11 torpedoes did not see active service.[16] U-boats also adopted several types of "pattern-running" torpedoes that ran straight out to a preset distance, then traveled in either a circular or ladder-like pattern. When fired at a convoy, this increased the probability of a hit if the weapon missed its primary target. U-boat
U-boat
developments[edit] During World War II, the Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
produced many different types of U-boats as technology evolved. Most notable is the Type VII, known as the "workhorse" of the fleet, which was by far the most-produced type, and the Type IX boats, which were larger versions of the VII designed for long-range patrols, some traveling as far as Japan and the east coast of the United States. With the increasing sophistication of Allied detection and subsequent losses, German designers began to fully realise the potential for a truly submerged boat. The Type XXI "Elektroboot" was designed to favor submerged performance, both for combat effectiveness and survival. It was the first true submersible. The Type XXI featured an evolutionary design that combined several different strands of the U-Boat development program, most notably from the Walter U-boats, the Type XVII, which featured an unsuccessful yet revolutionary hydrogen peroxide air-independent propellant system. These boats featured a streamlined hull design, which formed the basis of the later USS Nautilus nuclear submarine, and was adapted for use with more conventional propulsion systems. The larger hull design allowed for a greatly increased battery capacity, which enabled the XXI to cruise submerged for longer periods and reach unprecedented submerged speeds for the time. Throughout the war, an arms race evolved between the Allies and the Kriegsmarine, especially in detection and counterdetection. Sonar ( ASDIC
ASDIC
in Britain) allowed Allied warships to detect submerged U-boats (and vice versa) beyond visual range, but was not effective against a surfaced vessel; thus, early in the war, a U-boat
U-boat
at night or in bad weather was actually safer on the surface. Advancements in radar became particularly deadly for the U-boat
U-boat
crews, especially once aircraft-mounted units were developed. As a countermeasure, U-boats were fitted with radar warning receivers, to give them ample time to dive before the enemy closed in, as well as more anti aircraft guns. However, by early to mid-1943, the Allies switched to centimetric radar (unknown to Germany), which rendered the radar detectors ineffective. U-boat
U-boat
radar systems were also developed, but many captains chose not to use them for fear of broadcasting their position to enemy patrols and lack of sufficient electronic countermeasures. Early on, the Germans experimented with the idea of the Schnorchel (snorkel) from captured Dutch submarines, but saw no need for them until rather late in the war. The Schnorchel was a retractable pipe that supplied air to the diesel engines while submerged at periscope depth, allowing the boats to cruise and recharge their batteries while maintaining a degree of stealth. It was far from a perfect solution, however. Problems occurred with the device's valve sticking shut or closing as it dunked in rough weather; since the system used the entire pressure hull as a buffer, the diesels would instantaneously suck huge volumes of air from the boat's compartments, and the crew often suffered painful ear injuries. Waste disposal was a problem when the U-boats spent extended periods without surfacing, as it is today. Speed was limited to 8 knots (15 km/h), lest the device snap from stress. The Schnorchel also had the effect of making the boat essentially noisy and deaf in sonar terms. Finally, Allied radar eventually became sufficiently advanced that the Schnorchel mast could be detected beyond visual range. Several other pioneering innovations included acoustic- and electro-absorbent coatings to make them less of an ASDIC
ASDIC
or RADAR target. The Germans also developed active countermeasures such as facilities to release artificial chemical bubble-making decoys, known as Bold, after the mythical kobold. Classes[edit]

Type I: first prototypes Type II: small submarines used for training purposes Type V: uncompleted experimental midget submarines Type VII: the "workhorse" of the U-boats, with 700 active in World War II Type IX: these long-range U-boats operated as far as the Indian Ocean with the Japanese (Monsun Gruppe), and the South Atlantic Type X: long-range minelayers and cargo transports Type XI: uncompleted experimental artillery boats Type XIV: used to resupply other U-boats; nicknamed the Milchkuh ("Milk Cow") Type XVII: small coastal submarines powered by high-test peroxide propulsion systems Type XXI: known as the Elektroboot; first subs to operate primarily submerged Type XXIII: smaller version of the XXI used for coastal operations Midget submarines, including Biber, Hai, Molch, and Seehund Uncompleted U-boat
U-boat
projects

Countermeasures[edit] Main article: Anti-submarine warfare Advances in convoy tactics, high-frequency direction finding (referred to as "Huff-Duff"), radar, active sonar (called ASDIC
ASDIC
in Britain), depth charges, ASW spigot mortars (also known as "hedgehog"), the intermittent cracking of the German Naval Enigma code, the introduction of the Leigh light, the range of escort aircraft (especially with the use of escort carriers), the use of mystery ships, and the full entry of the U.S. into the war with its enormous shipbuilding capacity, all turned the tide against the U-boats. In the end, the U-boat
U-boat
fleet suffered extremely heavy casualties, losing 793 U-boats and about 28,000 submariners (a 75% casualty rate, the highest of all German forces during the war).

Survivors from German submarine U-175 after being sunk by USCGC Spencer, 17 April 1943

At the same time, the Allies targeted the U-boat
U-boat
shipyards and their bases with strategic bombing. Enigma machine[edit] Main article: Enigma machine The British had a major advantage in their ability to read some German naval Enigma codes. An understanding of the German coding methods had been brought to Britain via France from Polish code-breakers. Thereafter, code books and equipment were captured by raids on German weather ships and from captured U-boats. A team including Alan Turing used special purpose "Bombes" and early computers to break new German codes as they were introduced. The speedy decoding of messages was vital in directing convoys away from wolf packs and allowing interception and destruction of U-boats. This was demonstrated when the Naval Enigma machines were altered in February 1942 and wolf-pack effectiveness greatly increased until the new code was broken. The German submarine U-110, a Type IXB, was captured in 1941 by the Royal Navy, and its Enigma machine
Enigma machine
and documents were removed. U-559 was also captured by the British in October 1942; three sailors boarded her as she was sinking, and desperately threw all the code books out of the submarine so as to salvage them. Two of them, Able Seaman Colin Grazier
Colin Grazier
and Lieutenant Francis Anthony Blair Fasson, continued to throw code books out of the ship as it went under water, and went down with it. Further code books were captured by raids on weather ships. U-744 was boarded by crew from the Canadian ship HMCS Chilliwack on 6 March 1944, and codes were taken from her, but by this time in the war, most of the information was known.[17] The U-505, a Type IXC, was captured by the United States Navy
United States Navy
in June 1944. It is now a museum ship in Chicago at the Museum of Science and Industry. Battle of Bell Island[edit] Main article: Battle of the St. Lawrence Two events in the battle took place in 1942 when German U-boats attacked four allied ore carriers at Bell Island, Newfoundland. The carriers SS Saganaga and SS Lord Strathcona were sunk by U-513 on 5 September 1942, while the SS Rosecastle and PLM 27 were sunk by U-518 on 2 November with the loss of 69 lives. When the submarine launched a torpedo at the loading pier, Bell Island became the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces in World War II. Operation Deadlight[edit] Main article: Operation Deadlight "Operation Deadlight" was the code name for the scuttling of U-boats surrendered to the Allies after the defeat of Germany near the end of the war. Of the 154 U-boats surrendered, 121 were scuttled in deep water off Lisahally, Northern Ireland, or Loch Ryan, Scotland, in late 1945 and early 1946. Memorial[edit] Möltenort U-Boat Memorial Post– World War II
World War II
and Cold War (after 1945)[edit]

U-15, a Type 206 submarine, of the German Navy
German Navy
at the Kiel
Kiel
Week 2007

Type 212 submarine
Type 212 submarine
with air-independent propulsion of the German Navy in dock at HDW/Kiel

From 1955, the West German Bundesmarine
Bundesmarine
was allowed to have a small navy. Initially two sunken Type XXIIIs and a Type XXI were raised and repaired. In the 1960s, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) re-entered the submarine business. Because West Germany was initially restricted to a 450 tonne displacement limit, the Bundesmarine
Bundesmarine
focused on small coastal submarines to protect against the Soviet Union (Russian) threat in the Baltic Sea. The Germans sought to use advanced technologies to offset the small displacement, such as amagnetic steel to protect against naval mines and magnetic anomaly detectors. The initial Type 201 was a failure because of hull cracking; the subsequent Type 205, first commissioned in 1967, was a success, and 12 were built for the German navy. To continue the U-boat
U-boat
tradition, the new boats received the classic U designation starting with the U-1. With the Danish government's purchase of two Type 205 boats, the West German government realized the potential for the submarine as an export. Three of the improved Type 206 boats were later sold to the Israeli Navy, becoming the Gal-class. The German Type 209 diesel-electric submarine was the most popular export-sales submarine in the world from the late 1960s into the first years of the 21st century. With a larger 1,000–1,500 tonne displacement, the class was very customizable and has seen service with 14 navies with 51 examples being built as of 2006. Germany has brought the U-boat
U-boat
name into the 21st century with the new Type 212. The 212 features an air-independent propulsion system using hydrogen fuel cells. This system is safer than previous closed-cycle diesel engines and steam turbines, cheaper than a nuclear reactor and quieter than either. While the Type 212 is also being purchased by Italy, the Type 214 has been designed as the follow-on export model and has been sold to Greece, South Korea
South Korea
and Turkey. In July 2006, Germany commissioned its newest U-boat, the U-34, a Type 212. See also[edit]

Military of Germany portal Submarine
Submarine
portal

Submarine
Submarine
warfare List of U-boats of Germany List of U-boats never deployed List of successful U-boats List of successful U-boat
U-boat
commanders Das Boot, 1981 German U-boat
U-boat
film Aces of the Deep, 1994 U-boat
U-boat
simulator video game Silent Hunter III, 2005 U-boat
U-boat
simulator video game, third of a series Karl Dönitz Orkney Wireless Museum
Orkney Wireless Museum
contains an example of a U-boat
U-boat
radio List of Knight's Cross recipients of the U-boat
U-boat
service Sieglinde (decoy) Bold (decoy) U-boat
U-boat
Campaign (World War I) I-boat, Japanese equivalent

References[edit]

^ "U-boat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-22.  ^ Showell, p. 23 ^ Compare: Chaffin, Tom (2010). The H. L. Hunley: The Secret Hope of the Confederacy. Macmillan. p. 53. ISBN 9781429990356. Retrieved 2016-07-14. Bauer's boat made a promising start, diving in tests in the Baltic Sea's Bay of Kiel
Kiel
to depths of more than fifty feet. In 1851, during one of those tests, the boat malfunctioned. The Brandtaucher
Brandtaucher
plunged fifty-four vertical feet and refused to ascend from the seafloor. Bauer and his crew – leaving their craft on the bottom – barely escaped with their lives.  ^ Showell, p. 201 ^ Showell, pp. 22, 23, 25, 29 ^ Showell, p. 30 ^ Showell, pp. 36 & 37 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2008.  ^ "WWI U-Boats U-17". Uboat.net. Retrieved 2008-03-24.  ^ Haley Dixon (21 June 2013). "Story of Captain's courage resurfaces after 98 years". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 June 2013.  ^ "Full text of "A North Sea diary, 1914–1918 / Commander
Commander
Stephen King-Hall"".  ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 100–104. ISBN 0-19-509514-6.  ^ Military History Online ^ Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-4000-5363-6.  ^ Karl Dönitz. Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days. Naval Institute Press. p. 482. ISBN 0-87021-780-1.  ^ "The Torpedoes".  ^ Helgason, Gudmundur "Captured U Boats" UBoat.Net http://uboat.net/fates/captured.htm

Further reading[edit]

John Abbatiello. Anti- Submarine
Submarine
Warfare in World War I: British Naval Aviation and the Defeat of the U-Boats (2005) Buchheim, Lothar-Günther, Das Boot
Das Boot
(original German edition 1973, eventually translated into English and many other Western languages). Movie adaptation in 1981, directed by Wolfgang Petersen Gannon, Michael (1998) Black May. Dell Publishing. ISBN 0-440-23564-2 Gannon, Michael (1990) Operation Drumbeat. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-302-4 Gray, Edwyn A. The U-Boat War, 1914–1918 (1994) Hans Joachim Koerver. German Submarine
Submarine
Warfare 1914–1918 in the Eyes of British Intelligence, LIS Reinisch 2010, ISBN 978-3-902433-79-4 Kurson, Robert (2004). Shadow Divers: The True Adventure of Two Americans Who Risked Everything to Solve One of the Last Mysteries of World War II. Random House Publishing. ISBN 0-375-50858-9 Möller, Eberhard and Werner Brack. The Encyclopedia of U-Boats: From 1904 to the Present (2006) ISBN 1-85367-623-3 O'Connor, Jerome M. "Inside the Grey Wolves' Den." Naval History, June 2000. The US Naval Institute Author of the Year feature describes the building and operation of the German U-boat
U-boat
bases in France. Preston, Anthony (2005). The World's Greatest Submarines. Stern, Robert C. (1999). Battle Beneath the Waves: U-boats at war. Arms and Armor/Sterling Publishing. ISBN 1-85409-200-6. Showell, Jak Mallmann. The U-boat
U-boat
Century: German Submarine
Submarine
Warfare, 1906–2006 (2006) ISBN 1-59114-892-8 van der Vat, Dan. The Atlantic Campaign. Harper & Row, 1988. Connects submarine and antisubmarine operations between World War I and World War II, and suggests a continuous war. Von Scheck, Karl. U122: The Diary of a U-boat
U-boat
Commander. Diggory Press ISBN 978-1-84685-049-3 Georg von Trapp and Elizabeth M. Campbell. To the Last Salute: Memories of an Austrian U-Boat Commander
Commander
(2007) Westwood, David. U-Boat War: Doenitz and the evolution of the German Submarine
Submarine
Service 1935–1945 (2005) ISBN 1-932033-43-2 Werner, Herbert. Iron Coffins: A Personal Account of the German U-Boat Battles of World War II
World War II
ISBN 978-0-304-35330-9

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to U-boat.

TheSubPen The Sub "Pen," your home for submarine and U-boat
U-boat
history. uboat.net Comprehensive reference source for WW I and WW II U-boat information. uboat-bases.com The German U-boat
U-boat
bases of the WW-II in France: Brest, Lorient, St-Nazaire, La Rochelle, Bordeaux. ubootwaffe.net Comprehensive reference source for WW II U-boat information. WWII German UBoats German sub sank near U.S., The Augusta Chronicle U Boat Sanctuary – Inside The Indestructible U Boat Bases In Brittany History Articles

v t e

U-boats

Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
(World War I) Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
(World War II) Mediterranean (World War I) Mediterranean (World War II) Operation Regenbogen Operation Deadlight

U-boat
U-boat
lists

Types Regions German Successful Never deployed Austro-Hungarian Foreign captured Uncompleted projects

Commanders

Successful Knight's Cross recipients Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz

Wolfpacks

List of wolfpacks of World War II Blücher Borkum Dränger Eisbär Eisteufel Endrass Hai Hartmann Hecht Kiebitz Kreuzotter Leuthen Lohs Pfadfinder Pfeil Prien Raubgraf Rösing Rossbach Schill Schlieffen Seewolf Steinbrinck Siegfried Streitaxt Tümmler Vorwärts Weddigen West Wolf

Major engagements

Convoy SC 7 Convoy PQ 17 Battle of the St. Lawrence Convoy ONS 5 Black May Bismarck chase

U-boat
U-boat
flotillas

World War I

I II III IV Flanders Kurland Pola Constantinople

World War II

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Capital ships sunk

World War I

HMS Britannia HMS Cornwallis French battleship Danton HMS Formidable Gaulois Russian battleship Peresvet HMS Majestic Italian battleship Regina Margherita HMS Russell French battleship Suffren HMS Triumph

World War II

HMS Ark Royal HMS Barham HMS Courageous HMS Eagle HMS Royal Oak

Technology

Sonar Depth charge Hedgehog Leigh light Q-ship Snorkel Elektroboot

Concepts

Submarine
Submarine
warfare Intensified submarine warfare Unrestricted submarine warfare

v t e

Naval ships and warships in the Late Modern period

Naval ship
Naval ship
classes in service

submarine auxiliary

Operational zones

Blue-water navy Brown-water navy Green-water navy

Gun placement

Broadside Central battery Casemate Turrets

Aircraft carriers

Aircraft cruiser Amphibious assault ship Anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare
carrier Balloon carrier CAM ship Escort carrier Fighter catapult ship Fleet carrier Helicopter carrier Light aircraft carrier Merchant aircraft carrier Seaplane tender Submarine
Submarine
aircraft carrier Supercarrier

Battleships

Coastal defence ship Dreadnought Fast battleship Pre-dreadnought battleship Super-dreadnought (Standard-type battleship) Treaty battleship

Cruisers

Armored cruiser Battlecruiser Flight deck cruiser Heavy cruiser

Pocket battleship

Light cruiser Merchant raider Protected cruiser Strike cruiser Torpedo
Torpedo
cruiser Unprotected cruiser

Escort

Aviso Convoy rescue ship Destroyer Destroyer
Destroyer
escort Destroyer
Destroyer
leader Escort destroyer Escorteur Frigate Guided missile destroyer Kaibōkan Sloop

Transport

Amphibious transport dock Amphibious warfare ship Attack transport Dock landing ship Landing craft Landing craft
Landing craft
carrier Landing Craft Support Landing Ship Heavy Landing ship, infantry Landing Ship Medium Landing Ship, Tank Landing Ship Vehicle Troopship

Patrol craft

Armed boarding steamer Armed yacht Coastal Motor Boat Corvette Gunboat Harbour Defence Motor Launch Motor Launch Naval drifter Naval trawler Ocean boarding vessel Patrol boat Q-ship Steam Gun Boat Submarine
Submarine
chaser Torpedo
Torpedo
boat

Fast attack craft

E-boat MAS MGB Missile boat MTB MTM MTSM PT boat Shin'yō

Mine warfare

Danlayer Destroyer
Destroyer
minesweeper Mine countermeasures vessel Mine planter Minehunter Minelayer Minesweeper

Command and support

Amenities ship Ammunition ship Auxiliary repair dock Auxiliary ship Collier Combat stores ship Command ship Crane vessel Depot ship Destroyer
Destroyer
tender Dispatch boat Fast combat support ship General stores issue ship Hospital ship Naval tugboat Net laying ship Repair ship Replenishment oiler Submarine
Submarine
tender

Submarines

Attack submarine Ballistic missile submarine Coastal submarine Cruise missile submarine Cruiser
Cruiser
submarine Deep-submergence vehicle

DSRV

Fleet submarine Midget submarine U-boat

Miscellaneous

Arsenal ship Barracks ship Breastwork monitor Capital ship Flagship Guard ship Littoral combat ship Monitor River mon

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