The Info List - Uí Ímair

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The Uí (h)Ímair [iː ˈiːvˠaɾʲ] ( listen), or Dynasty of Ivar, was a royal Norse dynasty which ruled much of the Irish Sea region, the Kingdom of Dublin, the western coast of Scotland, including the Hebrides
and some part of Northern England, from the mid 9th century. The dynasty lost control of York in the mid 10th century, but reigned over the other domains at variously disputed times, depending on which rulers may be counted among their descendants. This has proved a difficult question for scholars to determine, because reliable pedigrees do not survive. Additionally, for between three and four decades, the Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
were probably overkings of the Kingdom of Scotland
itself,[3] distinct from the Kingdom of Strathclyde, of which they may also have been overkings, and later briefly the Irish province of Munster, dominated from Waterford, and later still, briefly the English kingdom of Mercia. In the west of Ireland, the Uí Ímair also supplied at least two kings of Limerick, from which they may have attempted to conquer Munster
again. On the female side, two members are styled Queens of Ireland in the Irish annals (they were also Queen of Mide and Queen of Munster, respectively), while another was Queen of Leinster
(and Osraige). In the Norse sources, another was Queen consort of Norway. Finally, another may have been Queen of Brega. The name Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
in Old Irish means "grandchildren" or descendants of Ivar, but the dynasty includes its progenitor and his sons. The Irish annals describe Ivar as the brother of Amlaíb Conung
Amlaíb Conung
and of Auisle, and the Annals of Ulster record his obituary under the year 873, reading: Imhar, rex Nordmannorum totius Hibernie & Brittanie, uitam finiuit ["Ivar, king of all the Norse of Ireland and Britain, ended his life"].[4] Probably the senior leader of the Great Heathen Army,[5] Ivar may thus have become the inspiration for the legendary Ivar the Boneless
Ivar the Boneless
(fl. 865-860), son of Ragnar Lodbrok. In any event, Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
dynasts may also have exercised power as overkings of East Anglia during their career in Britain. Alex Woolf points out it would be a mistake to view the lordship as a "unitary empire";[6] it was, rather, a collection of lordships ruled by the same kindred, with only varying degrees of unity depending on the political circumstances of the moment and the charisma of individual leaders. Especially in the early period, a great portion of the dynasty's wealth, probably the majority, came from the international slave trade, both as slavers themselves and from the taxation of it,[7] for which they were infamous in their time. In this role they star as the principal antagonists in the early 12th-century Irish epic political tract The War of the Irish with the Foreigners, although the account is exaggerated.[8] One of the greatest dynasties of the Viking Age, the Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
were at their height the most fearsome and wide-reaching power in the British Isles
British Isles
and perhaps beyond.[9] However, unlike the contemporary Rurikids
in the East they ultimately failed to make any long-lasting territorial gains of significance and are considered[by whom?] a strategic failure, despite their considerable economic and political influence.[10][page needed]


1 Ancestral homeland 2 Dynasts 3 Later Waterford
and Limerick 4 Loss of Dublin 5 Later Ireland in general, and intermarriage 6 Later Mann and the Isles

6.1 Crovan dynasty 6.2 Clann Somhairle

7 Gwynedd 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

Ancestral homeland[edit] Some historians believe Ímar
and Ivar the Boneless
Ivar the Boneless
to be identical, others claim they are two different individuals. According to Irish annals, Ímar
was the son of Gofraid (also Goffridh, Gothfraid or Guðrøðr), who was the king of Lochlann. The Norwegians at this point were often referred to as Lochlanns by the Irish. Lochlann
was widely accepted among scholars as being identical to Norway, recently however this has been questioned, among others by Donnchadh Ó Corráin. His and others' theory is that Lochlann
was the "viking Scotland" (Norse/Norwegian settlements on the Scottish islands and northern mainland). Whether the Irish annals used the term Lochlann
to refer to Norway or to the Norse settlements in Scotland
is still a matter of debate, however by the 11th century the term had come to mean Norway.[11] According to Donnchadh Ó Corráin there is no evidence that any branch of the royal Danish dynasty ruled in Ireland. He also claims that Ímar's brother, Amlaíb Conung
Amlaíb Conung
(the name "Conung" is from the Old Norse
Old Norse
konungr and simply means "king"), who often has been identified as part of the royal Norwegian dynasty (Ynglingene), was in fact not. He argues that both Ímar
and his brothers were part of a Norse dynasty centered in and around the Scottish mainland.[11] The Norwegian historian Kim Hjardar and archaeologist Vegard Vike claim that Ímar
is the same person as the Dane Ivar the Boneless, and that he and the Norwegian chieftain Amlaíb Conung
Amlaíb Conung
(Olaf the White) arrived in Ireland as leaders of a coalition of Vikings whose goal was to take control over the Viking settlements in Ireland. When the Irish annals describe Ímar
and Amlaíb Conung
Amlaíb Conung
as brothers, Hjardar and Vike claims that this has to be interpreted as a metaphor for "warrior brothers" or "brothers in arms".[12] Dynasts[edit] The following list contains only members mentioned in the Irish annals and other reliable and semi-reliable sources, such as the Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, and among those only the ones who can be placed in the pedigree with relative confidence. Thus it is by no means complete. Among recent developments in scholarship it has been argued that the historical king of Northumbria
contributing to the character of Eric Bloodaxe
Eric Bloodaxe
was actually an Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
dynast.[13] First proposed by James Henthorn Todd
James Henthorn Todd
in 1867,[14] and most recently considered by Alex Woolf and Clare Downham, it is possible the Uí Ímair were peculiar in that some early members, and possibly the entire known later dynasty, descended from the founder via the female line.[15] After various authors. Birthdates are unknown. mac = son of; ingen = daughter of; ua = grandchild of; Ua (h)Ímair = surname (descendant of Ímar).

Pedigree of the Dynasty
of Ivar

Ímar/Ívar/Ivar/Ívarr (died 873)

Bárid mac Ímair
Bárid mac Ímair
(died 881) Sichfrith mac Ímair
Sichfrith mac Ímair
(died 888) Sitric mac Ímair (died 896)  ? mac/ingen Ímair, and/or among the above sons

Amlaíb ua Ímair (died 896) Ímar
ua Ímair (died 904) Ragnall ua Ímair
Ragnall ua Ímair
(died 920/1)

 ? mac Ragnaill (died 942) Ímar
(died 950)?

probably Ímar
of Waterford
(died 1000)

Gilla Pátraic mac Ímair (died 983) Ragnall mac Ímair (died 995) Donndubán mac Ímair (died 996) Ragnall mac Ímair II (died 1018)

 ? mac Ragnaill (died 1015) Ragnall mac Ragnaill
Ragnall mac Ragnaill
(died 1035)

Sihtric mac Ímair (died 1022)

Sitric Cáech
Sitric Cáech
(died 927)

Sichfrith mac Sitric (died 937) Ausle mac Sitric (died 937) Aralt mac Sitric (died 940)

probably Maccus mac Arailt
Maccus mac Arailt
(died 984/7) probably Gofraid mac Arailt (died 989)

Ragnall mac Gofraid
Ragnall mac Gofraid
(died 1005) Lagmann mac Gofraid (died ?)

Amlaíb mac Lagmann (died 1014)

 ? Donnchadh mac Amlaíb (died 1014)

Máel Muire ingen Gofraid (died ?)

Gofraid mac Sitriuc
Gofraid mac Sitriuc
(died 951) Amlaíb Cuarán
Amlaíb Cuarán
(died 981)

Ragnall mac Amlaíb (died 980) Glúniairn
(died 989)

Gilla Ciaráin mac Glúniairn
(died 1014) Sitric? mac Glúniairn
(fl. 1036)

Aralt mac Amlaíb (died 999)

mac Arailt (died 1054)

Dubgall mac Amlaíb (died 1014) Ragnailt ingen Amlaíb (died ?) Máel Muire ingen Amlaíb (died 1021) Gytha ingen Amlaíb (died ?) Sigtrygg Silkbeard
Sigtrygg Silkbeard
(died 1042)

Artalach mac Sitric (died 999) Amlaíb mac Sitric I/II (died 1013) Glúniairn
mac Sitric (died 1031) Amlaíb mac Sitriuc II/I (died 1034)

Ragnailt ingen Amlaíb (died ?)

Gofraid mac Sitric (died 1036) Cellach ingen Sitric (died 1042)

Gofraid ua Ímair
Gofraid ua Ímair
(died 934)

Alpdann mac Gofraid (died 927) Amlaíb mac Gofraid (died 941)

Cammán mac Amlaíb (fl. 962)

Ragnall mac Gofraid
Ragnall mac Gofraid
(fl. 943) Blácaire mac Gofraid (died 948)

 ? ua Ímair (or among the above grandsons?)

Ua hÍmair, of Limerick
(died 977)

Amlaíb mac Ímair (died 977) Dubcenn mac Ímair (died 977)

Osli mac Dubceinn (died 1012) Amond mac Dubceinn (died 1014)

Aralt mac Ímair (died 978)

The precise lineage of one of the very last widely agreed upon members of the dynasty, Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, is uncertain. He was either a descendant of Ivar of Waterford
(died 1000) or Gofraid mac Arailt (died 989). That of Cacht ingen Ragnaill, Queen of Donnchad mac Briain, may or may not depend upon Echmarcach's. Later Waterford
and Limerick[edit] The independent dynasty of Waterford
founded or continued by Ivar of Waterford
(died 1000) cannot be linked genealogically to the 'central' line of Dublin kings, but James Henthorn Todd
James Henthorn Todd
gave him a descent from Ragnall ua Ímair, who never ruled there.[16] Their claim to Dublin and the names of their dynasts suggest they did belong to the dynasty.[17] Like in the case of the late Waterford
dynasty, the pedigree of the last Norse to rule in Limerick
is also uncertain. Ivar of Limerick (died 977), and surnamed Ua hÍmair, features prominently in the early 12th century saga Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, although he appears less in the annals, which are lacunose and in general poorer for western Ireland. In any case he and/or the Waterford
dynasty are probably survived today through intermarriage with the O'Donovan family, verifiably associated with both and known for their use of Uí Ímair dynastic names in medieval times. A notable sept of the O'Donovans known as the Sliocht Íomhair or "Seed of Ivor" survived into early modern times. It is also periodically claimed that some of the family may even be male line descendants of Ivar of Waterford, a variant of which (through his son Donndubán) actually appeared in the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
for a few decades.[18] This remains unverified and the family do not make this last claim themselves. All (surviving) septs profess a Gaelic lineage. Loss of Dublin[edit] How long the Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
remained in Dublin after losing it to the Uí Cheinnselaig in 1052 is unknown. Following the death of Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó in 1072 the kingship appears to have been held by one Gofraid mac Amlaíb meic Ragnaill, who may or may not have been a candidate supported by Toirdelbach Ua Briain. While it has been argued he was installed by Toirdelbach,[19] the annals themselves make no such statement, which but for one only briefly report Gofraid's death in 1075, and variously style him King of the Foreigners and King of Dublin. But according to the Annals of Inisfallen
Annals of Inisfallen
"Gofraid grandson of Ragnall, king of Áth Cliath, was banished over sea by Tairdelbach Ua Briain, and he died beyond the sea, having assembled a great fleet [to come] to Ireland."[20] So Gofraid, regardless of how he took the throne, thought he had some chance of reestablishing the dynasty independent in Dublin in spite of the Gaels. Godred Crovan
Godred Crovan
may have been successful for a period after him. Later Ireland in general, and intermarriage[edit]

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Certainly the Uí Ímair, an enormous dynasty, were once survived by a number of Gaelic families, or in their own right in Ireland, but the combination of the Norman invasion of Ireland
Norman invasion of Ireland
and later Tudor conquest destroyed the vast majority of the medieval Norse-Irish and Gaelic aristocracy alike. Dense clusters of given names strongly associated with the Norse dynasty can be found in professedly Gaelic families in the great genealogical compilations of Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh and Cú Choigcríche Ó Cléirigh, and in various other sources. However, a strange phenomenon becomes apparent, that while the dynasty were concentrated in Dublin, Waterford
and Limerick, and thus in the southern half of Ireland, these professedly Gaelic families later using their given names with great frequency are found mainly in the northern half of the island, their pedigrees associating them with the Connachta, Uí Maine, and Northern Uí Néill. On top of this, none of these northern dynasties have a documented history of willing association with the Uí Ímair, or in the case of the first two any association at all. The Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
are only documented intermarrying with the Osraighe (the FitzPatricks), Laigin, O'Brien dynasty, the Southern Uí Néill Clann Cholmáin
Clann Cholmáin
and Síl nÁedo Sláine and the aforementioned O'Donovans. In any event, the one long surviving source that might have contained pedigrees of surviving septs of the Uí Ímair themselves was a section in the Great Book of Lecan. This section, specifically focused on the pedigrees and doings of the Norse families of Ireland, was still in existence in the 17th century, as reported by Mac Firbis himself, but has since become lost.[21] From his daughter Máel Muire the FitzPatricks of Ossory are descendants of Gofraid mac Arailt, probable grandson of Sitric Cáech, King of Dublin. Their ancestor Cerball mac Dúnlainge
Cerball mac Dúnlainge
counted Ímar
I (died 873) as an ally. Later Mann and the Isles[edit] Crovan dynasty[edit] Main article: Crovan dynasty Descendants of the Dublin Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
may have persisted into the 13th century in the line of Godred Crovan, King of Dublin and King of Mann and the Isles, although his ancestry is not agreed upon and may very well be different.[22] If he in fact was, then he was mostly likely a son or nephew of Ímar
mac Arailt above, one of the last certain Uí Ímair kings of Dublin and a grandson of Amlaíb Cuarán. Godred's descendants, although vassals of the Kings of Norway, continued to rule into the 1260s, the last being Magnús Óláfsson (to 1265), or briefly his son Guðrøðr (1275). Clann Somhairle[edit] Main article: Clann Somhairle Although their descent from Godred Crovan
Godred Crovan
is through the female line, Alex Woolf believes the Clann Somhairle ( Clan Donald
Clan Donald
and Clan MacDougall) or the Lords of the Isles can be regarded as a "cadet branch" of the Uí Ímair, as they apparently based their claim to the Isles on this descent (according to Woolf).[23] Their founder Somerled married Ragnhild, daughter of Olafr Godredsson, King of Mann and the Isles and son of Godred Crovan. This of course assumes these dynasts belonged to the Uí Ímair. Sir Iain Moncreiffe
Iain Moncreiffe
attempted to reconstruct a male line descent from Echmarcach mac Ragnaill
Echmarcach mac Ragnaill
himself to Somerled.[24] Gwynedd[edit] Amlaíb mac Sitriuc (Ólafr son of Sigtrygg Silkbeard, King of Dublin) became an ancestor of the Kings of Gwynedd through his daughter Ragnhild, wife of Cynan ab Iago and mother of the famous Gruffudd ap Cynan. See also[edit]

Scandinavian York Kingdom of Dublin Norse–Gaels Origins of the Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
and the Earls of Orkney


^ Kirsten Møller, Vikingeætten. 1997. ^ In addition, Ivar Ragnarsson
Ivar Ragnarsson
of the sagas is a descendant of Ivar Vidfamne through his daughter Aud or Alfhild, according to some traditions. ^ a b Ó Corráin 1998 ^ Annals of Ulster, ed. & tr. Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill (1983). The Annals of Ulster
Annals of Ulster
(to AD 1131). Dublin: DIAS. Lay summary – CELT (2008).  ^ Woolf (2007), p. 71 ^ Woolf, Alex (2002) "Age of Sea-Kings: 900-1300", in: Donald Omand (ed.), The Argyll Book, Edinburgh: Birlinn, pp. 95-96. ^ Valante, passim ^ ed. & tr. James Henthorn Todd
James Henthorn Todd
(1867) ^ The dynasty may have retained influence in their Scandinavian homelands, and also held some in Normandy. For both these areas our sources are very poor. ^ Ó Corráin, Downham, Woolf, Valante ^ a b http://www.ucc.ie/celt/Vikings%20in%20Scotland%20and%20Ireland.pdf ^ Kim Hjardar & Vegard Vike, Vikings at War, p.224-226. ^ Downham 2004, passim; 2007, passim ^ Todd 1867 ^ Woolf (2007) p. 131; Downham (2007) p. 34. The latter speculates that the known grandsons of Ímar, who lack a patronymic, and are referred to as "ua Ímair", may have been the "children of a daughter (or daughters) of Ívarr". She provides a note that " Alex Woolf has put forward this idea in conversation". ^ Todd, p. 294. He is followed by Valante, p. 178. ^ Downham, p. 56-7 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Ó Cróinin ^ Annals of Inisfallen, ed. & tr. Seán Mac Airt (1944). The Annals of Inisfallen
Annals of Inisfallen
(MS. Rawlinson B. 503). Dublin: DIAS.  Edition and translation available from CELT. ^ Alexander Bugge (ed. & tr.), of Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh, On the Fomorians and the Norsemen. Christiania: J. Chr. Gundersens Bogtrykkeri. 1905. See Bugge's introduction. ^ Seán Duffy, "Irishmen and Islesmen in the Kingdom of Dublin
Kingdom of Dublin
and Man 1052-1171", in Ériu 43 (1992): 93-133. p. 106 ^ Alex Woolf, The origins and ancestry of Somerled: Gofraid mac Fergusa and 'The Annals of the Four Masters', Medieval Scandinavia 15 (2005) ^ Iain Moncreiffe, The Highland Clans: the dynastic origins, chiefs and background of the Clans connected with Highland history and of some other families. Clarkson N. Potter. Revised edition, 1982. p. 56.


Downham, Clare (2004). " Eric Bloodaxe
Eric Bloodaxe
- axed? The Mystery of the Last Viking King of York", in Mediaeval Scandinavia 1: 51–77. Downham, Clare (2007). Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland: The Dynasty
of Ívarr to A.D. 1014. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press. Duffy, Seán (1992). "Irishmen and Islesmen in the Kingdom of Dublin and Man 1052-1171". Ériu (43): 93–133. JSTOR 30007421.  Forte, Angelo, Richard Oram, & Frederik Pedersen (2005). Viking Empires. Cambridge: U. P. ISBN 0-521-82992-5. Holman, Katherine (2007). The Northern Conquest: Vikings in Britain and Ireland. Signal Books Hudson, Benjamin T. (2005). Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion, and Empire in the North Atlantic. Oxford Jaski, Bart (1995). "The Vikings and the Kingship of Tara", in Peritia 9: 310–53. BREPOLS Larsen, Anne-Christine (ed.) (2001). The Vikings in Ireland. Roskilde: The Viking Ship Museum. Loyn, H. R., (1977). The Vikings in Britain. London: B. T. Batsford. (Rev. ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.) Maund, K. L. (ed.) (2006), Gruffudd ap Cynan: A Collaborative Biography. Boydell Press. Ní Mhaonaigh, Máire (1996). "Cogad Gáedel Re Gallaib and the Annals: A Comparison", in Ériu 47: 101–26. JSTOR Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (undated). "General: Vikings in Ireland". UCC: Corpus of Electronic Texts. Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (1998), "The Vikings in Scotland
and Ireland in the Ninth Century" (PDF), Peritia, 12: 296–339, retrieved 15 January 2011  Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí (1995), Early Medieval Ireland 400–1200, Longman History of Ireland, London: Longman, ISBN 0-582-01565-0  Thornton, David E. (2006), "The Genealogy of Gruffudd ap Cynan", in K. L. Maund (ed.) (2006), Gruffudd ap Cynan: A Collaborative Biography. Boydell Press. pp. 79–108. Todd, James Henthorn (ed. & tr.) (1867). Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh: The War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. Woolf, Alex (2002). "Age of Sea-Kings: 900-1300", in Donald Omand (ed.), The Argyll Book. Edinburgh: Birlinn; pp. 94–109. Woolf, Alex (2007), From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070, The New Edinburgh History of Scotland, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5  Valante, Mary A. (2008). The Vikings in Ireland: Settlement, Trade and Urbanization. Four Courts Press.

Hjardar, Kim; Vike, Vegard (2001). Vikings at war. Oslo: Spartacus. ISBN 978-82-430-0475-7.  http://www.ucc.ie/celt/Vikings%20in%20Scotland%20and%20Ireland.pdf

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries


Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov


Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte


Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland


Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor


Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart


Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor


Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe


Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy


Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy


Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine


Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)


Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy


Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi


Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov


Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab


Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš


House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family


Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov


Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević




Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe


Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans


Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti


Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma




Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)


Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe


Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen


Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine




Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

v t e

Scandinavian Scotland


List of kings Earls of Orkney Crovan dynasty Lords of Argyll Mormaers of Caithness Uí Ímair

Notable women

Aud the Deep-Minded Bethóc, Prioress of Iona Bjaðǫk Cacht ingen Ragnaill Gormflaith ingen Murchada Gunnhild Gormsdóttir Helga Moddansdóttir Ingeborg of Norway Ingibjörg the Earls'-Mother Isabel Bruce Máel Muire ingen Amlaíb Margaret, Maid of Norway Margaret, Queen of Norway Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland Ragnhild Eriksdotter

Other notable men

Caittil Find Ingimundr Ljótólfr Olaf the White Olvir Rosta Páll Bálkason Ragnall ua Ímair Sweyn Asleifsson Thorbjorn Thorsteinsson Thorstein the Red


Kingdom of the Isles Dál Riata Gall-Ghàidheil Lochlann Orkney Outer Hebrides Shetland Scottish–Norwegian War
Scottish–Norwegian War
(1262-66) Scotland Norway


Bornish Birsay Bishop's Palace Brough of Birsay Camas Uig Cubbie Roo's Castle Earl's Bu Jarlshof Kirkwall Castle Linton Chapel Maeshowe Old Scatness Port an Eilean Mhòir boat burial Rubha an Dùnain Scar boat burial St Magnus Church

Artifacts and culture

Birlinn Chronicles of Mann Darraðarljóð Galloway Hoard Hogbacks Lewis chessmen Manx runestones Orkneyinga saga Ounceland Sen dollotar Ulaid St Magnus Cathedral Udal law


Delting Dingwall Law Ting Holm Lunnasting Nesting Sandsting Tingwall Tynwald


Middle Irish Norn Old Norse Pictish Old Norwegian


Scottish island names Northern Isles Hebrides

Battles and treaties

Bauds Brunanburh Clontarf Dollar Barry Epiphany Isle of Man Largs Renfrew Skyhill Tara Vestrajǫrðr Treaty of 1098 Treaty of Perth

Associated clans and septs

Gunn Uí Ímair Somhairle Macaulay of Lewis Mac Coitir MacDougall MacLeod Macruari MacDonald

v t e

Kingdom of Munster



Eóganacht Chaisil Eóganacht Glendamnach Eóganacht Locha Léin Eóganacht Raithlind Eóganacht Áine Eóganacht Airthir Cliach Eóganacht Ninussa


Corcu Baiscind Corcu Duibne Corcu Loígde Múscraige Corca Oiche


Corco Mruad Ciarraige Luachra Ciarraige Chuirchi Ciarraige Áei Ciarraige Choinnenn Orbraige Aradh


Deirgtine Dáirine Mairtine Déisi Muman Dál gCais Uí Fidgenti Uí Liatháin Uí Duach Éile Cenél Cerdraige Osraige Fir Maige Féne Aes Ealla Uaithne Glasraighe Dál Coirpri Aradh

Reigning clans


Dáirine Deirgtine Corcu Loígde Eóganacht Áine Eóganacht Glendamnach Eóganacht Chaisil Múscraige Eóganacht Raithlind Uí Ímair Dál gCais


Ó hEidirsceoil Ó Ciarmhaic Ó Caoimh Ó Súilleabháin Mac Cárthaigh Ó Donnagáin Ó Donnchadha Ó Mathghamhna Ó Briain

Successor realms

Osraige Desmond Thomond Ormond Lordship of Ireland


List of kings of Munster Province of Munster Munster
Irish Annals of Inisfallen Senchas Fagbála Caisil Caithréim Chellacháin Chaisil Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib

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