TZIPORAH MALKA "TZIPI" LIVNI (
Hebrew : ציפורה מלכה
"ציפי" לבני; pronounced born 8 July 1958) is a
prominent Israeli politician and former Foreign Minister of
Widely considered the most powerful woman in
Israel since Golda Meir
, Livni has served in eight different cabinet positions throughout
her career, setting the record for most government roles held by an
Israeli woman . Consequently, she has achieved a number of milestones
in Israeli government, as the first female Vice Prime Minister ,
Justice Minister , Agriculture Minister , and Housing Minister .
In 2011, she was named one of "150 Women Who Shake the World" by
Newsweek _ and _
The Daily Beast _. From 2006 to 2008, _
magazine ranked Livni on its List of 100 Most Powerful Women three
years in row, while _Time_ included her in its 2007 "Time 100," for
which U.S. Secretary of State
Condoleezza Rice penned an op-ed. In
Israel, Livni has earned a reputation as an honest politician who
sticks to her principles.
Born to a prominent right-wing, revisionist Zionist family, Livni has
become one of Israel's leading voices in support of a two-state
solution —one that ensures Israel's security and identity as a
Jewish and democratic state.
From 2001 to 2009, Livni served in the cabinets of
Ariel Sharon and
Ehud Olmert , most notably as Israel\'s Foreign Minister , during
which time she led multiple rounds of peace talks with the
Palestinians. In September 2008, Livni prepared to take office as
Prime Minister of
Israel , but the political climate in the country
prevented her from forming a government. The following year, she led
her party to win a plurality of seats in the Knesset, but was again
blocked from becoming prime minister, due to the rightist parties'
majority in the Knesset. Consequently, she served as Leader of the
Opposition from 2009, until her resignation from the
Knesset in 2012.
Later that year, Livni founded a new party,
Hatnuah , to compete in
the 2013 elections, after which she was appointed Justice Minister in
the Thirty-third government of
Israel , again leading a new round of
Israeli–Palestinian peace talks. In December 2014, a number of
policy disputes within the government led
Benjamin Netanyahu to
dismiss Livni from his cabinet and call new elections. In the 2015
election, Livni joined forces with Labor Party leader
Isaac Herzog to
Zionist Union , a unified bloc of their two parties.
On February 11, 2017, it was reported that UN Secretary-General
Antonio Guterres had offered Livni the post of Under-Secretary-General
United Nations . Livni would be the first Israeli to serve in
such a senior position at the organization.
* 1 Early life
* 2 IDF service and
* 3 Education, family, and legal career
* 4 Political career
* 4.1 1999–2005:
* 4.2 2005–2012:
* 5 2006–2009: Foreign Minister of
* 6 2008–2009: Candidate for Prime Minister
Kadima leadership victory
* 6.2 Forming a government
* 6.3 2009 elections
* 7 2009–2012: Leader of the Opposition
* 7.1 Criticism
* 7.2 UK arrest warrant
* 7.3 Leadership defeat and resignation
* 8 2012–2017:
* 8.1 2013 elections
* 8.2 Minister of Justice
2013–14 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks
* 8.4 Dismissal
* 9 2014–Present: The
* 9.1 2015 elections
* 9.2 Opposition
* 10 References
* 11 External links
Tel Aviv , Livni is the daughter of
Eitan Livni (born in
Poland) and Sara (Rosenberg), both prominent former
After Israel's independence, Eitan and Sara Livni became the first
couple to marry in the new state. Her father served as the chief
operations officer of the
As a child, Livni was a member of the
Betar youth movement and played
basketball for Elitzur
Tel Aviv . Growing up in an
by the Labour Party , Livni says she felt marginalized, believing that
the establishment had minimized her parents' contribution to Israel's
founding. Despite the hard-line image of the Irgun, she says her
parents had respect for the Arabs and acted only against the British
army, not civilians.
During the 1984
Likud primaries, her father, who had served in the
Likud as a moderate, did not campaign for a
seat in the Knesset, and urged party members to support a Druze
candidate instead because he thought it important for
Likud to have
IDF SERVICE AND MOSSAD
Livni served in the IDF , gaining rank of lieutenant. Livni later
served in the
Mossad during 1980 and 1984, between the ages of 22 and
26. According to an interview in
Yediot Aharonot , described in _The
Sunday Times _, she served in the elite unit responsible for Operation
Wrath of God . She resigned from the IDF in August 1983 to marry and
finish her law studies.
EDUCATION, FAMILY, AND LEGAL CAREER
A graduate of
Bar-Ilan University 's Faculty of Law, she has
practiced public and commercial law for over 10 years. Livni resides
in Tel Aviv. She is married to advertising executive Naftali Spitzer,
and the couple have two children, Omri (born 1987) and Yuval (born
1990). Livni has been a vegetarian since the age of 12. Besides her
Hebrew , Livni also speaks fluent English and French
, having lived in
Paris for a number of years.
Eitan Livni , a
Herut Member of Knesset, died in
1991. Her mother, Sara, who died in 2007, stood by Livni's decision to
Likud and also accepted her support for the two-state solution,
although it "hurt her."
Livni entered politics in 1995 when she tried unsuccessfully to win a
spot on Likud's list to the Knesset. She was appointed as head of the
government-owned corporations authority in
Netanyahu 's government,
and oversaw the privatization of a number of companies. While in this
capacity, in 1998 she was considered a prominent candidate to become
director general of the Finance Ministry.
Livni would later rue the decision to privatize certain companies and
natural resources. As
Hatnuah chairwoman in 2013, she wrote: "I am not
sure that today I would once again privatize
Israel Chemicals and the
natural resources at the
Dead Sea ."
Livni was first elected to the
Knesset as a member of the
Ariel Sharon became prime minister in 2001, he appointed
her to many positions his cabinet. Her first cabinet position as a
Likud member was Minister of Regional Co-operation which she held from
7 March 2001 until 29 August 2001. In December 2002 Sharon appointed
her to serve as Minister of Agriculture . She held this position until
February 2003. In 2003, Livni was appointed Minister of Immigrant
Absorption . She held this position until 2006. In 2004, Livni was
appointed Minister of Housing and Construction , which she held this
position until 2005.
Livni was an avid supporter of Sharon's disengagement plan , and was
generally considered to be among the key moderate members of the Likud
party. She often mediated between various elements inside the party,
and was integral to garnering government support for disengagement
with the "Livni Plan". She made efforts to achieve a two-state
solution to the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict , including successful
efforts to have the pullout from the
Gaza Strip ratified by the
Knesset. On 12 November 2005, she spoke at the official annual
Yitzhak Rabin 's assassination . In 2004, she
received the _Abirat Ha-Shilton_ ("Quality of Governance") award.
On 20 November 2005, Livni, a member of Likud's moderate wing,
Kadima party with Sharon and
Ehud Olmert . Ahead of the 28
March elections, Livni was appointed to be the new Foreign Minister,
while continuing to serve as Justice Minister, as a result of the mass
Likud Party members from the government.
In the selection of candidates for the March 2006
Knesset election ,
Livni was awarded the number three position on Kadima's list of
candidates, which effectively guaranteed her election to the Knesset.
2006–2009: FOREIGN MINISTER OF ISRAEL
Livni and French FM Douste-Blazy
In 2006, Livni was appointed as Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs
. She held this position until 2009. In Ehud Olmert's government,
Livni was also appointed Designated Acting Prime Minister (also known
as Vice Prime Minister), taking the place of the prime minister if he
or she is outside the country or temporarily or permanently unable to
fulfill his or her duties. She ceased serving as Justice Minister at
that time, but again held that position from 29 November 2006 to 7
February 2007, while still serving in her primary role of Foreign
Minister. Livni at the
World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2007
As Foreign Minister, Livni was in charge of negotiations with the
Palestinian Authority. During these negotiations, she raised the
possibility of fixing the future border between
Israel and the future
Palestinian state so as to place Israeli Arab towns within the
Palestinian state, an idea originally suggested by Israeli politician
Avigdor Liberman . Her record for pragmatism as foreign minister
earned her a high level of respect among US, European, and even Arab
diplomatic circles, that has lasted even after she left the post.
Livni and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton , 2009
After the March 2006
Knesset election , she was described as "the
second most powerful politician in Israel". Livni is the second woman
Israel to hold the post of foreign minister, after
Golda Meir . In
2007, she was included in the _Time_ 100 Most Influential People in
the World. _
Forbes _ ranked her the 40th most powerful woman in the
world in 2006, 39th in 2007, and 52nd in 2008.
Livni became the first Israeli cabinet minister to explicitly
differentiate Palestinian guerrilla attacks against Israeli military
targets from terrorist attacks against civilians. In an interview on
the US television news show _
Nightline _, recorded on 28 March 2006,
Livni stated, "Somebody who is fighting against Israeli soldiers is an
enemy and we will fight back, but I believe that this is not under the
definition of terrorism, if the target is a soldier." Livni
meets with President
George W. Bush
In 2007, she met with Palestinian prime minister ,
Salam Fayyad , to
discuss "improving the lives of the Palestinian people, without
compromising Israel's security."
On 2 May 2007, Livni called for Olmert's resignation in the wake of
the publication of the
Winograd Commission 's interim report
criticizing Olmert and Defense Minister
Ehud Barak for their handling
Second Lebanon War in 2006. She offered herself as leader of
Kadima if Olmert decided to step down, and asserted her confidence in
her ability to defeat him in a party election should he decline.
However, her call was ignored by Olmert and her decision to stay in
the Cabinet sparked some controversy.
In 2008, Livni condemned a photomontage of Pope
Benedict XVI with a
swastika displayed on his chest, which was published on a website run
by supporters of her
2008–2009: CANDIDATE FOR PRIME MINISTER
Tzipi Livni party 2009.
KADIMA LEADERSHIP VICTORY
Facing multiple criminal investigations for corruption, Ehud Olmert
announced his intention to resign his post as prime minister following
Kadima leadership election, which was held on 17 September 2008.
Shaul Mofaz emerged as the main rivals for the leadership.
Livni won the
Kadima leadership election by a margin of just 431 votes
(1%). Palestinian peace negotiators were reportedly pleased with the
FORMING A GOVERNMENT
As the new leader of the ruling party, Livni became prime-minister
designate. Upon declaring victory, she stated "the national
responsibility (bestowed) by the public brings me to approach this job
with great reverence."
On 21 September 2008, Olmert formally resigned in a letter submitted
Shimon Peres , and the following day Peres formally asked
Livni to form a new government. Livni faced tough negotiations with
Kadima's coalition partners, particularly the
Shas party, which had
set conditions for joining a Livni government, including an increase
in child allowances to Haredi communities, and a vow not to negotiate
the status of
Jerusalem during peace talks with the Palestinians.
Livni was able to sign a coalition agreement with the Labor party, led
by former prime minister Ehud Barak, but on October 26, informed the
President that she was unable to form a government and suggested
Israel go to elections. Livni cited her unwillingness to sell out her
principles just to become prime minister, stating, "I was willing to
pay a price to form a government, but I was never willing to risk the
political and economic future of Israel. If someone is willing to sell
out his principles for the job, he is not worthy of it." For its
part, Likud, the main opposition party led by Benjamin Netanyahu,
Shas and other parties essential to Livni's government to
support early elections.
Kadima youth activists, 2009
In February 2009
Israel held elections for the Knesset. Livni,
foreign minister and head of the
Kadima party, campaigned against
Benjamin Netanyahu of the
Likud party to lead the new government.
While election results gave
Kadima the most seats in the Knesset,
parties to the right in Israel's political spectrum gained enough
seats that a coalition government under
Kadima leadership was
unlikely. As a result, Israeli president
Shimon Peres asked Netanyahu
Likud (which received one fewer seat than
Kadima in the elections)
to form a government; this was the first time in Israel's history that
the party with the most seats was not asked to attempt to form a
government. Livni declares victory in 2009 elections
The New York Times _ commended Livni for "refusing the extortionist
conditions set by
Shas ," and endorsed her candidacy for prime
minister, saying Israelis would have "a clear choice in February
between a leader who has the courage to abandon tired old thinking on
politics and security and one who has not." Although it expressed
some doubts, the Israeli newspaper _
Haaretz _ also endorsed Livni for
When Livni was tapped to form the next governing coalition,
Palestinian political analyst Mahdi Abdel Hadi said that Livni had
been received warmly in the Gulf, and that she was the leader most
Arabs want to see as Israel's next prime minister. During the 2009
general elections, Arab media depicted her very negatively but as the
lesser of the evils.
2009–2012: LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION
Livni upon assuming the role of Leader of the Opposition in the
Following the 2009 elections in which Livni's
Kadima won the most
seats, but could not form a government, she took the party into
opposition, becoming Israel's first female leader of the opposition.
After an internal Foreign Ministry document stated that some European
Union countries were considering freezing a planned upgrade in
relations with Israel, Livni, as opposition leader , wrote in the
message addressed to EU foreign policy chief
Javier Solana , the EU's
external relations commissioner
Benita Ferrero-Waldner , and the EU's
current council president, Czech foreign minister Karel Schwarzenberg
: "You all know my commitment to peace between
Israel and its
neighbors and to the two-state solution, a commitment shared with the
majority of the Israeli public. I believe that this kind of attitude,
one which directly links an upgrade in relations with regional
diplomatic progress, is overlooking the substantial gains that the
upgrade could provide both to the people of
Israel and the people of
On 25 May 2009, Livni told
Harvard University students: "On the
Iranian issue, there is no opposition or coalition in Israel. ... Iran
represents the threat of extreme Islamic state". She said Iran was a
threat to other countries in the region, and Iran must be stopped from
attaining nuclear weapons.
Prior to Lebanon\'s 2009 general elections (and its inclusion of
Hezbollah ), Livni "acknowledged an important principle" from U.S.
Barack Obama 's then-recent speech in Cairo that "Elections
alone do not make true democracy." She explained her position in a
New York Times _ op-ed by alluding to her experience as Israel's
justice minister when
Hamas participated in Palestinian elections in
2006 : "At the time, the counterargument was that the very
participation in elections would act as a moderating force on
extremist groups. With more accountability, such groups would be
tempted to abandon their militant approach in favor of a purely
political platform. But this analysis ignored the possibility that
some radical groups sought participation in the democratic process not
to forsake their violent agenda but to advance it." Livni advocated
that "the international community must adopt at the global level what
true democracies apply at the national one—a universal code for
participation in democratic elections. This would include requiring
every party running for office to renounce violence, pursue its aims
by peaceful means and commit to binding laws and international
agreements." She added: "The intent here is not to stifle
disagreement, exclude key actors from the political process or suggest
that democracy be uniform and disregard local cultures and values."
Livni visiting a medical center in
Ashkelon with members of
Livni voiced support for Israel's gay community ahead of Gay and
Lesbian Pride Month in June 2009. She addressed an event held at the
gay community's municipal center in Tel Aviv's Meir Park . After a 1
August 2009 attack on a gay youth center that left two people dead and
15 wounded in Tel Aviv, Livni, who is in contact with the gay and
lesbian community, said "This event should shake up society, and all
the circles inherent in it, including the political establishment and
the education system, and on this day deliver an unequivocal message
against intolerance, incitement and violence, and to act against any
manifestation of these." She attended a rally near the location of the
attack, along with hundreds of Israelis and some other politicians,
and urged Israel's gay and lesbian community to continue living their
lives, despite the "hate crime." Livni opposed Netanyahu's land
reform bill. Livni touring the site of a kindergarten leveled by
bombs from Gaza
On 8 October 2009, Livni was honored by
Yale University as a Chubb
Fellow for her work and the inspiration spurred by her activities. She
is the third Israeli leader to receive this honor after Shimon Peres
Moshe Dayan . The list also includes former U.S. Presidents Jimmy
Bill Clinton . Livni referred to the Goldstone Report
Israel of committing war crimes in Gaza, and said there was a
huge ethical gap between those seeking to murder children in their
homes and those unintentionally harming civilians used by terrorists
as human shields. Referring to the Israeli shelling of several UN
schools in Gaza where thousands of civilians were taking shelter
2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict , Livni insisted that
she "regret(s) every civilian casualty, but what happened at the UN
school was not a mistake." Addressing the peace process, Livni said
Israel is not involved in it as a favor to anyone, but that it is in
the interest of all parties. At her next stop in Miami, Livni became
the first Israeli woman to receive the International Hall of Fame
Award from the International Women\'s Forum .
As opposition leader, Livni noted in a 2009
Knesset speech that she
herself did not support
Yitzhak Rabin 's policies at the time. "The
dispute is around the question of whether you can have it both
Israel as a Jewish state and keeping the entire
Land of Israel," she said. Political analysts see Livni's speech at
the 2003 commemoration rally for Rabin as a turning point in her
political career when she became more popular among the Israeli peace
camp . She delivered a speech which many found deeply moving in which
she said the day Rabin was murdered was "the day that the skies fell
down on me because of what happened to us, to all the citizens of
Israel." As foreign minister, Livni would again attend the memorial
for Rabin in 2009. Labor Party officials were not keen on this idea,
fearing that her appearance would cost them votes. Some Kadima
officials also seemed reluctant, fearing her appearance at left-wing
event would send some votes
Likud 's way. Livni attended the memorial
for Rabin in 2009.
After a draft document authored by Sweden (the then-holder of the
rotating EU presidency) surfaced that calls officially for a division
Jerusalem and implies that the EU would also recognize a unilateral
Palestinian declaration of statehood, Livni wrote a letter to Swedish
Carl Bildt , saying it was "wrong and not helpful,"
and that she conveyed "deep concern regarding what appears to be an
attempt to prejudge the outcome of issues reserved for final status
negotiations." European efforts to "dictate for either party the
nature of the outcome on the status of Jerusalem," she said, would
only serve to endanger the fulfillment of "our shared vision of two
states for two peoples into a reality." Livni also called on France
to speak up against the draft during her meeting with Sarkozy in
Tzipi Livni at Biyalik Rogazin
In December 2009, Livni travelled to
Paris and met with French
Nicolas Sarkozy . "Time is against us," she told reporters
following talks at the
Elysee Palace that also touched on Iran. "We
discussed the need to re-launch the peace process between
the Palestinians, and I believe that this is part of Israel's interest
to relaunch the negotiations from the point at which we stopped
basically a year ago."
2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict , Livni was criticized
Arab League Chairman
Amre Moussa who said that "I am greatly
surprised by, and I reject, the words of the Israeli foreign minister
(Livni), who asks: 'Is there a humanitarian crisis? There is no
humanitarian crisis in Gaza'" Livni was quoted as saying "
been supplying comprehensive humanitarian aid to the strip... and has
even been stepping this up by the day."
Israel would later allow a
daily three-hour truce during the offensive to enable aid to flow
through a humanitarian corridor. Livni declared that the 2009 Gaza
military offensive had "restored Israel's deterrence. ...
understands that when you fire on its citizens it responds by going
wild – and this is a good thing."
UK ARREST WARRANT
Livni and British Foreign Secretary
In December 2009, a warrant for Livni's arrest was understood to have
been issued by a British court, following an application by lawyers
acting for Palestinian victims of Operation Cast Lead . The warrant
focused on Livni's role in Israel's war against Hamas-run Gaza earlier
in the year, and was withdrawn after her visit was canceled. For
several years, Palestinian activists have made largely unsuccessful
attempts to prosecute Israeli officials in European courts under
universal jurisdiction . The warrant was issued on 12 December and
revoked on 14 December 2009, after it was revealed that Livni had not
entered British territory.
The British Foreign Secretary,
David Miliband , contacted Livni and
his Israeli counterpart
Avigdor Lieberman to formally explain the
incident and apologize on behalf of the British government. Miliband
had expressed concern at the situation and said officials were looking
"urgently at ways in which the UK system might be changed in order to
avoid this sort of situation arising again". Judges in the United
Kingdom can issue arrest warrants for war crimes suspects around the
world under the Geneva Convention Act 1957, without any requirement to
consult public prosecutors which was something Miliband described as
J Street applauded Miliband's rejection of the warrant and
"his promise to pursue a change in the law that would prevent
unfortunate events like these from happening in the future." Prime
Gordon Brown expressed his regret over the warrant and spoke
to Livni, reassuring her that she was "most welcome in Britain any
time." Livni's office later stated that Brown promised to seek
legislative changes to ensure no Israeli official would risk arrest
while on British soil.
Yehuda Blum , Israel's former ambassador to the
United Nations and a
professor of law at
Hebrew University of
Jerusalem , commented: "The
abuse and misuse of this concept of universal jurisdiction should be
discontinued." Blum said the law was intended for use in cases with no
clear jurisdiction, such as piracy in international waters, and should
not be expanded for political aims. Israeli officials, acting under
orders from Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, told the British
ambassador they expect quick action to change the law. Livni called
the arrest warrant "an abuse of the British legal system". At a
security conference in Israel, Livni did not directly address the
arrest warrant but defended Israel's conduct during Operation Cast
Lead, saying she "would make the same decisions all over again". "When
the state of
Israel has to do the right thing, it has to be done –
condemnation or no condemnation, statements or no statements, arrest
warrants or no arrest warrants. ... This is the role of leadership,
and as far as I’m concerned I would repeat each and every decision."
LEADERSHIP DEFEAT AND RESIGNATION
In November 2011, the three candidates opposed to
Tzipi Livni in 2008
called for a primary to be held as soon as possible, citing the
Knesset elections soon. On 19 January 2012, Livni set
the primary date for 27 March 2012. Livni lost by a wide margin (64.5%
to her 35.5%) to challenger and former defense minister
Shaul Mofaz .
In May 2012, despite Mofaz's appeal for her to remain in the party,
Livni resigned from the Knesset. She stated that although she was
leaving the Knesset, she was not retiring from public life, as Israel
was "too dear" to her. Commenting on decisions she made, which may
have contributed to her loss, she stated "I am sorry for not backing
down in the face of political blackmail—even when the price was
being in the government—and for not willing to sell the country to
the ultra-Orthodox," adding "And I'm definitely not sorry for the main
issue I promoted. Even if the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict isn't in
vogue right now, there's an urgent need to reach a permanent agreement
with the Palestinians as well as with the Arab world."
On 27 November 2012, Livni announced the establishment of a new
Hatnuah ("The Movement"). She was joined by seven
Knesset from the
Yoel Hasson , Robert
Tiviaev, Majalli Wahabi, Orit Zuaretz, Rachel Adato, Shlomo Molla and
Meir Sheetrit . as well as former Labor Party leaders Amram Mitzna
Amir Peretz .
MINISTER OF JUSTICE
Following the 2013 elections , in which
Hatnuah won six seats in the
Knesset, Livni did not recommend any candidate for prime minister to
President Peres. After other party leaders endorsed Netanyahu, Livni
Hatnuah in being the first of several parties to agree to join a
new coalition under Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu , forming the
thirty-third government of
Israel . According to the coalition
agreement negotiated between
Hatnuah and Likud, Livni was appointed
justice minister , as well as chief negotiator with the Palestinian
Authority. As environmental issues constituted a central plank in
Hatnuah's platform, Livni required her party be given the
environmental protection ministry, to which she appointed Amir Peretz.
Fulfilling her constitutional duty as Justice Minister, Livni served
as chairwoman of the powerful Ministerial Committee on Legislation.
Given her clout and experience with Western leaders, Netanyahu
unofficially charged Livni with overseeing Israel's diplomatic
relations with the United States and Europe, with Foreign Minister
Avigdor Liberman playing a lesser role.
2013–14 ISRAELI–PALESTINIAN PEACE TALKS
Livni, U.S. Secretary of State
John Kerry , and Palestinian
Saeb Erekat announce the resumption of peace talks
Livni led the Israeli negotiation team in the peace talks , brokered
by U.S. Secretary of State
John Kerry and Middle East envoy Martin
Indyk from July 2013 until April 2014. Upon announcing the resumption
of talks between
Israel and the Palestinians at a press conference
delivered at the U.S. State Department, Livni criticized the "cynicism
and pessimism" surrounding Israeli–Palestinian peace process, and
expressed hope that the negotiators would do everything in their power
to transform a "spark of hope into something real and lasting." In
concluding remarks praised for their poignancy, she said, "I believe
that history is not made by cynics. It is made by realists who are not
afraid to dream. And let us be these people." The process collapsed
in April 2004 when internal political difficulties prevented Israel
from releasing a promised fourth tranche of pre-Oslo prisoners and the
Palestinians reacted by acceding to several international treaties.
Indyk cited Israel's settlement policy during the talks as a critical
factor leading to the collapse.
Livni briefs The
Livni continued on as justice minister until 2 December 2014, when a
coalition crisis over multiple policy disagreements boiled over, and
Netanyahu fired Livni along with Finance Minister
Yair Lapid from
their posts, accusing the two of plotting a "putsch" to overthrow the
government. Livni and Lapid had often criticized government
Netanyahu claimed amounted to an "opposition within
the coalition," and made it "impossible to govern." A particular
source of frustration for
Netanyahu was Livni's control of the
powerful ministerial committee on legislation.
In December 2014 (after Livni had been dismissed as a cabinet
minister), Secretary of State
John Kerry told European Union
ambassadors that his stance against a unilateral Palestinian measure
at the UN Security Council was influenced by his talks with Livni and
former president Shimon Peres, who said such a move could serve the
political interests of those opposing the peace process.
2014–PRESENT: THE ZIONIST UNION
Zionist Union campaign poster
After the dissolution of the
Knesset in December 2014, Labor leader
Isaac Herzog and Livni announced a joint slate between Labor and
Hatnuah , called the
Zionist Union , to contest the 2015 elections in
an effort to keep Netanyahu, leader of the
Likud Party, from securing
a fourth term as prime minister. They proposed to share the role of
prime minister (an arrangement known in the
Knesset as rotation) if
they won enough votes, though Livni also stated she would step back if
her participation presented a hurdle to coalition building. Widely
seen as being a "game-changer" in what was initially thought would be
an effectively uncontested election resulting in Netanyahu's
reelection, the partnership between Livni and Herzog created
significant momentum and galvanized Israel's center-left voters, who
saw the partnership as having a realistic chance to form a government,
something which had been absent in the previous elections. Indeed,
many opinion polls during the campaign showed
Likud and the Zionist
Union in dead heat, and the few weeks leading up to the elections
suggested Livni and Herzog had overtaken Netanyahu, and would emerge
with a plurality of voters. Initial exit polls indicated that both
parties had won 27 seats, but the final count showed the Zionist Union
garnering only 24 mandates to the Likud's 30. Following the elections,
Livni and the
Zionist Union went into opposition.
Livni at pride event in Be'er Sheva, 2015
Livni currently serves as a member of the
Knesset Foreign Affairs and
Defense Committee , the Constitution, Law and Justice Committee. In
August 2015, in response to the submission of a motion to raise the
Palestinian flag at the UN headquarters, Livni initiated the creation
of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Subcommittee on International
Lawfare , which she chairs. At the committee's inaugural meeting,
Livni characterized the Palestinian motion as "part of an orchestrated
diplomatic and legal struggle that is meant to create legitimacy for a
Palestinian state with all that that means, and to deny legitimacy to
the State of Israel." She argued that despite the lack of attention it
receives, " is a war front as any other." The committee's mandate,
according to Livni, is to "deal with lawfare not only to see how we
can defend ourselves, but also to try to change international trends
Israel in a legal context and how to deal with moves the
Palestinians are trying to make over Israel's head."
* ^ "Israel\'s foreign minister has edge in party race". Reuters. 1
August 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
* ^ Soltis, Andy (1 August 2008). "\'MRS. CLEAN\' SET TO MOP UP THE
New York Post _. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Tzipi Livni". _Knesset.gov.il_. Retrieved
* ^ "Livni named one of 150 \'women who shake the world\'". _The
Jerusalem Post _. 8 March 2011. Archived from the original on 11 March
2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
Tzipi Livni was named one of the 150
most influential women 'who shake the world' on a list by The Daily
Beast and Newsweek.
* ^ "#40 Tzipora Livni". _Forbes_. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
* ^ "#39 Tzipora Livni". _Forbes_. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
* ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #52 Tzipora Livni". _Forbes_.
* ^ Rice, Condoleezza (3 May 2007). "The 2007 TIME 100 - TIME".
* ^ "חדשות 2 - תכנית הילדים החדשה של
ציפי לבני". Mako.co.il. 2009-02-26. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
* ^ Benny Morris (14 December 2008). "Israel\'s crisis of
Los Angeles Times _. Archived from the original on 16
* ^ Westcott, Kathryn (2 May 2007). "Tzipi Livni: Israel\'s \'Mrs
Clean\'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 25 August 2007.
Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "Livni, don\'t give in". _Haaretz_. 24 April 2009. Archived
from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ McGirk, Tim (5 June 2008). "Israel\'s Mrs. Clean". _Time _.
Jerusalem . Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 25
Isabel Kershner (26 October 2008). "As Israeli Elections Are
Called, Livni Is Assessed". _
The New York Times _. Archived from the
original on 28 October 2008.
* ^ "Profile: Tzipi Livni". BBC News. 27 November 2012. Archived
from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
* ^ Ethan Bronner, Main Party in Israeli Coalition Set to Pick
The New York Times _, September 16, 2008
* ^ "Seventeenth
Knesset : Government 31". Knesset.gov.il.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "
Israel election: Who are the key candidates?".
BBC News. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
* ^ Yossi Verter (11 February 2017). "UN Chief Offered Israeli
Tzipi Livni a Senior Role". _
* ^ Verma, Sonia (2 May 2007). "Next in Line". _
The Times _.
Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
* ^ "News in Brief". _
Haaretz _. 9 October 2007. Archived from the
original on 6 June 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Yigal Hai (10 October 2007). "\'My mother was a
warrior\'". _Haaretz_. Archived from the original on 14 January 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_
Shavit Ben-Arie , Havrot HaKnesset, 2011 (Hebrew).
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Ben Birnbaum (23 August 2013). "The Believer:
Tzipi Livn and the Quest for Peace in
Israel and Palestine". _The
Daily Beast _.
Newsweek . Retrieved 29 September 2013.
* ^ Interview with
Tzipi Livni at
Hudson Union Society (15 July
Tzipi Livni - Difference between freedom fighter & terrorist_
YouTube ). New York :
Hudson Union Society . My father and my mother,
both of them were freedom fighters, not terrorists. And it's very
important to say this—not because it's about my parents—because
they acted against the British army, and not civilians. And this is a
distinction that needs to be made also today. I cannot accept the
words that say, 'One man's terrorist is another man's freedom
* ^ "
Knesset Member, Tzipi Livni". Knesset.gov.il. Archived from
the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi (15 February 2009). "Looking for love: Livni the
lonely spy". _
The Sunday Times _. London. Archived from the original
on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
* ^ "Livni\'s past in
Mossad not spectacular". _The Jerusalem
Post_. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 22 July
* ^ Cohen, Roger (7 July 2007). "Her Jewish State". _The New York
Times_. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 7
August 2007. Mirla Gal, who would reach the top of the
Mossad during a
20-year career, met Livni in first grade. "We were curious because
her world wasn’t ours," Gal said over lunch at a beachfront Tel Aviv
restaurant. "Even then she was principled. When I was 12, she turned
vegetarian and has been ever since."
* ^ Ilan Lior (19 January 2013). "In Q&A with
Livni rues decision to privatize
Dead Sea resources". _Haaretz_.
Archived from the original on 9 January 2013.
* ^ "Behind the Lines: And who, may we ask, is Tzipi Livni?". _The
Jerusalem Post_. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
Retrieved 30 April 2007.
* ^ Cohen, Roger (8 July 2007). "Her Jewish State". _The New York
Times_. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 16 September 2008.
* ^ Macintyre, Donald (2 August 2008). "Tzipi Livni: Agent of
The Independent _. London. Archived from the original on 1
January 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Tzipi Livni (1958–)". Jewish Virtual Library.
Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 16 September
* ^ "Meeting Minutes" (PDF). Thepalestinepapers.com. Retrieved
* ^ "
Tzipi Livni Named Vice Premier in Israel". _The Washington
Post_. 1 May 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
Condoleezza Rice (3 May 2007). "Tzipi Livni". _Time _. Archived
from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2007.
* ^ "#40 Tzipora Livni". _
Forbes _. 31 August 2006. Archived from
the original on 22 December 2010.
* ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women". _Forbes_. 30 August 2007.
* ^ "The Most Powerful 100 Women sorted by rank". _Forbes_. 27
August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010.
* ^ Antonio Cassese (15 December 2006). The Multifaceted Criminal
Notion of Terrorism in International Law. _Journal of International
Criminal Justice Advance Access_.
Oxford University Press .
* ^ Benn, Aluf (8 July 2007). "Livni and Fayad meet, discuss
improving Palestinians\' lives". _Haaretz_. Archived from the original
on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
* ^ Olmert\'s Survival Prospects Dim Amid Livni Challenge
Bloomberg, 3 May 2007
* ^ "\'I have the qualifications to be PM\'" . _The Jerusalem
Post_. 29 July 2008. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012.
Retrieved 29 July 2008.
* ^ Verter, Yossi; Mazal Mualem (2 May 2007). "PM Olmert to tell
deputy Livni: Stop undermining me, or resign". _Haaretz_. Archived
from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
* ^ "
Israel FM slams swastika image of Pope" .
Google News . AFP .
20 October 2008. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012.
Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Somfalvi, Attila (1 August 2008). "Poll: Livni beats Netanyahu,
who beats Mofaz". _
Ynetnews _. Archived from the original on 27
February 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
* ^ "Livni to lead
Israel ruling party". BBC News. 18 September
2008. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 18
* ^ Hider, James (27 September 2008). "New Golda Meir’ Tzipi
Livni wins election to be Prime Minister after extra time". _The Times
_. London. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
* ^ "Levni set to be Israel\'s PM". _Video.nytimes.com_. The New
York Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 25
* ^ "Livni declared winner of
ABC News . 18
September 2008. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009.
* ^ "Olmert formally submits his resignation to Peres". _Haaretz_.
21 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008.
* ^ Gil Hoffman and Greer Fay Cashman (22 September 2008). "Peres
entrusts Livni with forming gov\'t". _The
Jerusalem Post_. Archived
from the original on 16 March 2014.
* ^ "Israel\'s Livni now in battle for premiership" . Google News.
AFP. 7 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 September
* ^ "Shas: If Livni wants a coalition, she must fulfill our
demands". _Haaretz_. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on
2 December 2010.
* ^ Yossi Verter; Mazal Mualem; Barak Ravid (22 September 2008).
"Livni offers Barak \'full partnership\' in new gov\'t". _Haaretz_.
Archived from the original on 23 September 2008.
* ^ Linda Gradstein (27 October 2008). "Livni Abandons Effort to
Form Israeli Coalition". _The Washington Post_.
* ^ Yair Ettinger (22 September 2008). "
Shas to back
bid for early general elections". _Haaretz_. Archived from the
original on 23 September 2008.
* ^ Amy Tiebel (20 February 2009). "
Netanyahu urges moderates to
join broad government". _
International Herald Tribune _.
Fox News .
Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
* ^ "Tzipi Livni\'s choice, now Israel\'s choice". _The New York
Times_. 2 October 2008. Archived from the original on 21 February
2014. (Registration required (help)).
* ^ "Livni is the preferred candidate". _Haaretz_. 10 February
2009. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009.
* ^ "¥T The Players of World War 3:
Tzipi Livni -The Mossad
Graduate ¥T" . YouTube. 18 September 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Marc Lynch (10 February 2010). "Arabs watching the Israeli
elections". _Foreign Policy_. Archived from the original on 8 May
2011. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Zvi Bar'el (11 February 2009). "Arab media declares early
Israel election victory for \'extreme right\'". _Haaretz_. Archived
from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "Arab media: \'Which extremist will
Israel elect?\'". Ynetnews.
20 June 1995. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Barak Ravid (24 April 2009). "Livni urges EU: Don\'t halt
Israel relations upgrade". _Haaretz_. Archived from the original on
8 February 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
Tzipi Livni (26 May 2009). "On the iranian issue, there is no
opposition or coalition in Israel" . YouTube. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
Tzipi Livni (5 June 2009). "Democracy\'s Price of Admission".
_The New York Times_. Archived from the original on 11 April 2011.
* ^ Natasha Mozgovaya (2 June 2009). "Livni, Clinton voice support
for gay community in
Israel and U.S". _Haaretz_. Archived from the
original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "ציפי לבני באירוע פתיחת חודש
הגאווה". Facebook. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Ben Hartman; Yuval Goren; Noah Kosharek; Barak Ravid (8
February 2009). "Livni to gay Israelis: Don\'t let hate crime stop you
living your lives". _
Haaretz _. Archived from the original on 4 August
* ^ Yuval Azoulay (29 July 2009). "Livni:
headlines, not Israel\'s interests". _Haaretz_. Archived from the
original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Chris McGreal and Rory McCarthy; Mark Tran (6 January 2009).
"Israeli shelling kills dozens at UN school in Gaza". Archived from
the original on 8 January 2009.
* ^ "\'No Negotiations\' with Hamas". _
Der Spiegel _. 13 January
2009. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009.
* ^ Yitzhak Benhorin (20 June 1995). "Livni honored by Yale
University". _Ynetnews_. Archived from the original on 12 October
2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "Livni slams Goldstone report at Yale". _The
Jerusalem Post_. 9
October 2009. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
* ^ Yair Ettinger, Jonathan Lis and Ofri Ilani (30 October 2009).
"Leaders, family eulogize former PM
Yitzhak Rabin 14 years on".
_Haaretz_. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved
25 April 2010.
* ^ Yossi Verter (30 October 2008). "Livni, Barak to vie for
support of peace camp at Rabin memorial". _Haaretz_. Archived from the
original on 9 November 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Dana Weiler-Polak (24 December 2006). "Obama in address to
memorial rally: Give meaning to Yitzhak Rabin\'s death". _Haaretz_.
Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Barak Ravid (19 December 2009). "Livni to Sweden: Ditch EU plan
on dividing Jerusalem". _Haaretz_. Archived from the original on 20
June 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "\'France should oppose EU J\'lem draft\'". _The Jerusalem
Post_. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
* ^ "AFP:
Israel opposition leader holds talks with Sarkozy" .
Google News _. AFP. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 8
December 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "
Hamas warns of more hostages Sunday". _
Gulf Daily News _. 4
January 2009. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 25
* ^ "Livni: No crisis in Gaza Strip".
Al Jazeera English . 1
January 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved
25 April 2010.
* ^ "
Israel briefly halts Gaza attacks". BBC News. 7 January 2009.
Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Sengupta, Kim; Macintyre, Donald (13 January 2009). "Israeli
cabinet divided over fresh Gaza surge". _The Independent_. Jerusalem.
Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 8 October
* ^ Ian Black and Ian Cobain (14 December 2009). "British court
issued Gaza arrest warrant for former Israeli minister Tzipi Livni".
_The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 16 December
2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "Foreign Ministry outraged over U.K. arrest warrant against
Livni". _Haaretz_. 14 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16
December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
* ^ Marcus Dysch (14 December 2009). "Livni cancels JNF visit to
UK". The Jewish Community Online. Archived from the original on 18
* ^ "
Israel condemns attempt in a UK court to arrest Livni". BBC
News. 15 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December
2009. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
* ^ "Britain apologizes to Livni over arrest warrant". _Haaretz_.
17 December 2009. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010.
Retrieved 7 January 2010.
* ^ "British PM calls Israel\'s Livni over arrest warrant" . Google
News. AFP. 16 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December
2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "J Street’s Blog » Tzipi Livni".
J Street . Archived from
the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ Blomfield, Adrian (16 December 2009). "Brown calls Livni to
express regret at arrest warrant". _Telegraph_. London. Archived from
the original on 21 February 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "Israeli officials routinely face UK legal threats". _MINA_.
Macedonia Online . 15 December 2009. Archived from the original on 1
March 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
* ^ "Tzipi Livni: UK warrant a legal \'abuse\'". BBC News. 14
December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009.
Retrieved 14 December 2009.
* ^ "
Tzipi Livni resigns as member of Israeli parliament". BBC
News. 1 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved
2 May 2012.
* ^ "Former Israeli FM
Tzipi Livni announces return to politics,
forms new party". _Haaretz_. 27 November 2012. Archived from the
original on 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gil Hoffman (27 November 2012). "Livni returns to
politics with The
Tzipi Livni Party". _The
Jerusalem Post_. Archived
from the original on 27 November 2012.
* ^ Birnbaum, Ben (2014-07-20). "The Explosive, Inside Story of How
John Kerry Built an Israel-Palestine Peace Plan—and Watched It
Crumble". _New Republic_. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
* ^ "How the Middle East Peace Process Collapsed". _The Atlantic_.
* ^ Ilan Ben Zion (2 December 2014). "
Netanyahu fires Lapid, Livni
from ministerial posts". _
The Times of Israel_. Archived from the
original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
* ^ Jodi Rudoren, Israeli Premier, Seeking to Broaden Coalition,
Reserves Crucial Post for Rival, _
The New York Times _, May 7, 2015
* ^ Livni takes credit for ‘guarding Israeli interests’ at UN,
The Times of
Israel _, (December 20, 2014)
* ^ Barak Ravid, Kerry: Peres and Livni told me UN vote on
Palestine would help
Netanyahu and Bennett, _Haaretz_ (December 20,
* ^ Lahav Harkov, JPost Staff (16 March 2015). "Livni prepared to
forgo agreement to rotate prime minister\'s office with Herzog". _The
Jerusalem Post_. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
* ^ Kershner, Isabel (10 December 2014). "Alliance Adds Twist to
Israeli Elections". _The New York Times_. Archived from the original
on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
* ^ Harkov,