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Chocolate
Chocolate
is a range of foods derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (e.g., cocoa butter ) and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery . There are several TYPES OF CHOCOLATE, classified according to the proportion of cocoa used in a particular formulation.

The use of particular name designations is sometimes subject to international governmental regulation. Some governments assign chocolate solids and ranges of chocolate differently.

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology

* 2 Types

* 2.1 By country/region

* 2.1.1 United States
United States
* 2.1.2 Canada * 2.1.3 European Union
European Union
* 2.1.4 Japan

* 3 Definition * 4 Quality * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

TERMINOLOGY

The cocoa bean (or other alternative) products from which chocolate is made are known under different names in different parts of the world. In the American chocolate industry:

* chocolate liquor is the ground or melted state of the nib of the cacao bean, containing roughly equal parts cocoa butter and solids. * cocoa butter is the fatty component of the bean. * cocoa solids is the remaining nonfat part of the cocoa bean, which is ground into a powder.

TYPES

Different forms and flavors of chocolate are produced by varying the quantities of the different ingredients. Other flavours can be obtained by varying the time and temperature when roasting the beans.

* Swiss Milk chocolate
Milk chocolate
MILK CHOCOLATE is solid chocolate made with milk, in the form of milk powder , liquid milk, or condensed milk , added. In 1875, Swiss confectioner Daniel Peter , in cooperation with his neighbour Henri Nestlé in Vevey, developed the first solid milk chocolate using condensed milk. The bar was named "Gala Peter", combining the Greek word for "milk" and his name. A German company Jordan hitherto it had only been available as a drink. The US Government requires a 10% concentration of chocolate liquor. EU regulations specify a minimum of 25% cocoa solids. However, an agreement was reached in 2000 that allowed what by exception from these regulations is called "milk chocolate" in the UK, Ireland, and Malta, containing only 20% cocoa solids, to be traded as "family milk chocolate" elsewhere in the European Union.

* Cadbury
Cadbury
chocolate is the brand leader in the United Kingdom. First produced by George Cadbury
Cadbury
Junior in 1905, Cadbury
Cadbury
Dairy Milk was made with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars, and it became the company's best selling product by 1914. It is the best selling milk chocolate bar in the UK, followed by Galaxy . * "Hershey process" milk chocolate is popular in the US. The process was invented by Milton S. Hershey , founder of The Hershey Company . The process uses fresh milk from local farms. The logistics of purchasing and delivering fresh milk is difficult as, according to state regulations fresh milk cannot be held for more than 72 hours after its reception. If not immediately processed into milk chocolate, the milk must be disposed of. The actual Hershey process is a trade secret , but experts speculate that the milk is partially lipolyzed , producing butyric acid , and then the milk is pasteurized and stabilized. This process gives the product a particular taste, to which the US public has shown to have an affinity, to the extent that some rival manufacturers now add butyric acid to their milk chocolates.

* DARK CHOCOLATE , also known as "plain chocolate" or "black chocolate", is produced using higher percentages of cocoa, traditionally with cocoa butter instead of milk, but there are also dark milk chocolates and many degrees of hybrids. Dark chocolate
Dark chocolate
can be eaten as is, or used in cooking, for which thicker, baking bars, usually with high cocoa percentages ranging from 70% to 99% are sold. Dark is synonymous with semisweet, and extra dark with bittersweet, although the ratio of cocoa butter to solids may vary. * Swiss White chocolate
White chocolate
WHITE CHOCOLATE is made of sugar, milk, and cocoa butter, without the cocoa solids.

*

A 200 gram bar of dark baking chocolate , with a minimum cocoa content of 40% *

Swiss dark chocolate

* " Cocoa powder
Cocoa powder
" is used for baking, and for drinking with added milk and sugar. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural cocoa (like the sort produced by the Broma process ), and Dutch-process cocoa . Both are made by pulverizing partially defatted chocolate liquor and removing nearly all the cocoa butter; Dutch-process cocoa is additionally processed with alkali to neutralize its natural acidity. Natural cocoa is light in colour and somewhat acidic with a strong chocolate flavor. Natural cocoa is commonly used in recipes that also use baking soda ; as baking soda is an alkali , combining it with natural cocoa creates a leavening action that allows the batter to rise during baking. Dutch cocoa is slightly milder in taste, with a deeper and warmer colour than natural cocoa. Dutch-process cocoa is frequently used for chocolate drinks such as hot chocolate due to its ease in blending with liquids. However, Dutch processing destroys most of the flavonoids present in cocoa. In 2005 Hershey discontinued their pure Dutch-process European Style cocoa and replaced it with Special
Special
Dark, a blend of natural and Dutch-process cocoa. * Organic chocolate is chocolate which has been certified organic ingredients. * " Raw chocolate
Raw chocolate
" is chocolate that has not been processed, heated, or mixed with other ingredients. It is sold in chocolate-growing countries, and to a much lesser extent in other countries, often promoted as healthy. * Unsweetened chocolate, also known as bitter, baking chocolate , or cooking chocolate, is pure chocolate liquor mixed with some form of fat to produce a solid substance. The pure, ground, roasted cocoa beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor. With the addition of sugar, however, it is used as the base for cakes , brownies , confections, and cookies . * "Bittersweet chocolate" is chocolate liquor (or unsweetened chocolate) to which some sugar (less than a third), more cocoa butter, vanilla flavouring , and sometimes lecithin has been added. It typically has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable when baking. Bittersweet and semisweet chocolates are sometimes referred to as "couverture". Many brands now print on the package the percentage of cocoa in the chocolate (as chocolate liquor and added cocoa butter). The higher the percentage of cocoa, the less sweet the chocolate is. * "Semisweet chocolate" is frequently used for cooking purposes. It is a dark chocolate with (by definition in Swiss usage) half as much sugar as cocoa, beyond which it is "sweet chocolate". Semisweet chocolate does not contain milk solids. * "Couverture " is a term used for chocolates rich in cocoa butter. Popular brands of couverture used by professional pastry chefs and often sold in gourmet and specialty food stores include: Valrhona , Felchlin, Lindt ">

Semi-sweet chocolate chips *

Tempered couverture chocolate

Pieces of dark compound chocolate cake coating

* " Compound chocolate
Compound chocolate
" is the technical term for a confection combining cocoa with vegetable fat , usually tropical fats and/or hydrogenated fats, as a replacement for cocoa butter. It is often used for candy bar coatings. In many countries it may not legally be called "chocolate". * " Modeling chocolate " is a chocolate paste made by melting chocolate and combining it with corn syrup , glucose syrup , or golden syrup . It is primarily used by upscale cakemakers and pâtisseries to add decoration to cakes and pastries .

Flavours such as mint , vanilla , coffee , orange , or strawberry are sometimes added to chocolate in a creamy form or in very small pieces. Chocolate
Chocolate
bars frequently contain added ingredients such as peanuts , nuts , fruit , caramel , and crisped rice . Pieces of chocolate, in various flavours, are sometimes added to cereals and ice cream .

BY COUNTRY/REGION

United States

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) regulates the naming and ingredients of cocoa products:

PRODUCT CHOCOLATE LIQUOR MILK SOLIDS SUGAR COCOA FAT MILK FAT

Milk Chocolate ≥ 10% ≥ 12%

Sweet Chocolate ≥ 15% < 12%

Semisweet or Bittersweet (Dark) Chocolate ≥ 35% < 12%

White Chocolate

≥ 14% ≤ 55% ≥ 20% ≥ 3.5%

In March 2007, the Chocolate
Chocolate
Manufacturers Association , whose members include Hershey\'s , Nestlé
Nestlé
, and Archer Daniels Midland , began lobbying the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) to change the legal definition of chocolate to allow the substitution of "safe and suitable vegetable fats and oils" (including partially hydrogenated vegetable oils ) for cocoa butter in addition to using "any sweetening agent" (including artificial sweeteners) and milk substitutes. Currently, the FDA does not allow a product to be referred to as "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients. To work around this restriction, products with cocoa substitutes are often branded or labeled as "chocolatey" or as in the case of Hershey's Mr. Goodbar containing vegetable oils, "made with chocolate".

Canada

The legislation for cocoa and chocolate products in Canada is found in Division 4 of the Food and Drug Regulations (FDR), under the Food and Drugs Act (FDA). The Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
(CFIA) is responsible for the administration and enforcement of the FDR and FDA (as it relates to food).

PRODUCT COCOA BUTTER MILK SOLIDS MILK FAT FAT-FREE COCOA SOLIDS COCOA SOLIDS

Milk Chocolate ≥ 15% ≥ 12% ≥ 3.39% ≥ 2.5% ≥ 25%

Sweet Chocolate ≥ 18% < 12%

≥ 12% ≥ 31%

Chocolate, Bittersweet Chocolate, Semi-sweet Chocolate
Chocolate
or Dark Chocolate ≥ 18% < 5%

≥ 14% ≥ 35%

White Chocolate ≥ 20% ≤ 14% ≥ 3.5%

The use of cocoa butter substitutes in Canada is not permitted. Chocolate
Chocolate
sold in Canada cannot contain vegetable fats or oils.

The only sweetening agents permitted in chocolate in Canada are listed in Division 18 of the Food and Drug Regulations. Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame , sucralose , acesulfame potassium , and sugar alcohols (sorbitol, maltitol, etc.) are not permitted.

Products manufactured or imported into Canada that contain non-permitted ingredients (vegetable fats or oils, artificial sweeteners) cannot legally be called "chocolate" when sold in Canada. A non-standardized name such as "candy" must be used.

European Union

Products labelled as "Family Milk Chocolate" elsewhere in the European Union
European Union
are permitted to be labelled as simply "Milk Chocolate" in Malta, the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland.

PRODUCT TOTAL DRY COCOA SOLIDS COCOA BUTTER NON-FAT COCOA SOLIDS TOTAL FAT MILK FAT MILK SOLIDS FLOUR/STARCH

Chocolate ≥ 35% ≥ 18% ≥ 14%

Couverture Chocolate ≥ 35% ≥ 31% ≥ 2.5%

Chocolate
Chocolate
Vermicelli or Flakes ≥ 32% ≥ 12% ≥ 14%

Milk Chocolate ≥ 25%

≥ 2.5% ≥ 25% ≥ 3.5% ≥ 14%

Couverture Milk Chocolate ≥ 25%

≥ 2.5% ≥ 31% ≥ 3.5% ≥ 14%

Milk Chocolate
Chocolate
Vermicelli or Flakes ≥ 20%

≥ 2.5% ≥ 12% ≥ 3.5% ≥ 12%

Family Milk Chocolate ≥ 20%

≥ 2.5% ≥ 25% ≥ 5% ≥ 20%

Cream Chocolate ≥ 25%

≥ 2.5% ≥ 25% ≥ 5.5% ≥ 14%

Skimmed Milk Chocolate ≥ 25%

≥ 2.5% ≥ 25% ≤ 1% ≥ 14%

White Chocolate

≥ 20%

≥ 14%

Chocolate
Chocolate
a la taza ≥ 35% ≥ 18% ≥ 14%

≤ 8%

Chocolate
Chocolate
familiar a la taza ≥ 30% ≥ 18% ≥ 12%

≤ 18%

* Note 1: "Total Fat" refers to the combined cocoa butter and milk fat content. * Note 2: "Total Dry Cocoa Solids" as defined in this and all world regulations refers to combined cocoa powder and butter.

Japan

In Japan, 'chocolate products' are classified on a complex scale (q.v. ja:チョコレート#チョコレートの規格).

CHOCOLATE MATERIALS (チョコレート生地, chokorēto kiji):

* PURE CHOCOLATE MATERIAL (純チョコレート生地, jun-chokorēto kiji)

Cocoa content ≥35%, cocoa butter ≥18%, sucrose ≤55%, lecithin ≤0.5%, no additives other than lecithin and vanilla flavouring, no fats other than cocoa butter and milk fats, water ≤3%

* PURE MILK CHOCOLATE MATERIAL (純ミルクチョコレート生地, jun-miruku chokorēto kiji)

Cocoa content ≥21%, cocoa butter ≥18%, milk solids ≥14%, milk fats ≥3.5%, sucrose ≤55%, lecithin ≤0.5%, no additives other than lecithin and vanilla flavouring, no fats other than cocoa butter and milk fats, water ≤3%

* CHOCOLATE MATERIAL (チョコレート生地, chokorēto kiji)

Cocoa content ≥35%, cocoa butter ≥18%, water ≤3%. It is also permitted to substitute milk solids for cocoa content as follows: cocoa content ≥21%, cocoa butter ≥18%, combined milk solids this dispute covers several ingredients, including the types of fat used, quantity of cocoa, and so on. In 1999, however, the EU at least resolved the fat issue by allowing up to 5% of chocolate's content to be one of 5 alternatives to cocoa butter: illipe oil, palm oil , sal, shea butter , kokum gurgi , or mango kernel oil.

A recent workaround has been to reduce the amount of cocoa butter in candy bars without using vegetable fats by adding polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), which is an artificial castor oil-derived emulsifier that simulates the mouthfeel of fat. Up to 0.3% PGPR may be added to chocolate for this purpose.

QUALITY

Cacao beans can be tested for their quality as a certain variety using DNA tests, especially by testing single-nucleotide polymorphisms that act as markers.

SEE ALSO

* Food portal

* Candy making * Chocolate
Chocolate
bar * List of bean-to-bar chocolate manufacturers * List of desserts

REFERENCES

* ^ "Making Sense of % Cacao". CMA - Chocolate
Chocolate
Manufacturers Association. 2 January 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2011. * ^ The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets (p. 524) * ^ "Wer hat\'s erfunden?" . mitteldeutschland.com. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. * ^ A B Moskin, Julia (13 February 2008). "Dark may be king, but milk chocolate makes a move". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 January 2016. * ^ "Directive 2000/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 June 2000 relating to cocoa and chocolate products intended for human consumption". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 5 December 2011. * ^ Ascribed to Cadbury
Cadbury
plc. (19 January 2010). "A history of Cadbury\'s sweet success". Times Online . London. Retrieved 30 May 2010. * ^ "Top 10 selling chocolate bars in the UK". Wales Online. Retrieved 29 December 2014 * ^ " Chocolate
Chocolate
as a Health Food?". Retrieved 3 March 2006. * ^ Cahalane, Claudia (30 March 2007). "A raw deal". The Guardian
The Guardian
. London. Retrieved 5 December 2011. * ^ Mushet, C.; Sur La Table; Caruso, M. (2008). The Art and Soul of Baking. Andrews McMeel Publishing. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-7407-7334-1 . * ^ "Semisweet chocolate". Joy of Baking. iFood Media LLC. Retrieved 28 May 2015. * ^ "Title 21 – Food and Drugs, Chapter I, Sub chapter B – Food for Human Consumption, Part 163 – Cocoa Products". Title 21 – Food and Drugs. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 1 May 2007. * ^ "Types of Chocolate
Chocolate
Products". Hershey.com. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2007. * ^ "To Our Stake older" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 27 January 2008. * ^ (2007P-0085, Copy of 2007P-0085 Appendix C – search for cacao) * ^ "Responsibilities of the Agency: 11. (3) (a)". Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act. Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved 16 February 2012. The Agency is responsible for the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act as it relates to food, as defined in section 2 of that Act * ^ A B "Division 4: Cocoa and Chocolate
Chocolate
Products". Food and Drug Regulations. Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved 16 February 2012.

* ^ "Division 18: Sweetening Agents". Food and Drug Regulations. Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved 16 February 2012. * ^ "Guidance on the Cocoa and Chocolate
Chocolate
Products Regulations 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 13 November 2010. * ^ "EU Agrees on Chocolate
Chocolate
Definition Upsetting Major Cocoa Producers". www.thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 18 September 2015. * ^ "Let the chocolate flow". Foodnavigator.com. 11 April 2001. Retrieved 5 December 2011. * ^ Nuwer, Rachel (16 January 2014). "A New Way to Find Out If Your Chocolate
Chocolate
Is Legit". Smithsonian. Retrieved 29 May 2015.

* v * t * e

Chocolate
Chocolate

OVERVIEW

* Outline * History (in Spain )

THEOBROMA

* Theobroma
Theobroma

* Theobroma
Theobroma
cacao * Theobroma
Theobroma
grandiflorum * Theobroma
Theobroma
bicolor

COMPONENTS

* Cocoa bean
Cocoa bean
* Cocoa butter * Cocoa solids
Cocoa solids
* Chocolate
Chocolate
liquor

DRUGS

* Anandamide
Anandamide
* Caffeine
Caffeine
* Phenethylamine
Phenethylamine
* Theobromine
Theobromine
* Theophylline
Theophylline

TYPES

* Baking * Compound chocolate
Compound chocolate
* Couverture chocolate * Dark chocolate
Dark chocolate
* Milk chocolate
Milk chocolate
* Modeling chocolate * Organic chocolate * White chocolate
White chocolate
* Raw chocolate
Raw chocolate

PRODUCTS

* Chocolate
Chocolate
bar

* brands

* Chocolate
Chocolate
beverages * Chocolate
Chocolate
biscuit * Chocolate
Chocolate
brownie * Chocolate
Chocolate
cake * Chocolate
Chocolate
chip * Chocolate
Chocolate
chip cookie * Chocolate
Chocolate
coins * Chocolate
Chocolate
crackles * Chocolate
Chocolate
gravy * Chocolate
Chocolate
ice cream * Chocolate
Chocolate
liqueur * Chocolate
Chocolate
milk * Chocolate
Chocolate
pudding * Chocolate
Chocolate
spread * Chocolate
Chocolate
syrup * Chocolate
Chocolate
truffle * Chocolate-covered foods * Cioccolato di Modica * Fudge
Fudge
* Ganache * Hot chocolate
Hot chocolate
* Mint chocolate
Mint chocolate
* Mocaccino
Mocaccino
* Mole sauce
Mole sauce
* Belgian chocolate
Belgian chocolate
* Swiss chocolate

PROCESSES

* Aerated chocolate
Aerated chocolate
* Broma process * Chocolate
Chocolate
bloom * Chocolate
Chocolate
temper meter * Conche * Dutch process * Enrober
Enrober
* Sugar crust

INDUSTRY

* Big Chocolate
Chocolate
* Children in cocoa production * Chocolaterie
Chocolaterie
* Chocolatier
Chocolatier
* The Dark Side of Chocolate
Chocolate
* European Cocoa and Chocolate
Chocolate
Directive * Ghana Cocoa Board
Ghana Cocoa Board
* Ghana production * Harkin–Engel Protocol * International Cocoa Organization * Ivory Coast production * Manufacturers (vertical) * Nigeria production * Philippine chocolate industry * World Cocoa Foundation
World Cocoa Foundation

OTHER TOPICS

* Chocoholic
Chocoholic
* Chocolate
Chocolate
fountain * Chocolate
Chocolate
museums * Chocolatiers * Health effects * United States
United States
military chocolate

EXTERNAL LINKS

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