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The TYDINGS–MCDUFFIE ACT, officially the PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE ACT (Pub.L. 73–127, 48 Stat. 456, enacted March 24, 1934), is a United States federal law that established the process for the Philippines
Philippines
, then an American colony, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period. Under the act, the 1935 Constitution
Constitution
of the Philippines
Philippines
was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Philippines
was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines
Philippines
(direct elections to the Philippine Legislature have been held since 1907). It also established limitations on Filipino immigration to the United States.

The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress
73rd United States Congress
by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem. ) of Maryland
Maryland
and Representative John McDuffie (Dem. ) of Alabama
Alabama
, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt .

CONTENTS

* 1 Provisions

* 1.1 Immigration

* 2 History

* 2.1 Immigration

* 3 See also * 4 References

PROVISIONS

The Tydings–McDuffie Act
Tydings–McDuffie Act
specified a procedural framework for the drafting of a constitution for the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Philippines
within two years of its enactment. The act specified a number of mandatory constitutional provisions, and required approval of the constitution by the U.S. President and by Filipinos. The act mandated U.S. recognition of independence of the Philippine Islands as a separate and self-governing nation after a ten-year transition period.

Prior to independence, the act allowed the U.S to maintain military forces in the Philippines
Philippines
and to call all military forces of the Philippine government into U.S. military service. The act empowered the U.S. President, within two years following independence, to negotiate matters relating to U.S. naval reservations and fueling stations of in the Philippine Islands.

IMMIGRATION

The act reclassified all Filipinos, including those who were living in the United States, as aliens for the purposes of immigration to America. A quota of 50 immigrants per year was established. Before this act, Filipinos were classified as United States nationals , but not United States citizens , and while they were allowed to migrate relatively freely, they were denied naturalization rights within the US, unless they were citizens by birth in the mainland US.

HISTORY

In 1934, Manuel L. Quezon , the President of the Senate of the Philippines
Philippines
, headed a "Philippine Independence mission" to Washington, D.C. It successfully lobbied Congress and secured the act's passage.

In 1935, under the provisions of the act, the 1935 Constitution
Constitution
of the Philippines
Philippines
was drafted and became law, establishing the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Philippines
with an elected executive, the President of the Philippines
Philippines
.

IMMIGRATION

Main article: History of Filipino Americans
History of Filipino Americans

The immigration quota under the act was low, and immigration continued at levels much higher than the legal quota. This was due to the strength of agricultural lobbies, such as the Hawaiian sugar planters, which were able to successfully lobby the federal government to allow more male Filipino agricultural workers provided that they demonstrated a need. This further increased the Filipino population in Hawaii which had at one point been 25% of agricultural workers on the islands.

The act also led to the Filipino Repatriation Act of 1935 .

This act extended the Asian-exclusion policy of the Immigration Act of 1924 to the soon-to-be-former territory. This policy hampered the domestic lives of many Filipinos within the US because any Filipino who wished to go to the Philippines
Philippines
and then return to the United States would be subject to the restrictions on Asian immigration to America and would likely never be allowed to return.

In 1946 the US decreased the tight restrictions of Tydings–McDuffie Act with the Luce–Celler Act of 1946 , which increased the quota of Filipino immigrants to 100 per year and gave Filipinos the right to become naturalized American citizens.

SEE ALSO

* History of the Philippines
Philippines
(1898–1946) * Philippine Organic Act (1902) * Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing Co. pp. 314–315. ISBN 971-642-071-4 . * ^ A B C The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act) (approved March 24, 1934), The Corpus Juris. * ^ Filipino Americans. In 2006. . Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc. * ^ A B C Posadas, Barbara Mercedes (1999). The Filipino Americans. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. pp. 1–30. * ^ Jeffrey D. Schultz (2000). Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-57356-148-8 . * ^ Filipino Americans. In 2006. . Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.

* v * t * e

Immigration to the United States
Immigration to the United States
and related topics

Relevant colonial era, United States and international laws

COLONIAL ERA

* Nationality law in the American Colonies * Plantation Act 1740

18TH CENTURY

* Naturalization Act 1790 / 1795 / 1798

19TH CENTURY

* Naturalization Law 1802 * Civil Rights Act of 1866 * 14th Amendment (1868) * Naturalization Act 1870 * Page Act (1875) * Immigration Act of 1882 * Chinese Exclusion (1882) * Scott Act (1888) * Immigration Act of 1891 * Geary Act (1892)

1900–1949

* Naturalization Act 1906 * Gentlemen\'s Agreement (1907) * Immigration Act of 1907
Immigration Act of 1907
* Immigration Act 1917 (Asian Barred Zone) * Emergency Quota Act (1921) * Cable Act
Cable Act
(1922) * Immigration Act 1924 * Tydings–McDuffie Act
Tydings–McDuffie Act
(1934) * Filipino Repatriation Act (1935) * Nationality Act of 1940
Nationality Act of 1940
* Bracero Program (1942–1964) * Magnuson Act (1943) * War Brides Act (1945) * Luce–Celler Act (1946)

1950–1999

* UN Refugee Convention (1951) * Immigration and Nationality Act 1952 / 1965 * Refugee Act
Refugee Act
(1980) * Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986) * American Homecoming Act (1989) * Immigration Act 1990 * Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) (1996) * Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act (NACARA) (1997) * American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA) (1998)

21ST CENTURY

* American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) (2000) * Legal Immigration Family Equity Act (LIFE Act) (2000) * H-1B Visa Reform Act (2004) * REAL ID Act
REAL ID Act
(2005) * Secure Fence Act (2006) * Executive Order 13780 (2017)

VISAS AND POLICIES

* Visa policy

* Permanent residence * Visa Waiver Program
Visa Waiver Program
* Temporary protected status * Asylum * Green Card Lottery

* US-VISIT * Security Advisory Opinion * E-Verify * Section 287(g) * DACA

Government organizations

* Department of Homeland Security * Immigration and Customs Enforcement * U.S. Border Patrol
U.S. Border Patrol
* U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
* Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) * Board of Immigration Appeals

SUPREME COURT CASES

* United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898) * United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923) * United States v. Brignoni-Ponce (1975) * Chamber of Commerce v. Whiting (2011)

Related issues and events

* Economic impact * Eugenics in the United States * Guest worker program * Human trafficking

* Human smuggling

* Coyotaje

* Immigration reform * Immigration reduction * Mexico–United States barrier
Mexico–United States barrier
* Labor shortage * March for America
March for America
* Illegal immigrant population * Reverse immigration * 2006 protests * Unaccompanied minors from Central America * List of people deported from the United States

GEOGRAPHY

* Mexico–United States border * Canada–United States border * United States Border Patrol interior checkpoints

PROPOSED LEGISLATION

* DREAM Act (2001–2010) * H.R. 4437 (2005) * McCain–Kennedy (2005) * SKIL (2006) * Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act 2006 * STRIVE Act (2007) * Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act 2007 * Uniting American Families Act (2000–2013) * Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013 * SAFE Act (2015) * RAISE Act (2017)

Immigration stations and points of entry

* Angel Island * Castle Garden * East Boston * Ellis Island
Ellis Island
* Sullivan\'s Island * Washington Avenue

OPERATIONS

* "Wetback" (1954) * "Peter Pan" (1960–1962) * "Babylift" (1975) * "Gatekeeper" (1994) * "Endgame" (2003–2012) * "Front Line" (2004–2005) * "Streamline" (2005–present) * "Return to Sender" (2006–2007) * "Jump Start" (2006–2008)

STATE LEGISLATION

* California DREAM Act (2006–2010) * Arizona SB 1070 (2010) * Alabama
Alabama
HB 56 (2011)

Non-governmental organizations

* Arizona Border Recon
Arizona Border Recon
* Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles * Coalition for Comprehensive Immigration Reform * National Immigration Forum * Center for Community Change * We Are America Alliance * CASA of Maryland
Maryland
* Mexica Movement * Mexicans Without Borders * Federation for American Immigration Reform * Minuteman Project * Minuteman Civil Defense Corps * California Coalition for Immigration Reform * Save Our State * Center for Immigration Studies * National Korean American Service ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Presidential elections in the Philippines
Philippines

ELECTIONS

* 1935 * 1941 * 1946 * 1949 * 1953 * 1957 * 1961 * 1965 * 1969 * 1981 * 1986 * 1992 * 1998 * 2004 * 2010 * 2016

CANVASSING

* 1935 * 1941 * 1946 * 1949 * 1953 * 1957 * 1961 * 1965 * 1969 * 1981 * 1986 * 1992 * 1998 * 2004 * 2010 * 2016

POLLING

* 1935 * 1941 * 1946 * 1949 * 1953 * 1957 * 1961 * 1965 * 1969 * 1981 * 1986 * 1992 * 1998 * 2004 * 2010 * 2016

* Tejeros Convention * Tydings–McDuffie Act * People Power Revolution * Hello Garci scandal
Hello Garci scandal
* Elections in the Philippines
Philippines
* Provincial results * Election tickets * Campaign slogans

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