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Twosret
Twosret
(Tawosret, Tausret, d. 1189 BC conventional chronology) was the last known ruler and the final Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She is recorded in Manetho's Epitome as a certain Thuoris, who in Homer is called Polybus, husband of Alcandra, and in whose time Troy was taken.[2] She was said to have ruled Egypt for seven years, but this figure included the nearly six-year reign of Siptah, her predecessor.[3] Twosret
Twosret
simply assumed Siptah's regnal years as her own. While her sole independent reign would have lasted for perhaps one to one-and a half full years from 1191 to 1189 BC, this number now appears more likely to be two full years instead, possibly longer. Excavation work by the University of Arizona Egyptian Expedition [1] on her memorial temple ("temple of millions of years") at Gournah strongly suggests that it was completed and functional during her reign and that Twosret
Twosret
started a regnal year 9, which means that she had two and possibly three independent years of rule, once one deducts the nearly six-year reign of Siptah. Her royal name, Sitre Meryamun, means "Daughter of Re, beloved of Amun."[4]

Contents

1 Family 2 Queen, regent, then pharaoh 3 End of Twosret's reign 4 Monuments and inscriptions 5 Tomb 6 References 7 Bibliography

Family[edit] Twosret
Twosret
or Tausret's birth date is unknown. Twosret
Twosret
is thought to have been a daughter of Merenptah, possibly a daughter of Takhat, thereby making her sister to Amenmesse. She was thought to be the second royal wife of Seti II. There are no known children for Twosret
Twosret
and Seti II, unless tomb KV56
KV56
represents the burial of their daughter.[5] Queen, regent, then pharaoh[edit]

Foundation plaque bearing the double cartouches of Queen Twosret. From the mortuary temple of Twosret
Twosret
(Tawesret, Tausret) at Thebes, Egypt. 19th Dynasty. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Theodore Davis identified Twosret
Twosret
and her husband in a cache of jewelry found in tomb KV56
KV56
in the Valley of the Kings. This tomb also contained objects bearing the name of Rameses II. There is no consensus about the nature of this tomb. Some (Aldred) thought this was the tomb of a daughter of Seti II
Seti II
and Tawosret, but others (Maspero) thought this was a cache of objects originally belonging with the tomb of Tawosret herself.[6] After her husband's death, she became first regent to Seti's heir Siptah
Siptah
jointly with Chancellor Bay. Siptah
Siptah
was likely a stepson of Twosret
Twosret
since his mother is now known to be a certain Sutailja or Shoteraja from Louvre Relief E 26901.[7] When Siptah
Siptah
died, Twosret officially assumed the throne for herself, as the "Daughter of Re, Lady of Ta-merit, Twosret
Twosret
of Mut",[8] and assumed the role of a Pharaoh. While it was commonly believed that she ruled Egypt with the aid of Chancellor Bay, a recently published document by Pierre Grandet in a BIFAO 100 (2000) paper shows that Bay was executed on Siptah's orders during Year 5 of this king's reign. The document is a hieratic ostracon or inscribed potshard and contains an announcement to the workmen of Deir El-Medina of the king's actions. No immediate reason was given to show what caused Siptah
Siptah
to turn against "the great enemy Bay," as the ostracon states. The recto of the document reads thus:

Year 5 III Shemu the 27th. On this day, the scribe of the tomb Paser came announcing 'Pharaoh, life, prosperity, and health!, has killed the great enemy Bay'.[9]

This date accords well with Bay's last known public appearance in Year 4 of Siptah. The ostracon's information was essentially a royal order for the workmen to stop all further work on Bay's tomb since the latter had now been deemed a traitor to the state.[10] Meanwhile, Egyptian territories in Canaan seem to have become effectively independent under the overlordship of a man called Irsu. Papyrus Harris I, the main source on these events, seems to claim that Irsu
Irsu
and Twosret
Twosret
had allied themselves, leaving Irsu
Irsu
free to plunder and neglect the land.[11] End of Twosret's reign[edit] Twosret's reign ended in a civil war, which is documented in the Elephantine stela of her successor Setnakhte, who became the founder of the Twentieth dynasty. It is not known if she was overthrown by Setnakhte
Setnakhte
or whether she died peacefully in her own reign; if the latter is the case, then a struggle may have ensued among various factions at court for the throne in which Setnakhte
Setnakhte
emerged victorious. However, Setnakhte
Setnakhte
and his son Ramesses III
Ramesses III
described the late 19th dynasty as a time of chaos. Setnakhte
Setnakhte
usurped the joint KV14 tomb of Seti II
Seti II
and Twosret
Twosret
but reburied Seti II
Seti II
in tomb KV15, while deliberately replastering and redrawing all images of Twosret
Twosret
in tomb KV14
KV14
with those of himself. Setnakhte's decisions here may demonstrate his dislike and presumably hatred for Twosret
Twosret
since he chose to reinter Seti II
Seti II
but not Twosret.[12] Setnakhte's son, Ramesses III, later excluded Twosret
Twosret
and even Siptah of the 19th dynasty from his Medinet Habu list of Egyptian kings thereby delegitimizing them in the eyes of the citizenry.[13] It appears more likely that Setnakhte
Setnakhte
overthrew Twosret
Twosret
from power in a civil war. Twosret's highest known date is a Year 8 II Shemu day 29 hieratic inscription found on one of the foundation blocks (FB 2) of her mortuary temple at Gournah in 2011 by the University of Arizona Egyptian Expedition.[14] Since this was only a foundation inscription and Twosret's temple, although never finished as planned, was at least partially completed, it is logical to assume that some time must have passed before her downfall and the termination of work on her temple project. Richard Wilkinson stressed that Twosret's mortuary temple was "largely structurally completed," although bearing minimal decoration;[15] therefore, she would have ruled for several more months beyond II Shemu 29 of her 8th Year for her temple to reach completion. Further study by Pearce Paul Creasman has concluded that the temple was "functionally complete." [16] She could, hence, have possibly ruled for 6 to 20 more months after the inscription date to achieve these levels of completion, thus starting her 9th regnal year around the interval of IV Akhet/I Peret—when her husband died (since she assumed Siptah's reign as her own) or perhaps longer—before Setnakhte's rule began. Or she could have had a nearly full 9th year reign, including the 6-year reign of Siptah. Monuments and inscriptions[edit] It is believed that expeditions were conducted during her reign to the turquoise mines in Sinai
Sinai
and in Palestine and statues have been found of her at Heliopolis and Thebes. Her name is also found at Abydos, Hermopolis, Memphis, and in Nubia. Inscriptions with Twosret's name appear in several locations:

The Bilgai Stela belonged to Twosret. It records the erection of a monument in the area of Sebennytos.[17] A pair statue of Tawosret and Siptah
Siptah
is now in the Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst Munich (no 122). Siptah
Siptah
is shown seated on Twosret's lap.[18] In the temple at Amada, Twosret
Twosret
is depicted as a Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife
and God's Wife.[17] A statue from Heliopolis depicts Twosret
Twosret
and her names are inscribed with a mixture of male and female epithets. Twosret
Twosret
herself is depicted as a woman.[17] A cartouche of hers believed to come from Qantir in the Delta has been found Twosret
Twosret
and Siptah's names have been found associated with the turquoise mines at Serabit el Khadim and Timna (in the Sinai
Sinai
& Israel).[19] A faience vase bearing a cartouche of Twosret
Twosret
was found at Tell Deir Alla in Jordan.[19] Twosret
Twosret
constructed a Mortuary temple
Mortuary temple
next to the Ramesseum, but it was never finished and was only partially excavated (by Flinders Petrie in 1897), although recent re-excavation by Richard H. Wilkinson and Pearce Paul Creasman shows it is more complex than first thought. The temple is being excavated by the Tausert Temple Project (2004 to present).

Tomb[edit] Twosret's KV14
KV14
tomb in the Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
has a complicated history; it was started in the reign of Seti II. Scenes show Tawosret accompanying Siptah, but Siptah's name had later been replaced by that of Seti II. The tomb was then usurped by Setnakht, and extended to become the deepest royal tomb in the valley while Tawosret's sarcophagus was reused by Amenherkhepeshef in KV13. Altenmuller believes that Seti II
Seti II
was buried in one of the rooms in KV14
KV14
and later reburied in KV15. Others question this scenario.[20] A mummy found in KV35
KV35
and known as Unknown Woman D has been identified by some scholars as possibly belonging to Twosret, but there is no other evidence for this other than the correct Nineteenth Dynasty period of mummification.[2] References[edit]

^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994. pp 156 & 158 ^ a b J. Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, 2006, Thames & Hudson ^ Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Brill: 2006, p.214 ^ Clayton, p.158 ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, 1987 ISBN 0-500-05128-3 ^ Theban Mapping Project Tomb 56 ^ Gae Callender, The Cripple, the Queen & the Man from the North, KMT Volume 17, No.1 (Spring 2006), p.52 ^ Tydlesey, Joyce (2006) "The Complete Queens of Egypt"(American University in Cairo Press) ^ Pierre Grandet, "L'execution du chancelier Bay O.IFAO 1864", BIFAO 100(2000), pp.339-345 ^ Gae Callender, The Cripple, the Queen & the Man from the North, KMT, Spring 2006, p.54 ^ Hans Goedicke, " Irsu
Irsu
the Khasu in Papyrus Harris", Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Vol. 71 (1979), pp. 1-17 ^ Hartwig Altenmüller, "The Tomb of Tausert and Setnakht," in Valley of the Kings, ed. Kent R. Weeks (New York: Friedman/Fairfax Publishers, 2001), pp.222-31 ^ Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu IV: Festival Scenes of Ramesses III, University of Chicago Oriental Institute Publications, vol. 51 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1940), pl. 203. Cf. Donald B. Redford, Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals, and Day-Books: A Contribution to the Study of the Egyptian Sense of History, SSEA Publication 4 (Mississauga, Canada: Benben Publications, 1986), pp.36-37 ^ Now labeled Foundation Block Text 4. See Richard H. Wilkinson, “Tausert Temple Project: 2010-11 Season,” The Ostracon: The Journal of the Egyptian Study Society, 22 (Fall 2011), 8, fig. 4. Additional foundation inscriptions were discovered in previous seasons. Foundation Block Text 2 was found in the 2007 excavation season and bears the date “Regnal Year seven, I Akhet 23,” and this is the earliest dated inscription found at the temple, so construction most likely began late in the latter half of year seven. The original publication with a mistranslation of this inscription is idem, "Tausert Temple Project: 2007 Season," The Ostracon, 18, No. 1 (Summer 2007), 7, fig. 9. The corrected translation appears in idem, “Tausert Temple Project: 2008 Season,” The Ostracon, 19, No. 1 (Fall 2008), p.7. ^ Richard H. Wilkinson, “History of the Temple,” in The Temple of Tausret: The University of Arizona Egyptian Expedition Tausret Temple Project, 2004-2011, p.166. ^ Pearce Paul Creasman, "Excavations at Pharaoh-Queen Tausret's Temple of Millions of Years: 2012 Season," Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 39 (2012/2013), pp.15. ^ a b c Vivienne G. Callender, Queen Tausret and the End of Dynasty 19, Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Bd. 32, (2004), pp. 81-104 ^ J. von Beckerath: Queen Twosre as guardian of Siptah, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 48 (1962), 70-74 ^ a b Itamar Singer, Merneptah's Campaign to Canaan, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 269 (Feb., 1988), pp. 1-10 ^ Theban Mapping Project, Tomb KV14

Bibliography[edit]

Gae Callender, The Cripple, the Queen & the Man from the North, KMT, Vol:17 No.1, Spring 2006, pp. 49–63 Leonard H. Lesko, A Little More Evidence for the End of the Nineteenth Dynasty, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 5, (1966), pp. 29–32 (accessible through JSTOR)

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

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