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(i)

TWIN CITIES are a special case of two cities or urban centres that are founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other over time, losing most of their mutual buffer zone .

There are no precise criteria for twin-cityhood, but to be considered twin cities, the cities involved have to have a similar administrative status and somewhat comparable sizes; a suburb of a much larger population center is usually not considered to form a twin city with it. For example, South San Francisco
South San Francisco
(population about 65,000) is not considered a twin city with San Francisco
San Francisco
(population about 850,000). However, cities considered twinned by proximity do not necessarily match demographically, economically, or politically.

In many historical cases, cities that grew into each other's space lost their individual identities, and the border or barrier originally separating them became almost irrelevant. An 1873 case of twin cities merging to become a united city is Budapest
Budapest
in Hungary, which began as two settlements ( Buda
Buda
and Pest ) facing each other across the Danube at a strategic fording place along a trade route. In China, the three ancient cities of Hankou
Hankou
, Hanyang , and Wuchang , separated by the junction of the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Hanjiang rivers, were joined in 1927 into the single entity of Wuhan
Wuhan
.

Twin cities
Twin cities
may share an airport into whose airport codes are integrated the component initials e.g. BWI ( Baltimore
Baltimore
-Washington ), DFW (Dallas–Fort Worth ), LBA ( Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
), MSP (Minneapolis – Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul, Minnesota
), RDU ( Raleigh
Raleigh
and Durham, NC
Durham, NC
), and CAK ( Akron
Akron
Canton, Ohio
Canton, Ohio
).

In some cases, such as Albury
Albury
/ Wodonga
Wodonga
in Australia, the two cities are permanently divided by a state border, often one that strictly adheres to a geographical landmark, such as the Murray River that divides New South Wales
New South Wales
from Victoria , and thus Albury
Albury
from Wodonga. In other cases twin cities can be divided by an international border, but retain a cultural and historical similarity, for example Haparanda ( Sweden
Sweden
) and Tornio ( Finland
Finland
), Leticia ( Colombia
Colombia
) and Tabatinga ( Brazil
Brazil
) or Valga ( Estonia
Estonia
) and Valka ( Latvia
Latvia
).

CONTENTS

* 1 Examples

* 1.1 Americas

* 1.1.1 North America * 1.1.2 South America * 1.1.3 International * 1.1.4 Historic

* 1.2 Asia

* 1.2.1 Current * 1.2.2 International * 1.2.3 Historic

* 1.3 Europe

* 1.3.1 Current * 1.3.2 International * 1.3.3 Historic

* 1.4 Oceania

* 2 Tri-cities * 3 Quad cities * 4 More than four cities

* 5 Examples of cities formed by amalgamation

* 5.1 Asia * 5.2 Europe * 5.3 North America

* 6 Fictional twin cities * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References

EXAMPLES

Cross-border example of twin cities: Plaza Internacional of the Frontera de la Paz. On the left, Santana do Livramento (Brazil); on the right, Rivera (Uruguay).

This article MAY CONTAIN INDISCRIMINATE , EXCESSIVE , OR IRRELEVANT EXAMPLES. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples . See's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (November 2009)

AMERICAS

North America

Canada
Canada

* Battleford and North Battleford, Saskatchewan
Battleford, Saskatchewan
* Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
and Halifax * Gatineau, Quebec
Quebec
and Ottawa, Ontario
Ontario
Also Known as the Ottawa- Gatineau
Gatineau
Metropolitan Area * Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo

United States
United States

* Alcoa
Alcoa
and Maryville, Tennessee * Allentown and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
* Auburn and Lewiston, Maine * Auburn and Opelika, Alabama
Opelika, Alabama
* Benton Harbor and St. Joseph, Michigan
St. Joseph, Michigan
* Bloomington and Normal, Illinois
Normal, Illinois
* Bluefield, Virginia and Bluefield, West Virginia
Bluefield, West Virginia
* Bossier City
City
and Shreveport , Louisiana
Louisiana
* Bristol, Tennessee
Bristol, Tennessee
, and Bristol, Virginia * Bryan and College Station, Texas
College Station, Texas
* Centralia and Chehalis, Washington
Chehalis, Washington
* Champaign and Urbana, Illinois * Colorado City, Arizona and Hildale, Utah * Dallas
Dallas
and Fort Worth * Duluth, Minnesota
Duluth, Minnesota
, and Superior, Wisconsin * Durham and Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina
* Fargo, North Dakota , and Moorhead, Minnesota
Moorhead, Minnesota
* Fitchburg and Leominster, Massachusetts * Greensboro and Winston-Salem, North Carolina * Greenville and Spartanburg, South Carolina
Spartanburg, South Carolina
* Gulfport, Mississippi
Gulfport, Mississippi
and Biloxi, Mississippi
Biloxi, Mississippi
* Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford, Connecticut
and Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
* Killeen and Temple, Texas * Lafayette and West Lafayette , Indiana
Indiana
* Lancaster and Palmdale, California
Palmdale, California
* Lansing (west) , and East Lansing , Michigan
Michigan
* Macon and Warner Robins, Georgia * Midland and Odessa, Texas * Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul, Minnesota
* Monroe and West Monroe
West Monroe
, Louisiana
Louisiana
* Montague and Whitehall , Michigan
Michigan
* Norfolk and Virginia Beach , Virginia
Virginia
* Portland and South Portland, Maine
Portland, Maine
* Petersburg and Richmond, Virginia
Virginia
* Reno and Sparks , Nevada
Nevada
* Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania * Sherman and Denison, Texas * South Bend and Mishawaka , Indiana
Indiana
* St. Petersburg, Florida
St. Petersburg, Florida
and Tampa * Texarkana, Arkansas and Texarkana, Texas * Union City, Indiana
Indiana
and Union City, Ohio * Wahpeton, North Dakota and Breckenridge, Minnesota
Breckenridge, Minnesota

Mexico-- United States
United States
border

* San Diego, California, United States
United States
and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico * Calexico, California, United States
United States
and Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico * Yuma, Arizona, United States
United States
and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora, Mexico * Nogales, Arizona, United States
United States
and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico * Douglas, Arizona, United States
United States
and Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico * Columbus, New Mexico, United States
United States
and Las Palomas, Chihuahua, Mexico * El Paso, Texas, United States
United States
and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

* Presidio, Texas, United States
United States
and Ojinaga, Chihuahua, Mexico * Del Rio, Texas, United States
United States
and Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila, Mexico * Eagle Pass, Texas, United States
United States
and Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico * Laredo, Texas, United States
United States
and Nuevo Laredo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico * Mcallen, Texas, United States
United States
and Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico * Brownsville, Texas, United States
United States
and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico

Canada– United States
United States
border

* Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Michigan
and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
* Detroit, Michigan
Michigan
and Windsor, Ontario
Windsor, Ontario
* Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario
Niagara Falls, Ontario
* Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
and Fort Erie, Ontario
Fort Erie, Ontario

South America

Argentina
Argentina

* Carmen de Patagones
Carmen de Patagones
and Viedma
Viedma
* Paraná, Entre Ríos and Santa Fe

Brazil
Brazil

* Juazeiro
Juazeiro
and Petrolina * Olinda
Olinda
and Recife
Recife
* Vila Velha
Vila Velha
and Vitória

Chile
Chile

* Concepción and Talcahuano
Talcahuano
* Coquimbo
Coquimbo
and La Serena * Valparaiso
Valparaiso
and Viña del Mar
Viña del Mar

Peru
Peru

* Callao
Callao
and Lima
Lima

Venezuela
Venezuela

* Guarenas and Guatire * Acarigua
Acarigua
and Araure
Araure

International

Examples, sharing names or similar names, across an international border include:

* Chuí , Brazil; Chuy , Uruguay * Niagara Falls, Ontario
Niagara Falls, Ontario
, Canada; Niagara Falls, New York , United States * North Portal, Saskatchewan , Canada; Portal, North Dakota , United States * Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
, Canada; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Michigan
, United States * Boquillas del Carmen , Coahuila, Mexico; Boquillas, Texas , United States * Naco, Sonora , Mexico; Naco, Arizona , United States * Nogales, Sonora
Nogales, Sonora
, Mexico; Nogales, Arizona , United States * Nuevo Laredo , Tamaulipas, Mexico; Laredo, Texas
Laredo, Texas
, United States * Nuevo Progreso, Río Bravo, Tamaulipas , Mexico; Progreso, Texas , United States * San Luis Río Colorado , Sonora, Mexico; San Luis, Arizona , United States * Tecate , Baja California, Mexico; Tecate, California
Tecate, California
, United States * Calexico, California ; Mexicali, Baja California
California
— see Calexico– Mexicali

Pairs with unrelated names

* San Diego
San Diego
and Tijuana
Tijuana
— see San Diego– Tijuana
Tijuana
* Detroit, Michigan
Michigan
and Windsor, Ontario
Windsor, Ontario
— see Detroit–Windsor * Douglas, Arizona and Agua Prieta, Sonora * Brownsville, Texas and Matamoros, Tamaulipas
Matamoros, Tamaulipas
— see Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area * Eagle Pass, Texas
Eagle Pass, Texas
and Piedras Negras, Coahuila * Del Rio, Texas and Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila * Presidio, Texas and Manuel Ojinaga, Chihuahua * El Paso, Texas
El Paso, Texas
and Ciudad Juárez
Ciudad Juárez
, Chihuahua — see El Paso–Juárez

Historic

* Brooklyn, New York and New York City
City
- until incorporation as a single city in 1898 - as noted in "The New Colossus", inscribed on a plaque at the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
. * Lloydminster
Lloydminster
, Alberta
Alberta
/ Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
* Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
, Ontario
Ontario
(formed by the amalgamation of Fort William and Port Arthur, Ontario
Ontario
in 1970)

ASIA

Current

* Dhaka
Dhaka
and Gazipur , Bangladesh * Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Foshan
Foshan
, People's Republic of China * Macau
Macau
and Zhuhai
Zhuhai
, People's Republic of China * Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
, India * Allahabad
Allahabad
and Naini , India * Cuttack and Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
, India * Munger and Jamalpur , India * Durg and Bhilai , India * Hubli and Dharwad
Dharwad
, India * Hyderabad and Secunderabad
Secunderabad
, Telangana, India * Vijayawada
Vijayawada
and Amaravati , Andhra Pradesh, India * Kankroli and Rajsamand , India * Kochi
Kochi
and Ernakulam
Ernakulam
, India * Kolkata
Kolkata
and Howrah
Howrah
, India * Mumbai
Mumbai
and Navi Mumbai
Mumbai
, India * Pune
Pune
and Pimpri-Chinchwad , India * Harihar and Davangere
Davangere
, Karnataka, India * Jalpaiguri and Siliguri
Siliguri
, West Bengal, India * Asansol and Durgapur
Durgapur
, West Bengal, India * Shivamoga and Bhadravati , Karnataka, India * Ranchi
Ranchi
and Hatia , India * Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli
and Srirangam , Tamil Nadu, India * Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
and Palayamkottai , Tamil Nadu, India * Seleucia
Seleucia
and Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
, Iraq * Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Jaffa
Jaffa
, Israel * Okayama
Okayama
and Kurashiki , Japan * Tsukuba and Tsuchiura , Japan * Nasushiobara and Otawara , Japan * Kamisu and Kashima , Japan * Beirut
Beirut
and Jounieh
Jounieh
, Lebanon * Kathmandu
Kathmandu
, Patan and Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
, Nepal * Bharatpur and Narayangarh , Nepal * Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
and Islamabad
Islamabad
, Pakistan * Jhelum
Jhelum
and Sarai Alamgir , Pakistan * Ramallah
Ramallah
and al-Bireh , Palestine * Dipolog and Dapitan , Philippines * Taipei
Taipei
and New Taipei
Taipei
, Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) * Dammam and Khobar , Saudi Arabia * Seoul
Seoul
and Incheon
Incheon
, South Korea * Bangkok
Bangkok
and Nonthaburi , Thailand * Chiang Mai and Lamphun , Thailand * Songkhla and Hatyai , Thailand

International

Historic

* Chirala -Perala , India * Victoria and Kowloon , colonial Hong Kong - although, in both colonial Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , Victoria is the only city recognised by law; they were widely considered to be separate cities until at least the mid-1970s * Saigon
Saigon
and Cholon , merged into Saigon-Cholon, now Ho Chi Minh City
City
.

EUROPE

Current

* Aalborg
Aalborg
and Nørresundby , Denmark * Bournemouth
Bournemouth
and Poole
Poole
, England * Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
, England * Chatham and Rochester , England * Leeds
Leeds
and Bradford
Bradford
, England * Manchester
Manchester
and Salford , England * Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Newcastle-upon-Tyne
and Gateshead , England * Porto
Porto
and Vila Nova de Gaia
Vila Nova de Gaia
, Portugal * Póvoa de Varzim and Vila do Conde , Portugal * Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
and Mannheim
Mannheim
, Germany * Mainz
Mainz
and Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
, Germany * Ulm
Ulm
and Neu- Ulm
Ulm
, Germany * Sindelfingen and Böblingen
Böblingen
, Germany * Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Offenbach, Germany * Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Fuerth
Fuerth
, Germany * Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and The Hague
The Hague
, The Netherlands * Fredrikstad
Fredrikstad
and Sarpsborg
Sarpsborg
, Norway * Porsgrunn
Porsgrunn
and Skien
Skien
, Norway * Sandnes and Stavanger
Stavanger
, Norway * Słupsk and Ustka , Poland * Novi Sad
Novi Sad
and Petrovaradin
Petrovaradin
, Serbia * Zemun
Zemun
and New Belgrade
New Belgrade
, Serbia * Alcobendas and San Sebastián de los Reyes , Spain * Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and San Cristóbal de la Laguna , Spain * Elda
Elda
and Petrer , Spain * Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and Mölndal , Sweden * Jönköping and Huskvarna
Huskvarna
, Sweden * Athens
Athens
and Piraeus
Piraeus
, Greece

International

* Strasbourg
Strasbourg
, France and Kehl , Germany * Frankfurt
Frankfurt
(Oder) , Germany and Słubice , Poland * Bad Radkersburg
Bad Radkersburg
, Austria and Gornja Radgona , Slovenia * Comines, Belgium and Comines, France * Mouscron
Mouscron
, Belgium and Tourcoing
Tourcoing
, France * Wervik
Wervik
, Belgium and Wervicq-Sud , France * Těšín , Czech Republic and Cieszyn
Cieszyn
, Poland * Copenhagen
Copenhagen
, Denmark and Malmö
Malmö
, Sweden * Narva
Narva
, Estonia
Estonia
and Ivangorod
Ivangorod
, Russia * Valga , Estonia
Estonia
and Valka , Latvia * Tornio , Finland
Finland
and Haparanda
Haparanda
, Sweden * Hendaye , France and Irun , Spain * Görlitz
Görlitz
, Germany and Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
, Poland * Guben , Germany and Gubin, Poland * Heringsdorf , Germany and Świnoujście
Świnoujście
, Poland * Gorizia , Italy and Nova Gorica , Slovenia * Kerkrade
Kerkrade
, The Netherlands and Herzogenrath , Germany * Komárno , Slovakia and Komárom
Komárom
, Hungary

Historic

* City
City
of London
London
and City
City
of Westminster , England. Absorbed into London
London
. * Buda
Buda
and Pest . United into Budapest
Budapest
. * Barmen
Barmen
and Elberfeld
Elberfeld
, Germany. United into Wuppertal
Wuppertal
. * Bielsko
Bielsko
and Biała, Poland. United into Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała
. * Knokke and Heist-aan-Zee . United into Knokke-Heist . * Gradec and Kapto l. United into Zagreb
Zagreb
.

OCEANIA

* Albury
Albury
and Wodonga
Wodonga
, Australia * Canberra
Canberra
and Queanbeyan
Queanbeyan
, Australia * Gold Coast and Tweed Heads , Australia * Forster and Tuncurry , Australia * Harden and Murrumburrah , Australia * Kalgoorlie
Kalgoorlie
and Boulder , Australia * Napier and Hastings , New Zealand
New Zealand
* Perth
Perth
and Fremantle
Fremantle
, Australia * Townsville
Townsville
and Thuringowa , Australia * Parramatta
Parramatta
and Sydney
Sydney
, Australia

TRI-CITIES

Main article: Tri-Cities (other)

* Brisbane
Brisbane
; Logan ; Ipswich , Queensland Australia * Chandigarh
Chandigarh
; Mohali ; and Panchkula , India * Stockholm
Stockholm
; Solna
Solna
; and Sundbyberg , Sweden * San Jose ; San Francisco
San Francisco
; and Oakland, California
Oakland, California
* New York, New York
New York, New York
; Newark ; and Jersey City, New Jersey
Jersey City, New Jersey
* Gdańsk ; Gdynia
Gdynia
; and Sopot
Sopot
, Poland * Greensboro ; Winston-Salem ; and High Point, North Carolina
High Point, North Carolina
, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Piedmont Triad * Raleigh
Raleigh
; Durham ; and Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Research Triangle * Allentown ; Bethlehem ; and Easton, Pennsylvania
Easton, Pennsylvania
, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Lehigh Valley
Lehigh Valley
* Dallas
Dallas
; Fort Worth ; and Arlington, Texas
Arlington, Texas
* Pasco ; Richland ; and Kennewick, Washington
Kennewick, Washington
* Dubai
Dubai
; Sharjah ; and Ajman
Ajman
, United Arab Emirates * Kitchener ; Waterloo ; and Cambridge, Ontario
Ontario
, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Kitchener-Waterloo or simply K-W * Bay
Bay
City
City
; Saginaw ; and Midland, Michigan
Michigan
, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called Saginaw Valley and the MBS Regions * Temiskaming Shores, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
- Amalgamated the former municipalities of Cobalt , Haileybury and New Liskeard

QUAD CITIES

* In North Carolina
North Carolina
, the Unifour: Hickory , Lenoir , Morganton and Alexander County * Quad Cities of Davenport and Bettendorf , Iowa
Iowa
, and Rock Island and Moline , Illinois
Illinois
. It also includes a fifth member, East Moline, Illinois
Illinois
. * The Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area in Alabama is locally referred to as "the Quad Cities", with Florence , Muscle Shoals , Sheffield , and Tuscumbia . Formerly, when Muscle Shoals was a mere village, this region was known a "Tri-Cities", Alabama. Actually, they are all incorporated as towns except for Florence. * The Quad Cities of Minnesota consist of Virginia
Virginia
, Eveleth , Gilbert , and Mountain Iron . * The cities of Pullman, Washington
Pullman, Washington
, Moscow, Idaho
Moscow, Idaho
, Clarkston, Washington , and Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston, Idaho
have marketed themselves as "Quad Cities." * Pattaya-Chonburi Metropolitan Area consists of the City
City
of Pattaya , Town of Chonburi , Portal
Portal
town of Laem Chabang and Town of Sattahip on the west coast of Chonburi Province
Chonburi Province
, Thailand

MORE THAN FOUR CITIES

* Norfolk (US) ; Chesapeake ; Hampton ; Newport News ; Portsmouth ; Suffolk ; and Virginia
Virginia
Beach, Virginia
Virginia
, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
* Ruhr
Ruhr
district (Germany) consisting of Dortmund
Dortmund
, Essen
Essen
, Duisburg , Bochum
Bochum
, Oberhausen
Oberhausen
, Mühlheim , Bottrop , Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
and Herne in its core.

EXAMPLES OF CITIES FORMED BY AMALGAMATION

ASIA

* Lahore
Lahore
, the second largest city of Pakistan
Pakistan
, has, as of 2013, grown out so much that small towns by this giant city, such as Shahdara , have been absorbed in its city limits. * Wuhan
Wuhan
in China
China
consists of the towns of Wuchang , Hankou
Hankou
, and Hanyang in Hubei Province
Hubei Province
. * Islamabad
Islamabad
, the capital city of Pakistan
Pakistan
, has been expanded to include smaller towns including Rawat in its territory. * Bangkok
Bangkok
, the capital and largest city of Thailand, was created in 1971, when the previous Bangkok
Bangkok
province (Phra Nakhon) was merged with Thonburi
Thonburi
province. * Fukuoka
Fukuoka
in Japan, a city of 1.4 million people, formerly the twin cities of Hakata and Fukuoka
Fukuoka
until the late 19th century. * Saitama in Japan, a city of 1.2 million people, created in 2001 by the merger of the cities of Urawa, Omiya, Yono, and later Iwatsuki. Urawa and Omiya could formerly have been considered twin cities. * Kitakyushu in Japan, a city of 900,000 people, created in 1963 by the merger of Yahata, Kokura, Moji, Wakamatsu, and Tobata. Yahata and Kokura had formerly been major cities in their own right. * The cities of Saigon
Saigon
and Cholon merged in 1931 to form a single city named Saigon-Cholon; in 1956, the name Cholon was dropped and the city became known as Saigon
Saigon
(now Ho Chi Minh City).

EUROPE

* London
London
grew from its cores in the City
City
of London
London
and the City
City
of Westminster to encompass many other towns and villages within neighbouring counties and absorbed almost the whole of Middlesex county . * Budapest
Budapest
is the amalgamation of Buda
Buda
, Pest and Óbuda
Óbuda
. * Berlin
Berlin
( Berlin
Berlin
and Cölln ), in Germany * Duisburg
Duisburg
( Duisburg
Duisburg
and Hamborn , 1929–1935 called Duisburg-Hamborn), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany * Wuppertal
Wuppertal
( Barmen
Barmen
and Elberfeld
Elberfeld
), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany * Manchester
Manchester
and the city of Salford , England in the Metropolitan County of Greater Manchester
Manchester
(formerly in Lancashire). * Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
was created in 1910 from the towns of Burslem , Hanley , Tunstall , Longton , Fenton and Stoke , taking its name from the latter. Neighbouring Newcastle-under-Lyme
Newcastle-under-Lyme
remains a separate town. * Eindhoven
Eindhoven
merged with five neighbouring municipalities ( Woensel , Tongelre , Stratum
Stratum
, Gestel en Blaarthem and Strijp ) into the new Groot- Eindhoven
Eindhoven
("Greater Eindhoven") in 1920. The prefix "Groot-" was later dropped. * Madrid
Madrid
evolved by absorption of other towns (like Tetuán de las Victorias , Vallecas , Chamartín de la Rosa or Aravaca )

NORTH AMERICA

* Richmond (Richmond and Manchester
Manchester
) in central Virginia * Cleveland
Cleveland
( Cleveland
Cleveland
and Ohio
Ohio
City
City
) in Ohio
Ohio
* Minneapolis
Minneapolis
. St. Anthony (not to be confused with St. Anthony Village , a modern city which is a suburb ) was a twin city to Minneapolis
Minneapolis
in the two cities' youth. Minneapolis
Minneapolis
annexed St. Anthony in the late 1800s. * New York City
City
(five boroughs, historically especially between Manhattan and Brooklyn) * Jersey City
City
, New Jersey, was incorporated in 1820, and slowly grew by annexing surrounding municipalities: Van Vorst Twp. (1851), Bergen City
City
(1869), Hudson City
City
(1869), Bergen Twp. (1869) and finally Greenville Twp. (1873). * Fremont, California was formed in 1956 by the combination of the five towns of Centerville, Irvington, Niles, Mission San Jose, and Warm Springs, California
California
. The town of Newark has always refused to merge into Fremont, and Newark is completely surrounded by Fremont. * What is now the city of Winston-Salem, North Carolina was once two separate towns called Winston and Salem that were combined into one. * Ottawa
Ottawa
, Ontario
Ontario
, was given its large area by the amalgamation in 2001 of the old City
City
of Ottawa
Ottawa
, the suburbs of Nepean , Kanata , Gloucester , Rockcliffe Park , Vanier and Cumberland , Orleans , and the rural townships of West Carleton , Osgoode , Rideau , and Goulbourn * Gatineau
Gatineau
, Quebec
Quebec
, formed by the amalgamation of the old City
City
of Gatineau
Gatineau
, City
City
of Hull , City
City
of Aylmer , City
City
of Buckingham and the Municipality of Masson-Angers all facing the City
City
of Ottawa
Ottawa
, Ontario from the north shore of the Ottawa
Ottawa
River . * Toronto
Toronto
formed by an amalgamation of the Old Toronto
Toronto
with East York , Etobicoke , North York
North York
, Scarborough and York , which were themselves products of earlier amalgamations. * Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
, Ontario
Ontario
(Fort William and Port Arthur ). * Lloydminster
Lloydminster
, Canada, on the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
- Alberta
Alberta
border, was formed as a single entity in 1903, when both future provinces were part of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
, but was divided into two separate entities in 1905 because the border between the newly created provinces bisected the community. In 1930, the two towns were reunited as a single town under the shared jurisdiction of both provinces, and Lloydminster
Lloydminster
was reincorporated as a single city in 1958. * Halifax and Dartmouth (Canada) were forcibly merged in 1996 along with Bedford and Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality . * Saguenay, Quebec
Quebec
( Chicoutimi , Jonquière , et al.) * Bellingham, Washington
Bellingham, Washington
was formed from four cities, Fairhaven , Sehome, Bellingham and Whatcom. * Lincoln City, Oregon was formed in 1965 by merging the extant seaside towns of Oceanlake, Delake, and Taft, with the adjoining unincorporated areas of Nelscott and Cutler City. * Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
annexed Allegheny City
City
, which is now the quarter of the city that lies north of the Allegheny and Ohio
Ohio
rivers. Also annexed was Birmingham, now referred to as the "South Side". * Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
, which absorbed the cities of South Bethlehem, and West Bethlehem. The former Bethlehem and South Bethlehem are situated in Northampton County , and West Bethlehem is in Lehigh County . As a result, present-day Bethlehem straddles the county line. * Montreal
Montreal
, Quebec, was merged with the other 27 communities on the Island of Montreal
Montreal
by an act in the Quebec
Quebec
Parliament in 2002. Following a change in the provincial government, several communities later voted via referendum to de-merge and there are now a total of 15, leaving Montreal
Montreal
merged with the other 12. * Kingston, Ontario
Ontario
was amalgamated in 1998 with the neighboring Kingston and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Townships. * Winnipeg
Winnipeg
, Manitoba
Manitoba
amalgamated with 12 surrounding municipalities and its metropolitan corporation in 1971 under what was referred to as unicity reforms in local government restructuring. * Park Hills, Missouri was formed in 1994 by a four-way municipal merger involving the cities of Flat River, Elvins, and Esther, plus the village of Rivermines. * Helena-West Helena, Arkansas was formed in 2006 by the merger of the previous cities of Helena and West Helena . * Greater Sudbury , Ontario, was formed in 2001 by the amalgamation of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury , comprising the municipalities of Sudbury , Nickel Centre , Valley East , Capreol , Rayside-Balfour , Onaping Falls and Walden , plus a number of previously unamalgamated townships. The amalgamation made it the most populous city in the Northern Ontario
Ontario
region. * Boston, Massachusetts is made up of the former towns of Boston, Dorchester, Brighton, Roxbury, Charlestown, and Hyde Park. * Port Alberni, British Columbia was formed in 1967 when Alberni and Port Alberni, merged to become one city.

FICTIONAL TWIN CITIES

* Gotham City
City
(the home of Batman
Batman
) and Metropolis
Metropolis
(the home of Superman
Superman
) have sometimes been presented as twin cities, mainly in 1970s and 1980s stories by DC Comics
DC Comics
. In stories presenting them as twin cities, Gotham City
City
and Metropolis
Metropolis
are located on opposite sides of a large bay (identified as Delaware Bay
Bay
in 1990's The Atlas of the DC Universe ), with both cities linked by the Metro-Narrows Bridge, a suspension bridge resembling New York City's Verrazano-Narrows Bridge .

* Central City
City
and Keystone City
City
, from the current Flash comics , are shown as twin cities. Before the 1985-86 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths , Central and Keystone are presented as located in the same space but on different parallel Earths .

* Their real-life equivalents might possibly be St. Joseph, Missouri and either Elwood or Wathena in Kansas
Kansas
.

* Ankh-Morpork , from Terry Pratchett
Terry Pratchett
's Discworld novels, is referred to as "the twin cities of proud Ankh and pestilent Morpork" * Duckburg and St. Canard were depicted in the cartoon Darkwing Duck as sister cities connected by a bridge, very similar to Oakland
Oakland
and San Francisco
San Francisco
.

SEE ALSO

* Divided cities * United cities * Cross-border town naming * Megacity * Sister cities
Sister cities
* List of metropolitan areas that overlap multiple countries * List of twin towns and sister cities * Global city
Global city
* Ecumenopolis * Metropolis
Metropolis
* Megalopolis

NOTES

* ^ Separated by the North Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
River . While the communities are commonly referred to by the collective "The Battlefords," they retain distinctive identities. * ^ Main cities of Metropolitan Halifax , they are geographically separated by Halifax Harbour * ^ form the National Capital Region , geopolitically separated by the Ottawa
Ottawa
River * ^ See Bloomington–Normal . * ^ See College Station–Bryan metropolitan area . * ^ Champaign was originally known as West Urbana but has since outgrown its neighbor. See Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area
Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area
. * ^ Twin cores of the Metroplex of northern Texas
Texas
. * ^ Nicknamed the Twin Ports , these form the world's largest freshwater port. * ^ Two anchor cities of the three-city Research Triangle area. * ^ See Fargo–Moorhead
Fargo–Moorhead
. * ^ Largest two cities of the three-city Piedmont Triad
Piedmont Triad
area. * ^ Shared international airport named after both cities Greenville–Spartanburg International Airport . * ^ The principal cities of the Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
and High Desert in California
California
. * ^ Nicknamed the Petroplex in a nod to the DFW region 's nickname, as well as its strong reliance on the oil industry. * ^ Also known as the Twin Cities * ^ Share the Portland International Jetport
Portland International Jetport
(buildings/terminal in one city, runways in the other) and the Port of Portland and retain separate identities. * ^ One perhaps more suburban; see Greater Richmond Region
Greater Richmond Region
. * ^ The core cities of the Wyoming Valley in northeastern Pennsylvania. * ^ See Sherman–Denison metropolitan area . * ^ Main cities of the Tampa Bay
Bay
Area . * ^ the cities meet at the border between Texas
Texas
and Arkansas
Arkansas
, and their name is a portmanteau of those states' names as well as that of Louisiana
Louisiana
, whose border lies approximately 25 miles to the south. See Texarkana metropolitan area and Ark-La-Tex . * ^ Until 1930, the community, divided by the Alberta
Alberta
-Saskatchewan border, was two separate, adjacent towns. However, with the Town of Lloydminster
Lloydminster
Acts in administration the large town became integrated while still bi-provincial. * ^ Formed historic Al-Mada\'in . * ^ Kurashiki is somewhat more of a suburb * ^ Co-centers of a shared major metropolitan area. * ^ Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area. * ^ Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area. * ^ the principal cities of the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay
Bay
area.

REFERENCES

* ^ "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of Indian States". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of Indian States". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014. * ^ Weather story from 2006 The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2006-12-31 * ^ * ^ "It's a wise man who knows where Chatham ends and Rochester begins." Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
* ^ "Tricity residents to get Emaar MGF’s Central Plaza soon". The Financial Express . Jan 6, 2014. * ^ " Quad Cities too generic a name for ID, WA cities". The Seattle Times . 28 April 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2013. * ^ http://www.grijalvo.com/Madrid/G_Barrios_Madrid_antes_municipios.htm * ^ Action Comics
Action Comics
#451, DC Comics
DC Comics
, September 1975 * ^ New Adventures of Superboy #22, DC Comics
DC Comics
, October 1981 * ^ World\'s Finest Comics #259, DC Comics
DC Comics
, October–November 1979 * ^ The Flash (volume 1) #123, DC Comics
DC Comics
, September 1961 * ^ See e.g. the introduction of The Hogfather q:Terry Pratchett\'s

.