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Twin cities
Twin cities
are a special case of two cities or urban centres that are founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other over time, losing most of their mutual buffer zone. There are no precise criteria for twin-cityhood, but to be considered twin cities, the cities involved have to have a similar administrative status and somewhat comparable sizes; a suburb of a much larger population center is usually not considered to form a twin city with it. For example, South San Francisco
South San Francisco
(population about 65,000) is not considered a twin city with San Francisco
San Francisco
(population about 850,000). However, cities considered twinned by proximity do not necessarily match demographically, economically, or politically. In many historical cases, cities that grew into each other's space lost their individual identities, and the border or barrier originally separating them became almost irrelevant. An 1873 case of twin cities merging to become a united city is Budapest
Budapest
in Hungary, which began as two settlements ( Buda
Buda
and Pest) facing each other across the Danube
Danube
at a strategic fording place along a trade route. In China, the three ancient cities of Hankou, Hanyang, and Wuchang, separated by the junction of the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Hanjiang rivers, were joined in 1927 into the single entity of Wuhan. Twin cities
Twin cities
may share an airport into whose airport codes are integrated the component initials e.g. BWI (Baltimore-Washington), DFW (Dallas–Fort Worth), LBA (Leeds–Bradford), MSP (Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Minnesota), RDU ( Raleigh
Raleigh
and Durham, NC), and CAK (Akron–Canton, Ohio). In some cases, such as Albury/ Wodonga
Wodonga
in Australia, the two cities are permanently divided by a state border, often one that strictly adheres to a geographical landmark, such as the Murray River
Murray River
that divides New South Wales from Victoria, and thus Albury
Albury
from Wodonga. In other cases twin cities can be divided by an international border, but retain a cultural and historical similarity, for example Haparanda (Sweden) and Tornio
Tornio
(Finland), Leticia (Colombia) and Tabatinga (Brazil) or Valga (Estonia) and Valka
Valka
(Latvia).

Contents

1 Examples

1.1 Americas

1.1.1 North America 1.1.2 South America 1.1.3 International 1.1.4 Historic

1.2 Asia

1.2.1 Current 1.2.2 Historic

1.3 Europe

1.3.1 Current 1.3.2 International 1.3.3 Historic

1.4 Oceania

2 Tri-cities 3 Quad cities 4 More than four cities 5 Examples of cities formed by amalgamation

5.1 Asia 5.2 Europe 5.3 North America

6 Fictional twin cities 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

Examples[edit]

Cross-border example of twin cities: Plaza Internacional of the Frontera de la Paz. On the left, Santana do Livramento (Brazil); on the right, Rivera (Uruguay).

This article may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (November 2009)

Americas[edit] North America[edit]

Canada

Battleford and North Battleford, Saskatchewan
Battleford, Saskatchewan
"The Battlefords" [n 1] Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
and Halifax[n 2] Gatineau, Quebec
Quebec
and Ottawa, Ontario[n 3] Also Known as the Ottawa- Gatineau
Gatineau
Metropolitan Area Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo

United States

Alcoa
Alcoa
and Maryville, Tennessee Allentown and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Auburn and Lewiston, Maine Auburn and Opelika, Alabama Benton Harbor and St. Joseph, Michigan Bloomington and Normal, Illinois[n 4] Bluefield, Virginia
Bluefield, Virginia
and Bluefield, West Virginia Bossier City
City
and Shreveport, Louisiana Bristol, Tennessee, and Bristol, Virginia Bryan and College Station, Texas[n 5] Centralia and Chehalis, Washington Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
and North Charleston, South Carolina Champaign and Urbana, Illinois[n 6] Colorado City, Arizona
Colorado City, Arizona
and Hildale, Utah Dallas
Dallas
and Fort Worth[n 7] Duluth, Minnesota, and Superior, Wisconsin[n 8] Durham and Raleigh, North Carolina[n 9] Easton, Pennsylvania
Easton, Pennsylvania
and Phillipsburg, New Jersey Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota[n 10] Fitchburg and Leominster, Massachusetts Fort Myers, Florida
Fort Myers, Florida
and Cape Coral, Florida Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks, North Dakota
and East Grand Forks, Minnesota Greensboro and Winston-Salem, North Carolina[n 11] Greenville and Spartanburg, South Carolina[n 12] Gulfport, Mississippi
Gulfport, Mississippi
and Biloxi, Mississippi Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford, Connecticut
and Springfield, Massachusetts Killeen and Temple, Texas Lafayette and West Lafayette, Indiana Lancaster and Palmdale, California[n 13] Lansing (west), and East Lansing, Michigan Macon and Warner Robins, Georgia Marinette, Wisconsin
Marinette, Wisconsin
and Menominee, Michigan Midland and Odessa, Texas[n 14] Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and Saint Paul, Minnesota[n 15] Monroe and West Monroe, Louisiana Montague and Whitehall, Michigan Norfolk and Virginia
Virginia
Beach, Virginia Portland and South Portland, Maine[n 16] Petersburg and Richmond, Virginia[n 17] Reno and Sparks, Nevada San Francisco
San Francisco
and Oakland, California Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania[n 18] Sherman and Denison, Texas[n 19] South Bend
South Bend
and Mishawaka, Indiana St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida[n 20] Texarkana, Arkansas
Texarkana, Arkansas
and Texarkana, Texas[n 21] Union City, Indiana
Indiana
and Union City, Ohio Wahpeton, North Dakota
Wahpeton, North Dakota
and Breckenridge, Minnesota Yuba City
City
and Marysville, California

Mexico— United States
United States
border

San Diego, California, United States
United States
and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico Calexico, California, United States
United States
and Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico Yuma, Arizona, United States
United States
and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora, Mexico Nogales, Arizona, United States
United States
and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico Douglas, Arizona, United States
United States
and Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico Columbus, New Mexico, United States
United States
and Las Palomas, Chihuahua, Mexico El Paso, Texas, United States
United States
and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico Presidio, Texas, United States
United States
and Ojinaga, Chihuahua, Mexico Del Rio, Texas, United States
United States
and Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila, Mexico Eagle Pass, Texas, United States
United States
and Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico Laredo, Texas, United States
United States
and Nuevo Laredo, Nuevo León, Mexico Mcallen, Texas, United States
United States
and Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico Brownsville, Texas, United States
United States
and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico

Canada– United States
United States
border

Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Michigan
and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario Detroit, Michigan
Michigan
and Windsor, Ontario Niagara Falls, New York
Niagara Falls, New York
and Niagara Falls, Ontario Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
and Fort Erie, Ontario

South America[edit]

Argentina

Carmen de Patagones
Carmen de Patagones
and Viedma Paraná, Entre Ríos
Paraná, Entre Ríos
and Santa Fe

Brazil

Juazeiro
Juazeiro
and Petrolina Olinda
Olinda
and Recife Vila Velha
Vila Velha
and Vitória

Chile

Concepción and Talcahuano Coquimbo
Coquimbo
and La Serena Valparaiso
Valparaiso
and Viña del Mar

Peru

Callao
Callao
and Lima

Venezuela

Guarenas
Guarenas
and Guatire Acarigua
Acarigua
and Araure

International[edit] Examples, sharing names or similar names, across an international border include:

Chuí, Brazil; Chuy, Uruguay Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada; Niagara Falls, New York, United States North Portal, Saskatchewan, Canada; Portal, North Dakota, United States Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, United States Boquillas del Carmen, Coahuila, Mexico; Boquillas, Texas, United States Naco, Sonora, Mexico; Naco, Arizona, United States Nogales, Sonora, Mexico; Nogales, Arizona, United States Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Laredo, Texas, United States Nuevo Progreso, Río Bravo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Progreso, Texas, United States San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico; San Luis, Arizona, United States Tecate, Baja California, Mexico; Tecate, California, United States Calexico, California; Mexicali, Baja California
California
— see Calexico–Mexicali

Pairs with unrelated names

San Diego
San Diego
and Tijuana
Tijuana
— see San Diego–Tijuana Detroit, Michigan
Michigan
and Windsor, Ontario
Windsor, Ontario
— see Detroit–Windsor Douglas, Arizona
Douglas, Arizona
and Agua Prieta, Sonora Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
and Matamoros, Tamaulipas
Matamoros, Tamaulipas
— see Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area Eagle Pass, Texas
Eagle Pass, Texas
and Piedras Negras, Coahuila Del Rio, Texas
Del Rio, Texas
and Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila Presidio, Texas
Presidio, Texas
and Manuel Ojinaga, Chihuahua El Paso, Texas
El Paso, Texas
and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua — see El Paso–Juárez

Historic[edit]

Brooklyn, New York and New York City
City
- until incorporation as a single city in 1898 - as noted in "The New Colossus", inscribed on a plaque at the Statue of Liberty. Lloydminster, Alberta/Saskatchewan[n 22] Thunder Bay, Ontario
Ontario
(formed by the amalgamation of Fort William and Port Arthur, Ontario
Ontario
in 1970)

Asia[edit] Current[edit]

Dhaka
Dhaka
and Gazipur, Bangladesh Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Foshan, People's Republic of China Macau
Macau
and[citation needed] Zhuhai, People's Republic of China Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Gandhinagar, India[1] Allahabad
Allahabad
and Naini, India[2] Cuttack
Cuttack
and Bhubaneswar, India[2] Munger
Munger
and Jamalpur, India[2] Durg
Durg
and Bhilai, India[2] Hubli
Hubli
and Dharwad, India[2] Hyderabad and Secunderabad, Telangana, India[2] Vijayawada
Vijayawada
and Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh, India[2] Kankroli
Kankroli
and Rajsamand, India[2] Kochi
Kochi
and Ernakulam, India[2][3] Kolkata
Kolkata
and Howrah, India[2] Mumbai
Mumbai
and Navi Mumbai, India[2] Pune
Pune
and Pimpri-Chinchwad, India[2] Harihar
Harihar
and Davangere, Karnataka, India Jalpaiguri and Siliguri, West Bengal, India Asansol
Asansol
and Durgapur, West Bengal, India Shivamoga
Shivamoga
and Bhadravati, Karnataka, India Ranchi
Ranchi
and Hatia, India[2] Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli
and Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, India Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
and Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India[2] Seleucia
Seleucia
and Ctesiphon, Iraq[n 23] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Jaffa, Israel Okayama
Okayama
and Kurashiki, Japan[n 24] Tsukuba
Tsukuba
and Tsuchiura, Japan[n 25] Nasushiobara
Nasushiobara
and Otawara, Japan[n 26] Kamisu
Kamisu
and Kashima, Japan[n 27] Beirut
Beirut
and Jounieh, Lebanon Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur, Nepal Bharatpur and Narayangarh, Nepal Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
and Islamabad, Pakistan Jhelum
Jhelum
and Sarai Alamgir, Pakistan Ramallah
Ramallah
and al-Bireh, Palestine Dipolog
Dipolog
and Dapitan, Philippines Taipei
Taipei
and New Taipei, Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) Dammam
Dammam
and Khobar, Saudi Arabia Seoul
Seoul
and Incheon, South Korea Bangkok
Bangkok
and Nonthaburi, Thailand Chiang Mai and Lamphun, Thailand Songkhla
Songkhla
and Hatyai, Thailand

Historic[edit]

Chirala-Perala, India Victoria and Kowloon, colonial Hong Kong - although, in both colonial Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region, Victoria is the only city recognised by law; they were widely considered to be separate cities until at least the mid-1970s[4] Saigon
Saigon
and Cholon, merged into Saigon-Cholon, now Ho Chi Minh City. Wuhan
Wuhan
(merger of Wuchang, Hankou, Hanyang)

Europe[edit] Current[edit]

Aalborg
Aalborg
and Nørresundby, Denmark Bournemouth
Bournemouth
and Poole, England Brighton and Hove, England Chatham and Rochester, England[5] Leeds
Leeds
and Bradford, England Manchester
Manchester
and Salford, England Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Newcastle-upon-Tyne
and Gateshead, England Porto
Porto
and Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal Póvoa de Varzim
Póvoa de Varzim
and Vila do Conde, Portugal Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
and Mannheim, Germany Mainz
Mainz
and Wiesbaden, Germany Ulm
Ulm
and Neu-Ulm, Germany Sindelfingen
Sindelfingen
and Böblingen, Germany Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Offenbach, Germany Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Fuerth, Germany Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and The Hague, The Netherlands Fredrikstad
Fredrikstad
and Sarpsborg, Norway Porsgrunn
Porsgrunn
and Skien, Norway Sandnes
Sandnes
and Stavanger, Norway Słupsk
Słupsk
and Ustka, Poland Novi Sad
Novi Sad
and Petrovaradin, Serbia Zemun
Zemun
and New Belgrade, Serbia Alcobendas
Alcobendas
and San Sebastián de los Reyes, Spain Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and San Cristóbal de la Laguna, Spain Elda
Elda
and Petrer, Spain Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and Mölndal, Sweden Jönköping
Jönköping
and Huskvarna, Sweden Athens
Athens
and Piraeus, Greece

International[edit]

Bad Radkersburg, Austria and Gornja Radgona, Slovenia Comines, Belgium
Comines, Belgium
and Comines, France Mouscron, Belgium and Tourcoing, France Wervik, Belgium and Wervicq-Sud, France Těšín, Czech Republic and Cieszyn, Poland Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden Narva, Estonia
Estonia
and Ivangorod, Russia Valga, Estonia
Valga, Estonia
and Valka, Latvia Tornio, Finland
Finland
and Haparanda, Sweden Hendaye, France and Irun, Spain Strasbourg, France and Kehl, Germany Frankfurt
Frankfurt
(Oder), Germany
Germany
and Słubice, Poland Görlitz, Germany
Germany
and Zgorzelec, Poland Guben, Germany
Germany
and Gubin, Poland Heringsdorf, Germany
Germany
and Świnoujście, Poland Esztergom, Hungary and Štúrovo, Slovakia Gorizia, Italy and Nova Gorica, Slovenia Kerkrade, The Netherlands and Herzogenrath, Germany Komárno, Slovakia and Komárom, Hungary Slavonski Brod, Croatia and Bosanski Brod, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Historic[edit]

City
City
of London
London
and City
City
of Westminster, England. Absorbed into London. Buda
Buda
and Pest. United into Budapest. Barmen
Barmen
and Elberfeld, Germany. United into Wuppertal. Bielsko
Bielsko
and Biała, Poland. United into Bielsko-Biała. Knokke
Knokke
and Heist-aan-Zee. United into Knokke-Heist. Gradec and Kaptol. United into Zagreb.

Oceania[edit]

Albury
Albury
and Wodonga, Australia Canberra
Canberra
and Queanbeyan, Australia Gold Coast and Tweed Heads, Australia Forster and Tuncurry, Australia Harden and Murrumburrah, Australia Kalgoorlie
Kalgoorlie
and Boulder, Australia Napier and Hastings, New Zealand Perth
Perth
and Fremantle, Australia Townsville
Townsville
and Thuringowa, Australia Parramatta
Parramatta
and Sydney, Australia

Tri-cities[edit] Main article: Tri-Cities (other)

Brisbane; Logan; Ipswich, Queensland
Ipswich, Queensland
Australia Chandigarh; Mohali; and Panchkula, India[6] Bhaktapur; Kathmandu; and Patan, Nepal Stockholm; Solna; and Sundbyberg, Sweden San Jose; San Francisco; and Oakland, California[n 28] New York, New York; Newark; and Jersey City, New Jersey Gdańsk; Gdynia; and Sopot, Poland Greensboro; Winston-Salem; and High Point, North Carolina, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Piedmont Triad Raleigh; Durham; and Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Research Triangle Dallas; Fort Worth; and Arlington, Texas Warangal; Hanamkonda; Kazipet, India Pasco; Richland; and Kennewick, Washington Dubai; Sharjah; and Ajman, United Arab Emirates Kitchener; Waterloo; and Cambridge, Ontario, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Kitchener-Waterloo
Kitchener-Waterloo
or simply K-W Bay
Bay
City; Saginaw; and Midland, Michigan, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called Saginaw Valley and the MBS Regions Temiskaming Shores, Ontario, Canada
Canada
- Amalgamated the former municipalities of Cobalt, Haileybury and New Liskeard

Quad cities[edit]

Allentown/ Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
and Easton, Pennsylvania/Phillipsburg, New Jersey; the collective area is often called the Lehigh Valley Quad Cities
Quad Cities
of Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa, and Rock Island and Moline, Illinois. It also includes a fifth member, East Moline, Illinois. The Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area
Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area
in Alabama is locally referred to as "the Quad Cities", with Florence, Muscle Shoals, Sheffield, and Tuscumbia. Formerly, when Muscle Shoals was a mere village, this region was known a "Tri-Cities", Alabama. Actually, they are all incorporated as towns except for Florence. The Quad Cities
Quad Cities
of Minnesota consist of Virginia, Eveleth, Gilbert, and Mountain Iron. The cities of Pullman, Washington, Moscow, Idaho, Clarkston, Washington, and Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston, Idaho
have marketed themselves as "Quad Cities."[7] Pattaya-Chonburi Metropolitan Area consists of the City
City
of Pattaya, Town of Chonburi, Portal
Portal
town of Laem Chabang
Laem Chabang
and Town of Sattahip
Sattahip
on the west coast of Chonburi Province, Thailand

More than four cities[edit]

In the US state of Virginia: Norfolk; Chesapeake; Hampton; Newport News; Portsmouth; Suffolk; and Virginia
Virginia
Beach, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called Hampton Roads Ruhr
Ruhr
district (Germany): consisting of Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, Bochum, Oberhausen, Mühlheim, Bottrop, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
and Herne in its core. In the US states of Illinois
Illinois
and Iowa: Davenport and Bettendorf in Iowa; Rock Island, Moline and East Moline in Illinois.

Examples of cities formed by amalgamation[edit] Asia[edit]

Delhi, India: What used to be Old Delhi, New Delhi, and a collection of smaller villages has now grown into the current megalopolis that we see today, also known as the National Capital Region (NCR) Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, has, as of 2013, grown out so much that small towns by this giant city, such as Shahdara, have been absorbed in its city limits. Wuhan
Wuhan
in China
China
consists of the towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang in Hubei Province. Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, has been expanded to include smaller towns including Rawat in its territory. Bangkok, the capital and largest city of Thailand, was created in 1971, when the previous Bangkok
Bangkok
province (Phra Nakhon) was merged with Thonburi
Thonburi
province. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
in Japan, a city of 1.4 million people, formerly the twin cities of Hakata and Fukuoka
Fukuoka
until the late 19th century. Saitama in Japan, a city of 1.2 million people, created in 2001 by the merger of the cities of Urawa, Omiya, Yono, and later Iwatsuki. Urawa and Omiya could formerly have been considered twin cities. Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
in Japan, a city of 900,000 people, created in 1963 by the merger of Yahata, Kokura, Moji, Wakamatsu, and Tobata. Yahata and Kokura had formerly been major cities in their own right. The cities of Saigon
Saigon
and Cholon
Cholon
merged in 1931 to form a single city named Saigon-Cholon; in 1956, the name Cholon
Cholon
was dropped and the city became known as Saigon
Saigon
(now Ho Chi Minh City).

Europe[edit]

London
London
grew from its cores in the City
City
of London
London
and the City
City
of Westminster to encompass many other towns and villages within neighbouring counties and absorbed almost the whole of Middlesex county. Budapest
Budapest
is the amalgamation of Buda, Pest and Óbuda. Berlin
Berlin
( Berlin
Berlin
and Cölln), in Germany Duisburg
Duisburg
( Duisburg
Duisburg
and Hamborn, 1929–1935 called Duisburg-Hamborn), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Wuppertal
Wuppertal
( Barmen
Barmen
and Elberfeld), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Manchester
Manchester
and the city of Salford, England in the Metropolitan County of Greater Manchester
Manchester
(formerly in Lancashire). Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
was created in 1910 from the towns of Burslem, Hanley, Tunstall, Longton, Fenton and Stoke, taking its name from the latter. Neighbouring Newcastle-under-Lyme
Newcastle-under-Lyme
remains a separate town. Eindhoven
Eindhoven
merged with five neighbouring municipalities (Woensel, Tongelre, Stratum, Gestel en Blaarthem
Gestel en Blaarthem
and Strijp) into the new Groot- Eindhoven
Eindhoven
("Greater Eindhoven") in 1920. The prefix "Groot-" was later dropped. Madrid
Madrid
evolved by absorption of other towns (like Tetuán de las Victorias, Vallecas, Chamartín de la Rosa
Chamartín de la Rosa
or Aravaca)[8]

North America[edit]

Richmond (Richmond and Manchester) in central Virginia Cleveland
Cleveland
( Cleveland
Cleveland
and Ohio
Ohio
City) in Ohio Minneapolis. St. Anthony (not to be confused with St. Anthony Village, a modern city which is a suburb) was a twin city to Minneapolis
Minneapolis
in the two cities' youth. Minneapolis
Minneapolis
annexed St. Anthony in the late 1800s. New York City
City
(five boroughs, historically especially between Manhattan and Brooklyn) Jersey City, New Jersey, was incorporated in 1820, and slowly grew by annexing surrounding municipalities: Van Vorst Twp. (1851), Bergen City
City
(1869), Hudson City
City
(1869), Bergen Twp. (1869) and finally Greenville Twp. (1873). Fremont, California
California
was formed in 1956 by the combination of the five towns of Centerville, Irvington, Niles, Mission San Jose, and Warm Springs, California. The town of Newark has always refused to merge into Fremont, and Newark is completely surrounded by Fremont. What is now the city of Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Winston-Salem, North Carolina
was once two separate towns called Winston and Salem that were combined into one. Ottawa, Ontario, was given its large area by the amalgamation in 2001 of the old City
City
of Ottawa, the suburbs of Nepean, Kanata, Gloucester, Rockcliffe Park, Vanier and Cumberland, Orleans, and the rural townships of West Carleton, Osgoode, Rideau, and Goulbourn Gatineau, Quebec, formed by the amalgamation of the old City
City
of Gatineau, City
City
of Hull, City
City
of Aylmer, City
City
of Buckingham and the Municipality of Masson-Angers all facing the City
City
of Ottawa, Ontario from the north shore of the Ottawa
Ottawa
River. Toronto
Toronto
formed by an amalgamation of the Old Toronto
Toronto
with East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York, which were themselves products of earlier amalgamations. Thunder Bay, Ontario
Ontario
(Fort William and Port Arthur). Lloydminster, Canada, on the Saskatchewan- Alberta
Alberta
border, was formed as a single entity in 1903, when both future provinces were part of the Northwest Territories, but was divided into two separate entities in 1905 because the border between the newly created provinces bisected the community. In 1930, the two towns were reunited as a single town under the shared jurisdiction of both provinces, and Lloydminster
Lloydminster
was reincorporated as a single city in 1958. Halifax and Dartmouth (Canada) were forcibly merged in 1996 along with Bedford and Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. Saguenay, Quebec
Quebec
(Chicoutimi, Jonquière, et al.) Bellingham, Washington
Bellingham, Washington
was formed from four cities, Fairhaven, Sehome, Bellingham and Whatcom. Lincoln City, Oregon
Lincoln City, Oregon
was formed in 1965 by merging the extant seaside towns of Oceanlake, Delake, and Taft, with the adjoining unincorporated areas of Nelscott and Cutler City. Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
annexed Allegheny City, which is now the quarter of the city that lies north of the Allegheny and Ohio
Ohio
rivers. Also annexed was Birmingham, now referred to as the "South Side". Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, which absorbed the cities of South Bethlehem, and West Bethlehem. The former Bethlehem and South Bethlehem are situated in Northampton County, and West Bethlehem is in Lehigh County. As a result, present-day Bethlehem straddles the county line. Montreal, Quebec, was merged with the other 27 communities on the Island of Montreal
Montreal
by an act in the Quebec
Quebec
Parliament in 2002. Following a change in the provincial government, several communities later voted via referendum to de-merge and there are now a total of 15, leaving Montreal
Montreal
merged with the other 12. Kingston, Ontario
Ontario
was amalgamated in 1998 with the neighboring Kingston and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Townships. Winnipeg, Manitoba
Manitoba
amalgamated with 12 surrounding municipalities and its metropolitan corporation in 1971 under what was referred to as unicity reforms in local government restructuring. Park Hills, Missouri
Park Hills, Missouri
was formed in 1994 by a four-way municipal merger involving the cities of Flat River, Elvins, and Esther, plus the village of Rivermines. Helena-West Helena, Arkansas
Helena-West Helena, Arkansas
was formed in 2006 by the merger of the previous cities of Helena and West Helena. Greater Sudbury, Ontario, was formed in 2001 by the amalgamation of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury, comprising the municipalities of Sudbury, Nickel Centre, Valley East, Capreol, Rayside-Balfour, Onaping Falls
Onaping Falls
and Walden, plus a number of previously unamalgamated townships. The amalgamation made it the most populous city in the Northern Ontario
Ontario
region. Boston, Massachusetts is made up of the former towns of Boston, Dorchester, Brighton, Roxbury, Charlestown, and Hyde Park. Port Alberni, British Columbia
Port Alberni, British Columbia
was formed in 1967 when Alberni and Port Alberni, merged to become one city.

Fictional twin cities[edit]

Gotham City
City
(the home of Batman) and Metropolis
Metropolis
(the home of Superman) have sometimes been presented as twin cities, mainly in 1970s and 1980s stories by DC Comics. In stories presenting them as twin cities, Gotham City
City
and Metropolis
Metropolis
are located on opposite sides of a large bay (identified as Delaware Bay
Bay
in 1990's The Atlas of the DC Universe), with both cities linked by the Metro-Narrows Bridge,[9] a suspension bridge resembling New York City's Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.[10][11] Central City
City
and Keystone City, from the current Flash comics, are shown as twin cities. Before the 1985-86 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, Central and Keystone are presented as located in the same space but on different parallel Earths.[12]

Their real-life equivalents might possibly be St. Joseph, Missouri
St. Joseph, Missouri
and either Elwood or Wathena in Kansas.

Ankh-Morpork, from Terry Pratchett's Discworld
Discworld
novels, is referred to as "the twin cities of proud Ankh and pestilent Morpork"[13] Duckburg
Duckburg
and St. Canard were depicted in the cartoon Darkwing Duck
Darkwing Duck
as sister cities connected by a bridge, very similar to Oakland
Oakland
and San Francisco.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Divided cities United cities Cross-border town naming Megacity Sister cities List of metropolitan areas that overlap multiple countries List of twin towns and sister cities Global city Ecumenopolis Metropolis Megalopolis

Notes[edit]

^ Separated by the North Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
River. While the communities are commonly referred to by the collective "The Battlefords," they retain distinctive identities. ^ Main cities of Metropolitan Halifax, they are geographically separated by Halifax Harbour ^ form the National Capital Region, geopolitically separated by the Ottawa
Ottawa
River ^ See Bloomington–Normal. ^ See College Station–Bryan metropolitan area. ^ Champaign was originally known as West Urbana but has since outgrown its neighbor. See Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area. ^ Twin cores of the Metroplex of northern Texas. ^ Nicknamed the Twin Ports, these form the world's largest freshwater port. ^ Two anchor cities of the three-city Research Triangle
Research Triangle
area. ^ See Fargo–Moorhead. ^ Largest two cities of the three-city Piedmont Triad
Piedmont Triad
area. ^ Shared international airport named after both cities Greenville–Spartanburg International Airport. ^ The principal cities of the Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
and High Desert in California. ^ Nicknamed the Petroplex in a nod to the DFW region's nickname, as well as its strong reliance on the oil industry. ^ Also known as the Twin Cities ^ Share the Portland International Jetport
Portland International Jetport
(buildings/terminal in one city, runways in the other) and the Port of Portland and retain separate identities. ^ One perhaps more suburban; see Greater Richmond Region. ^ The core cities of the Wyoming Valley
Wyoming Valley
in northeastern Pennsylvania. ^ See Sherman–Denison metropolitan area. ^ Main cities of the Tampa Bay
Bay
Area. ^ the cities meet at the border between Texas
Texas
and Arkansas, and their name is a portmanteau of those states' names as well as that of Louisiana, whose border lies approximately 25 miles to the south. See Texarkana metropolitan area
Texarkana metropolitan area
and Ark-La-Tex. ^ Until 1930, the community, divided by the Alberta-Saskatchewan border, was two separate, adjacent towns. However, with the Town of Lloydminster
Lloydminster
Acts in administration the large town became integrated while still bi-provincial. ^ Formed historic Al-Mada'in. ^ Kurashiki
Kurashiki
is somewhat more of a suburb ^ Co-centers of a shared major metropolitan area. ^ Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area. ^ Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area. ^ the principal cities of the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay
Bay
area.

References[edit]

^ "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of Indian States". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of Indian States". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ Weather story from 2006 The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2006-12-31 ^ [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] ^ "It's a wise man who knows where Chatham ends and Rochester begins." Charles Dickens ^ "Tricity residents to get Emaar MGF's Central Plaza soon". The Financial Express. Jan 6, 2014.  ^ " Quad Cities
Quad Cities
too generic a name for ID, WA cities". The Seattle Times. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2013.  ^ http://www.grijalvo.com/Madrid/G_Barrios_Madrid_antes_municipios.htm ^ Action Comics
Action Comics
#451, DC Comics, September 1975 ^ New Adventures of Superboy
Superboy
#22, DC Comics, October 1981 ^ World's Finest Comics
World's Finest Comics
#259, DC Comics, October–November 1979 ^ The Flash (volume 1) #123, DC Comics, September 1961 ^ See e.g. the introduction of The Hogfather q:Terry Pra

.