Twin cities are a special case of two cities or urban centres that are
founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other
over time, losing most of their mutual buffer zone.
There are no precise criteria for twin-cityhood, but to be considered
twin cities, the cities involved have to have a similar administrative
status and somewhat comparable sizes; a suburb of a much larger
population center is usually not considered to form a twin city with
it. For example,
South San Francisco
South San Francisco (population about 65,000) is not
considered a twin city with
San Francisco (population about 850,000).
However, cities considered twinned by proximity do not necessarily
match demographically, economically, or politically.
In many historical cases, cities that grew into each other's space
lost their individual identities, and the border or barrier originally
separating them became almost irrelevant. An 1873 case of twin cities
merging to become a united city is
Budapest in Hungary, which began as
two settlements (
Buda and Pest) facing each other across the
a strategic fording place along a trade route. In China, the three
ancient cities of Hankou, Hanyang, and Wuchang, separated by the
junction of the
Yangtze and Hanjiang rivers, were joined in 1927 into
the single entity of Wuhan.
Twin cities may share an airport into whose airport codes are
integrated the component initials e.g. BWI (Baltimore-Washington), DFW
(Dallas–Fort Worth), LBA (Leeds–Bradford), MSP
(Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Minnesota), RDU (
Raleigh and Durham, NC),
and CAK (Akron–Canton, Ohio).
In some cases, such as Albury/
Wodonga in Australia, the two cities are
permanently divided by a state border, often one that strictly adheres
to a geographical landmark, such as the
Murray River that divides New
South Wales from Victoria, and thus
Albury from Wodonga. In other
cases twin cities can be divided by an international border, but
retain a cultural and historical similarity, for example Haparanda
Tornio (Finland), Leticia (Colombia) and Tabatinga
(Brazil) or Valga (Estonia) and
1.1.1 North America
1.1.2 South America
3 Quad cities
4 More than four cities
5 Examples of cities formed by amalgamation
5.3 North America
6 Fictional twin cities
7 See also
Cross-border example of twin cities: Plaza Internacional of the
Frontera de la Paz. On the left, Santana do Livramento (Brazil); on
the right, Rivera (Uruguay).
This article may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant
examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text
and removing less pertinent examples. See's guide to writing
better articles for further suggestions. (November 2009)
Battleford and North
Battleford, Saskatchewan "The Battlefords" [n 1]
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia and Halifax[n 2]
Quebec and Ottawa, Ontario[n 3] Also Known as the
Gatineau Metropolitan Area
Alcoa and Maryville, Tennessee
Allentown and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Auburn and Lewiston, Maine
Auburn and Opelika, Alabama
Benton Harbor and St. Joseph, Michigan
Bloomington and Normal, Illinois[n 4]
Bluefield, Virginia and Bluefield, West Virginia
City and Shreveport, Louisiana
Bristol, Tennessee, and Bristol, Virginia
Bryan and College Station, Texas[n 5]
Centralia and Chehalis, Washington
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina and North Charleston, South Carolina
Champaign and Urbana, Illinois[n 6]
Colorado City, Arizona
Colorado City, Arizona and Hildale, Utah
Dallas and Fort Worth[n 7]
Duluth, Minnesota, and Superior, Wisconsin[n 8]
Durham and Raleigh, North Carolina[n 9]
Easton, Pennsylvania and Phillipsburg, New Jersey
Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota[n 10]
Fitchburg and Leominster, Massachusetts
Fort Myers, Florida
Fort Myers, Florida and Cape Coral, Florida
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota
Greensboro and Winston-Salem, North Carolina[n 11]
Greenville and Spartanburg, South Carolina[n 12]
Gulfport, Mississippi and Biloxi, Mississippi
Hartford, Connecticut and Springfield, Massachusetts
Killeen and Temple, Texas
Lafayette and West Lafayette, Indiana
Lancaster and Palmdale, California[n 13]
Lansing (west), and East Lansing, Michigan
Macon and Warner Robins, Georgia
Marinette, Wisconsin and Menominee, Michigan
Midland and Odessa, Texas[n 14]
Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota[n 15]
Monroe and West Monroe, Louisiana
Montague and Whitehall, Michigan
Virginia Beach, Virginia
Portland and South Portland, Maine[n 16]
Petersburg and Richmond, Virginia[n 17]
Reno and Sparks, Nevada
San Francisco and Oakland, California
Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania[n 18]
Sherman and Denison, Texas[n 19]
South Bend and Mishawaka, Indiana
St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida[n 20]
Texarkana, Arkansas and Texarkana, Texas[n 21]
Indiana and Union City, Ohio
Wahpeton, North Dakota
Wahpeton, North Dakota and Breckenridge, Minnesota
City and Marysville, California
United States border
San Diego, California,
United States and Tijuana, Baja California,
United States and Mexicali, Baja California,
United States and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora, Mexico
United States and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico
United States and Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico
Columbus, New Mexico,
United States and Las Palomas, Chihuahua, Mexico
El Paso, Texas,
United States and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico
United States and Ojinaga, Chihuahua, Mexico
Del Rio, Texas,
United States and Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila, Mexico
Eagle Pass, Texas,
United States and Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico
United States and Nuevo Laredo, Nuevo León, Mexico
United States and Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico
United States and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico
United States border
Sault Ste. Marie,
Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Michigan and Windsor, Ontario
Niagara Falls, New York
Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York and Fort Erie, Ontario
Carmen de Patagones
Carmen de Patagones and Viedma
Paraná, Entre Ríos
Paraná, Entre Ríos and Santa Fe
Juazeiro and Petrolina
Olinda and Recife
Vila Velha and Vitória
Concepción and Talcahuano
Coquimbo and La Serena
Valparaiso and Viña del Mar
Callao and Lima
Guarenas and Guatire
Acarigua and Araure
Examples, sharing names or similar names, across an international
Chuí, Brazil; Chuy, Uruguay
Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada; Niagara Falls, New York, United States
North Portal, Saskatchewan, Canada; Portal, North Dakota, United
Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, United
Boquillas del Carmen, Coahuila, Mexico; Boquillas, Texas, United
Naco, Sonora, Mexico; Naco, Arizona, United States
Nogales, Sonora, Mexico; Nogales, Arizona, United States
Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Laredo, Texas, United States
Nuevo Progreso, Río Bravo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Progreso, Texas,
San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico; San Luis, Arizona, United
Tecate, Baja California, Mexico; Tecate, California, United States
Calexico, California; Mexicali, Baja
California — see
Pairs with unrelated names
San Diego and
Tijuana — see San Diego–Tijuana
Windsor, Ontario — see Detroit–Windsor
Douglas, Arizona and Agua Prieta, Sonora
Brownsville, Texas and
Matamoros, Tamaulipas — see
Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area
Eagle Pass, Texas
Eagle Pass, Texas and Piedras Negras, Coahuila
Del Rio, Texas
Del Rio, Texas and Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila
Presidio, Texas and Manuel Ojinaga, Chihuahua
El Paso, Texas
El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua — see El Paso–Juárez
Brooklyn, New York and New York
City - until incorporation as a single
city in 1898 - as noted in "The New Colossus", inscribed on a plaque
at the Statue of Liberty.
Lloydminster, Alberta/Saskatchewan[n 22]
Ontario (formed by the amalgamation of Fort William and
Ontario in 1970)
Dhaka and Gazipur, Bangladesh
Guangzhou and Foshan, People's Republic of China
Macau and Zhuhai, People's Republic of China
Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar, India
Allahabad and Naini, India
Cuttack and Bhubaneswar, India
Munger and Jamalpur, India
Durg and Bhilai, India
Hubli and Dharwad, India
Hyderabad and Secunderabad, Telangana, India
Vijayawada and Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh, India
Kankroli and Rajsamand, India
Kochi and Ernakulam, India
Kolkata and Howrah, India
Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, India
Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad, India
Harihar and Davangere, Karnataka, India
Jalpaiguri and Siliguri, West Bengal, India
Asansol and Durgapur, West Bengal, India
Shivamoga and Bhadravati, Karnataka, India
Ranchi and Hatia, India
Tiruchirappalli and Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, India
Tirunelveli and Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India
Seleucia and Ctesiphon, Iraq[n 23]
Tel Aviv and Jaffa, Israel
Okayama and Kurashiki, Japan[n 24]
Tsukuba and Tsuchiura, Japan[n 25]
Nasushiobara and Otawara, Japan[n 26]
Kamisu and Kashima, Japan[n 27]
Beirut and Jounieh, Lebanon
Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur, Nepal
Bharatpur and Narayangarh, Nepal
Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan
Jhelum and Sarai Alamgir, Pakistan
Ramallah and al-Bireh, Palestine
Dipolog and Dapitan, Philippines
Taipei and New Taipei, Republic of
Dammam and Khobar, Saudi Arabia
Seoul and Incheon, South Korea
Bangkok and Nonthaburi, Thailand
Chiang Mai and Lamphun, Thailand
Songkhla and Hatyai, Thailand
Victoria and Kowloon, colonial Hong Kong - although, in both colonial
Hong Kong and the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region, Victoria is
the only city recognised by law; they were widely considered to be
separate cities until at least the mid-1970s
Saigon and Cholon, merged into Saigon-Cholon, now Ho Chi Minh City.
Wuhan (merger of Wuchang, Hankou, Hanyang)
Aalborg and Nørresundby, Denmark
Bournemouth and Poole, England
Brighton and Hove, England
Chatham and Rochester, England
Leeds and Bradford, England
Manchester and Salford, England
Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Gateshead, England
Porto and Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
Póvoa de Varzim
Póvoa de Varzim and Vila do Conde, Portugal
Ludwigshafen and Mannheim, Germany
Mainz and Wiesbaden, Germany
Ulm and Neu-Ulm, Germany
Sindelfingen and Böblingen, Germany
Frankfurt and Offenbach, Germany
Nuremberg and Fuerth, Germany
Rotterdam and The Hague, The Netherlands
Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg, Norway
Porsgrunn and Skien, Norway
Sandnes and Stavanger, Norway
Słupsk and Ustka, Poland
Novi Sad and Petrovaradin, Serbia
Zemun and New Belgrade, Serbia
Alcobendas and San Sebastián de los Reyes, Spain
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife and San Cristóbal de la Laguna, Spain
Elda and Petrer, Spain
Gothenburg and Mölndal, Sweden
Jönköping and Huskvarna, Sweden
Athens and Piraeus, Greece
Bad Radkersburg, Austria and Gornja Radgona, Slovenia
Comines, Belgium and Comines, France
Mouscron, Belgium and Tourcoing, France
Wervik, Belgium and Wervicq-Sud, France
Těšín, Czech Republic and Cieszyn, Poland
Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden
Estonia and Ivangorod, Russia
Valga, Estonia and Valka, Latvia
Finland and Haparanda, Sweden
Hendaye, France and Irun, Spain
Strasbourg, France and Kehl, Germany
Germany and Słubice, Poland
Germany and Zgorzelec, Poland
Germany and Gubin, Poland
Germany and Świnoujście, Poland
Esztergom, Hungary and Štúrovo, Slovakia
Gorizia, Italy and Nova Gorica, Slovenia
Kerkrade, The Netherlands and Herzogenrath, Germany
Komárno, Slovakia and Komárom, Hungary
Slavonski Brod, Croatia and Bosanski Brod, Bosnia and Herzegovina
City of Westminster, England. Absorbed into London.
Buda and Pest. United into Budapest.
Barmen and Elberfeld, Germany. United into Wuppertal.
Bielsko and Biała, Poland. United into Bielsko-Biała.
Knokke and Heist-aan-Zee. United into Knokke-Heist.
Gradec and Kaptol. United into Zagreb.
Albury and Wodonga, Australia
Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia
Gold Coast and Tweed Heads, Australia
Forster and Tuncurry, Australia
Harden and Murrumburrah, Australia
Kalgoorlie and Boulder, Australia
Napier and Hastings, New Zealand
Perth and Fremantle, Australia
Townsville and Thuringowa, Australia
Parramatta and Sydney, Australia
Main article: Tri-Cities (other)
Ipswich, Queensland Australia
Chandigarh; Mohali; and Panchkula, India
Bhaktapur; Kathmandu; and Patan, Nepal
Stockholm; Solna; and Sundbyberg, Sweden
San Jose; San Francisco; and Oakland, California[n 28]
New York, New York; Newark; and Jersey City, New Jersey
Gdańsk; Gdynia; and Sopot, Poland
Greensboro; Winston-Salem; and High Point, North Carolina, the cities'
collective metropolitan area is often called the Piedmont Triad
Raleigh; Durham; and Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the cities'
collective metropolitan area is often called the Research Triangle
Dallas; Fort Worth; and Arlington, Texas
Warangal; Hanamkonda; Kazipet, India
Pasco; Richland; and Kennewick, Washington
Dubai; Sharjah; and Ajman, United Arab Emirates
Kitchener; Waterloo; and Cambridge, Ontario, the cities' collective
metropolitan area is often called the
Kitchener-Waterloo or simply K-W
Bay City; Saginaw; and Midland, Michigan, the cities' collective
metropolitan area is often called Saginaw Valley and the MBS Regions
Temiskaming Shores, Ontario,
Canada - Amalgamated the former
municipalities of Cobalt, Haileybury and New Liskeard
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and Easton,
Pennsylvania/Phillipsburg, New Jersey; the collective area is often
called the Lehigh Valley
Quad Cities of Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa, and Rock Island and
Moline, Illinois. It also includes a fifth member, East Moline,
Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area
Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area in Alabama is locally
referred to as "the Quad Cities", with Florence, Muscle Shoals,
Sheffield, and Tuscumbia. Formerly, when Muscle Shoals was a mere
village, this region was known a "Tri-Cities", Alabama. Actually, they
are all incorporated as towns except for Florence.
Quad Cities of Minnesota consist of Virginia, Eveleth, Gilbert,
and Mountain Iron.
The cities of Pullman, Washington, Moscow, Idaho, Clarkston,
Lewiston, Idaho have marketed themselves as "Quad
Pattaya-Chonburi Metropolitan Area consists of the
City of Pattaya,
Town of Chonburi,
Portal town of
Laem Chabang and Town of
the west coast of Chonburi Province, Thailand
More than four cities
In the US state of Virginia: Norfolk; Chesapeake; Hampton; Newport
News; Portsmouth; Suffolk; and
Virginia Beach, the cities' collective
metropolitan area is often called Hampton Roads
Ruhr district (Germany): consisting of Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg,
Bochum, Oberhausen, Mühlheim, Bottrop,
Gelsenkirchen and Herne in its
In the US states of
Illinois and Iowa: Davenport and Bettendorf in
Iowa; Rock Island, Moline and East Moline in Illinois.
Examples of cities formed by amalgamation
Delhi, India: What used to be Old Delhi, New Delhi, and a collection
of smaller villages has now grown into the current megalopolis that we
see today, also known as the National Capital Region (NCR)
Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, has, as of 2013, grown
out so much that small towns by this giant city, such as Shahdara,
have been absorbed in its city limits.
China consists of the towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang
in Hubei Province.
Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, has been expanded to include
smaller towns including Rawat in its territory.
Bangkok, the capital and largest city of Thailand, was created in
1971, when the previous
Bangkok province (Phra Nakhon) was merged with
Fukuoka in Japan, a city of 1.4 million people, formerly the twin
cities of Hakata and
Fukuoka until the late 19th century.
Saitama in Japan, a city of 1.2 million people, created in 2001 by the
merger of the cities of Urawa, Omiya, Yono, and later Iwatsuki. Urawa
and Omiya could formerly have been considered twin cities.
Kitakyushu in Japan, a city of 900,000 people, created in 1963 by the
merger of Yahata, Kokura, Moji, Wakamatsu, and Tobata. Yahata and
Kokura had formerly been major cities in their own right.
The cities of
Cholon merged in 1931 to form a single city
named Saigon-Cholon; in 1956, the name
Cholon was dropped and the city
became known as
Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City).
London grew from its cores in the
London and the
Westminster to encompass many other towns and villages within
neighbouring counties and absorbed almost the whole of Middlesex
Budapest is the amalgamation of Buda, Pest and Óbuda.
Berlin and Cölln), in Germany
Duisburg and Hamborn, 1929–1935 called Duisburg-Hamborn),
in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Barmen and Elberfeld), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Manchester and the city of Salford, England in the Metropolitan County
Manchester (formerly in Lancashire).
Stoke-on-Trent was created in 1910 from the towns of Burslem, Hanley,
Tunstall, Longton, Fenton and Stoke, taking its name from the latter.
Newcastle-under-Lyme remains a separate town.
Eindhoven merged with five neighbouring municipalities (Woensel,
Gestel en Blaarthem
Gestel en Blaarthem and Strijp) into the new
Eindhoven ("Greater Eindhoven") in 1920. The prefix "Groot-" was
Madrid evolved by absorption of other towns (like Tetuán de las
Chamartín de la Rosa
Chamartín de la Rosa or Aravaca)
Richmond (Richmond and Manchester) in central Virginia
Ohio City) in Ohio
Minneapolis. St. Anthony (not to be confused with St. Anthony Village,
a modern city which is a suburb) was a twin city to
Minneapolis in the
two cities' youth.
Minneapolis annexed St. Anthony in the late 1800s.
City (five boroughs, historically especially between
Manhattan and Brooklyn)
Jersey City, New Jersey, was incorporated in 1820, and slowly grew by
annexing surrounding municipalities: Van Vorst Twp. (1851), Bergen
City (1869), Hudson
City (1869), Bergen Twp. (1869) and finally
Greenville Twp. (1873).
California was formed in 1956 by the combination of the five
towns of Centerville, Irvington, Niles, Mission San Jose, and Warm
Springs, California. The town of Newark has always refused to merge
into Fremont, and Newark is completely surrounded by Fremont.
What is now the city of
Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Winston-Salem, North Carolina was once two
separate towns called Winston and Salem that were combined into one.
Ottawa, Ontario, was given its large area by the amalgamation in 2001
of the old
City of Ottawa, the suburbs of Nepean, Kanata, Gloucester,
Rockcliffe Park, Vanier and Cumberland, Orleans, and the rural
townships of West Carleton, Osgoode, Rideau, and Goulbourn
Gatineau, Quebec, formed by the amalgamation of the old
City of Hull,
City of Aylmer,
City of Buckingham and the
Masson-Angers all facing the
City of Ottawa, Ontario
from the north shore of the
Toronto formed by an amalgamation of the Old
Toronto with East York,
Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York, which were themselves
products of earlier amalgamations.
Ontario (Fort William and Port Arthur).
Lloydminster, Canada, on the Saskatchewan-
Alberta border, was formed
as a single entity in 1903, when both future provinces were part of
the Northwest Territories, but was divided into two separate entities
in 1905 because the border between the newly created provinces
bisected the community. In 1930, the two towns were reunited as a
single town under the shared jurisdiction of both provinces, and
Lloydminster was reincorporated as a single city in 1958.
Halifax and Dartmouth (Canada) were forcibly merged in 1996 along with
Bedford and Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional
Quebec (Chicoutimi, Jonquière, et al.)
Bellingham, Washington was formed from four cities, Fairhaven, Sehome,
Bellingham and Whatcom.
Lincoln City, Oregon
Lincoln City, Oregon was formed in 1965 by merging the extant seaside
towns of Oceanlake, Delake, and Taft, with the adjoining
unincorporated areas of Nelscott and Cutler City.
Pittsburgh annexed Allegheny City, which is now the quarter of the
city that lies north of the Allegheny and
Ohio rivers. Also annexed
was Birmingham, now referred to as the "South Side".
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, which absorbed the cities of South Bethlehem,
and West Bethlehem. The former Bethlehem and South Bethlehem are
situated in Northampton County, and West Bethlehem is in Lehigh
County. As a result, present-day Bethlehem straddles the county line.
Montreal, Quebec, was merged with the other 27 communities on the
Montreal by an act in the
Quebec Parliament in 2002.
Following a change in the provincial government, several communities
later voted via referendum to de-merge and there are now a total of
Montreal merged with the other 12.
Ontario was amalgamated in 1998 with the neighboring
Manitoba amalgamated with 12 surrounding municipalities and
its metropolitan corporation in 1971 under what was referred to as
unicity reforms in local government restructuring.
Park Hills, Missouri
Park Hills, Missouri was formed in 1994 by a four-way municipal merger
involving the cities of Flat River, Elvins, and Esther, plus the
village of Rivermines.
Helena-West Helena, Arkansas
Helena-West Helena, Arkansas was formed in 2006 by the merger of the
previous cities of Helena and West Helena.
Greater Sudbury, Ontario, was formed in 2001 by the amalgamation of
the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury, comprising the
municipalities of Sudbury, Nickel Centre, Valley East, Capreol,
Onaping Falls and Walden, plus a number of previously
unamalgamated townships. The amalgamation made it the most populous
city in the Northern
Boston, Massachusetts is made up of the former towns of Boston,
Dorchester, Brighton, Roxbury, Charlestown, and Hyde Park.
Port Alberni, British Columbia
Port Alberni, British Columbia was formed in 1967 when Alberni and
Port Alberni, merged to become one city.
Fictional twin cities
City (the home of Batman) and
Metropolis (the home of Superman)
have sometimes been presented as twin cities, mainly in 1970s and
1980s stories by DC Comics. In stories presenting them as twin cities,
Metropolis are located on opposite sides of a large
bay (identified as Delaware
Bay in 1990's The Atlas of the DC
Universe), with both cities linked by the Metro-Narrows Bridge, a
suspension bridge resembling New York City's Verrazano-Narrows
City and Keystone City, from the current Flash comics, are
shown as twin cities. Before the 1985-86 miniseries Crisis on Infinite
Earths, Central and Keystone are presented as located in the same
space but on different parallel Earths.
Their real-life equivalents might possibly be
St. Joseph, Missouri
St. Joseph, Missouri and
either Elwood or Wathena in Kansas.
Ankh-Morpork, from Terry Pratchett's
Discworld novels, is referred to
as "the twin cities of proud Ankh and pestilent Morpork"
Duckburg and St. Canard were depicted in the cartoon
Darkwing Duck as
sister cities connected by a bridge, very similar to
Oakland and San
Cross-border town naming
List of metropolitan areas that overlap multiple countries
List of twin towns and sister cities
^ Separated by the North
Saskatchewan River. While the communities are
commonly referred to by the collective "The Battlefords," they retain
^ Main cities of Metropolitan Halifax, they are geographically
separated by Halifax Harbour
^ form the National Capital Region, geopolitically separated by the
^ See Bloomington–Normal.
^ See College Station–Bryan metropolitan area.
^ Champaign was originally known as West Urbana but has since outgrown
its neighbor. See Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area.
^ Twin cores of the Metroplex of northern Texas.
^ Nicknamed the Twin Ports, these form the world's largest freshwater
^ Two anchor cities of the three-city
Research Triangle area.
^ See Fargo–Moorhead.
^ Largest two cities of the three-city
Piedmont Triad area.
^ Shared international airport named after both cities
Greenville–Spartanburg International Airport.
^ The principal cities of the
Antelope Valley and High Desert in
^ Nicknamed the Petroplex in a nod to the DFW region's nickname, as
well as its strong reliance on the oil industry.
^ Also known as the Twin Cities
^ Share the
Portland International Jetport
Portland International Jetport (buildings/terminal in one
city, runways in the other) and the Port of Portland and retain
^ One perhaps more suburban; see Greater Richmond Region.
^ The core cities of the
Wyoming Valley in northeastern Pennsylvania.
^ See Sherman–Denison metropolitan area.
^ Main cities of the Tampa
^ the cities meet at the border between
Texas and Arkansas, and their
name is a portmanteau of those states' names as well as that of
Louisiana, whose border lies approximately 25 miles to the south. See
Texarkana metropolitan area
Texarkana metropolitan area and Ark-La-Tex.
^ Until 1930, the community, divided by the Alberta-Saskatchewan
border, was two separate, adjacent towns. However, with the Town of
Lloydminster Acts in administration the large town became integrated
while still bi-provincial.
^ Formed historic Al-Mada'in.
Kurashiki is somewhat more of a suburb
^ Co-centers of a shared major metropolitan area.
^ Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area.
^ Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area.
^ the principal cities of the
^ "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of Indian States".
walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of
Indian States". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
^ Weather story from 2006 The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved
^       
^ "It's a wise man who knows where Chatham ends and Rochester begins."
^ "Tricity residents to get Emaar MGF's Central Plaza soon". The
Financial Express. Jan 6, 2014.
Quad Cities too generic a name for ID, WA cities". The Seattle
Times. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
Action Comics #451, DC Comics, September 1975
^ New Adventures of
Superboy #22, DC Comics, October 1981
World's Finest Comics
World's Finest Comics #259, DC Comics, October–November 1979
^ The Flash (volume 1) #123, DC Comics, September 1961
^ See e.g. the introduction of The Hogfather q:Terry Pra