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Minnesota
Minnesota
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
*

PRINCIPAL CITIES

* Minneapolis
Minneapolis
* Saint Paul

AREA

• URBAN 1,021.8 sq mi (2,646 km2)

• METRO 8,120 sq mi (21,000 km2)

HIGHEST ELEVATION 1,376 ft (419 m)

LOWEST ELEVATION 666 ft (203 m)

POPULATION (2016)

• DENSITY 515.4/sq mi (199.0/km2)

• URBAN 3,112,117 (14th )

• MSA 3,551,036 (16th )

• CSA 3,894,820 (14th )

MSA/CSA: 2016 Urban: 2010

TIME ZONE CST ( UTC-6 )

• SUMMER (DST ) CDT ( UTC-5 )

MSA HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1850 4,491

1860 77,565

1,627.1%

1870 167,674

116.2%

1880 284,766

69.8%

1890 540,232

89.7%

1900 649,735

20.3%

1910 808,388

24.4%

1920 921,031

13.9%

1930 1,069,845

16.2%

1940 1,162,361

8.6%

1950 1,346,285

15.8%

1960 1,697,403

26.1%

1970 2,079,826

22.5%

1980 2,255,502

8.4%

1990 2,595,799

15.1%

2000 3,031,918

16.8%

2010 3,346,859

10.4%

EST. 2016 3,551,036

6.1%

U.S. Decennial Census 1790-1960 1900-1990 1990-2000 2010-2016

CSA HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1850 4,909

1860 100,503

1,947.3%

1870 227,182

126.0%

1880 374,208

64.7%

1890 651,160

74.0%

1900 780,923

19.9%

1910 943,975

20.9%

1920 1,070,395

13.4%

1930 1,228,835

14.8%

1940 1,330,771

8.3%

1950 1,523,428

14.5%

1960 1,891,459

24.2%

1970 2,300,115

21.6%

1980 2,503,343

8.8%

1990 2,866,678

14.5%

2000 3,335,000

16.3%

2010 3,682,928

10.4%

EST. 2016 3,894,820

5.8%

U.S. Decennial Census 1790-1960 1900-1990 1990-2000 2010-2016

MINNEAPOLIS–SAINT PAUL is a major metropolitan area built around the Mississippi , Minnesota
Minnesota
and St. Croix rivers in east central Minnesota
Minnesota
. The area is commonly known as the TWIN CITIES after its two largest cities, Minneapolis
Minneapolis
, the city with the largest population in the state, and Saint Paul , the state capital. It is an example of twin cities in the sense of geographical proximity . Minnesotans living outside of Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and Saint Paul often refer to the two together (or the seven-county metro area collectively) as THE CITIES.

There are several different definitions of the region. Many refer to the Twin Cities as the seven-county region which is governed under the Metropolitan Council regional governmental agency and planning organization. The Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
officially designates 16 counties as the MINNEAPOLIS–ST. PAUL–BLOOMINGTON MN-WI METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA, the 16th largest in the United States . The entire region known as the MINNEAPOLIS–ST. PAUL MN-WI COMBINED STATISTICAL AREA, has a population of 3,866,768, the 14th largest , according to 2015 Census estimates.

Despite the Twin moniker, both cities are independent municipalities with defined borders. Minneapolis
Minneapolis
is somewhat younger with modern skyscrapers, while Saint Paul has been likened to an East Coast city, with quaint neighborhoods and a vast collection of well-preserved late- Victorian architecture .

Minneapolis
Minneapolis
was influenced by its early Scandinavian and Lutheran heritage. St. Paul was influenced by its early French , Irish and German Catholic
Catholic
roots.

CONTENTS

* 1 Populated places

* 1.1 Counties * 1.2 Cities and suburbs

* 2 Combined Statistical Area

* 2.1 Components

* 3 Rivalry

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Outdoors

* 5 Demography

* 5.1 Place of birth * 5.2 Religion

* 6 Sports * 7 Politics * 8 Economy * 9 History

* 10 Geography and geology

* 10.1 Climate * 10.2 Buildings and structures

* 11 Colleges and universities

* 12 Transportation

* 12.1 Roads and highways * 12.2 Interstates * 12.3 U.S. Route freeways * 12.4 Major State Highways * 12.5 Air travel * 12.6 Public transit

* 13 Media

* 13.1 Print * 13.2 Television
Television
* 13.3 Radio
Radio
* 13.4 Independent media

* 14 Honors * 15 References * 16 External links

POPULATED PLACES

COUNTIES

The Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area includes 16 counties, of which 14 are in Minnesota
Minnesota
and two in Wisconsin.

Note: Counties that are BOLDED are under jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Council . Numbers in parentheses are 2013 census estimates. Counties that are italicized were added to the metropolitan area when the Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
revised its delineations of metropolitan statistical areas in 2013.

* HENNEPIN COUNTY (1,212,064) * RAMSEY COUNTY (532,655) * DAKOTA COUNTY (412,529) * ANOKA COUNTY (341,864) * WASHINGTON COUNTY (249,283) * SCOTT COUNTY (139,672) * Wright County (131,078) * CARVER COUNTY (97,338) * Sherburne County (91,126) * St. Croix County, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(84,345) * Chisago County (54,025) * Pierce County, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(41,019) * Isanti County (38,413) * Le Sueur County (27,770) * Mille Lacs County (25,884) * Sibley County (14,918)

CITIES AND SUBURBS

There are approximately 218 incorporated municipalities within the Twin Cities metropolitan region. This includes census-designated places along with villages in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, but excludes unincorporated towns in Wisconsin, known as civil townships in other states. Estimates are as of 2016 for cities with 25,000 or more inhabitants.

PLACES WITH OVER 100,000 INHABITANTS (2016 estimates)

* Minneapolis
Minneapolis
(419,952) * Saint Paul (304,442)

PLACES WITH 50,000 TO 99,999 INHABITANTS

* Bloomington (88,299) * Brooklyn Park
Park
(80,450) * Plymouth (75,452) * Eagan (68,223) * Woodbury (68,079) * Maple Grove (66,401) * Blaine (64,188) * Eden Prairie (63,496) * Coon Rapids (62,240) * Burnsville (61,481) * Lakeville (60,965) * Minnetonka (51,669) * Apple Valley (51,221) * Edina (50,138)

PLACES WITH 25,000 TO 49,999 INHABITANTS

* St. Louis Park
Park
(48,171) * Maplewood (40,567) * Shakopee (39,981) * Richfield (36,216) * Cottage Grove (35,918) * Roseville (35,580) * Inver Grove Heights (34,857) * Andover (32,213) * Brooklyn Center (30,770) * Savage (30,391) * Oakdale (28,080) * Fridley (27,713) * Shoreview (26,477) * Ramsey (25,828) * Chanhassen
Chanhassen
(25,332) * Prior Lake
Lake
(25,282) * White Bear Lake
Lake
(25,205) * Chaska (25,199)

PLACES WITH 10,000 TO 24,999 INHABITANTS

* Elk River (23,963) * Champlin (23,894) * Rosemount (23,413) * Crystal (22,943) * Farmington (22,731) * Hastings (22,554) * New Brighton (22,351) * Golden Valley (21,270) * Lino Lakes (21,050) * New Hope (21,032) * South St. Paul (20,405) * Columbia Heights (19,815) * West St. Paul (19,727) * Forest
Forest
Lake
Lake
(19,618) * Stillwater (18,924) * Hopkins (18,076) * St. Michael (17,596) * Anoka (17,350) * Buffalo (16,806) * Ham Lake
Lake
(16,062) * Otsego (15,551) * River Falls, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(15,339) * Robbinsdale (14,418) * Hugo (14,388) * Hudson, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(13,566) * Monticello (13,459) * Vadnais Heights (13,266) * Mounds View (12,914) * Rogers (12,562) * North St. Paul (12,322) * Waconia (11,968) * East Bethel (11,692) * Mendota Heights (11,223) * Big Lake
Lake
(10,868) * Little Canada (10,319) * North Branch (10,215)

PLACES WITH FEWER THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS

* Arden Hills (9,951) * Mound (9,336) * St. Anthony (8,991) * Victoria (8,676) * Cambridge (8,451) * Oak Grove (8,439) * Lake
Lake
Elmo (8,406) * Mahtomedi (8,116) * Orono (8,006) * Wyoming (7,813) * Albertville (7,745) * Shorewood (7,614) * New Prague (7,582) * Saint Francis (7,406) * Minnetrista (7,178) * Belle Plaine (6,918) * Spring Lake
Lake
Park
Park
(6,473) * Delano (6,280) * Jordan (6,076) * Medina (5,973) * Falcon Heights (5,571) * Corcoran (5,552) * Isanti (5,464) * Saint Paul Park
Park
(5,379) * Zimmerman (5,350) * Dayton (5,096) * North Oaks (4,968) * Circle Pines (4,958) * Chisago City
City
(4,932) * Oak Park
Park
Heights (4,831) * Elko New Market (4,705) * Becker (4,700) * Princeton (4,680) * Wayzata (4,610) * Nowthen (4,582) * Rockford (4,439) * Lindstrom (4,401) * Carver (4,311) * Watertown (4,289) * Grant (4,147) * Scandia (4,057) * Columbus (4,007) * Le Sueur (3,999) * Centerville (3,930) * Deephaven (3,843) * Independence (3,741) * Bayport (3,714) * Norwood Young America (3,677) * Newport (3,480) * Hanover (3,449) * Annandale (3,332) * Montrose (3,119) * Rush City
City
(3,072) * Afton (2,966) * Greenfield (2,919) * Montgomery (2,915) * Milaca (2,883) * Cokato (2,785) * Osseo (2,748) * Lauderdale (2,506) * Le Center (2,459) * St. Bonifacius (2,320) * Excelsior (2,279) * Maple Lake
Lake
(2,268) * Gaylord (2,245) * Arlington (2,169) * Howard Lake
Lake
(2,157) * Lexington (2,022) * Mayer (1,903) * Clearwater (1,855) * Waterville (1,849) * Lakeland (1,839) * Long Lake
Lake
(1,800) * Maple Plain (1,785) * Braham (1,770) * Spring Park
Park
(1,705) * Cologne (1,605) * Waverly (1,588) * Tonka Bay (1,537) * Stacy (1,470) * Winthrop (1,363) * Harris (1,125) * Dellwood (1,094) * Lake
Lake
St. Croix Beach (1,075) * Shafer (1,036) * Taylors Falls (1,014) * Birchwood Village (878) * Henderson (874) * Lilydale (872) * Gibbon (752) * Hilltop (736) * Landfall (735) * Greenwood (718) * Cleveland
Cleveland
(700) * Marine on St. Croix (695) * Hampton (687) * Elysian (669) * Loretto (668) * Kasota (660) * Clear Lake
Lake
(645) * Center City
City
(628) * Minnetonka Beach (570) * Sunfish Lake
Lake
(538) * Green Isle (537) * Hamburg (520) * Foreston (516) * Willernie (496) * Bethel (472) * Gem Lake
Lake
(469) * Woodland (463) * Randolph (441) * New Auburn (437) * Vermillion (424) * Pine Springs (396) * New Germany (389) * St. Marys Point (380) * Medicine Lake
Lake
(374) * Lakeland Shores (314) * Pease (240) * Wahkon (209) * Mendota (205) * South Haven (192) * Coates (163) * Kilkenny (133) * Miesville (131) * Heidelberg (123) * New Trier (113) * Bock (105)

COMBINED STATISTICAL AREA

The MINNEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL, MN-WI COMBINED STATISTICAL AREA is made up of 19 counties in Minnesota
Minnesota
and two counties in Wisconsin. The statistical area includes two metropolitan areas and three micropolitan areas . As of the 2010 Census, the CSA had a population of 3,684,928 (though a July 1, 2012 estimate placed the population at 3,691,918). The CSA definition encompasses 11,132.44 sq mi (28,832.9 km2) of area.

COMPONENTS

* METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS (MSAS)

* Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI (Hennepin, Ramsey, Dakota, Anoka, Washington, Scott, Wright, Carver, Sherburne, St. Croix, Chisago, Pierce, Isanti, Le Sueur, Mille Lacs and Sibley counties) * St. Cloud (Stearns and Benton counties)

* MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS

* Hutchinson (McLeod County ) * Faribault-Northfield (Rice County ) * Red Wing (Goodhue County )

RIVALRY

Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and St. Paul have competed since they were founded, resulting in some duplication of effort. After St. Paul completed its elaborate Cathedral in 1915, Minneapolis
Minneapolis
quickly followed up with the equally ornate Basilica of St. Mary in 1926. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the rivalry became so intense that an architect practicing in one city was often refused business in the other. The 1890 United States
United States
Census even led to the two cities arresting and/or kidnapping each other's census takers, in an attempt to keep either city from outgrowing the other. The 1905 Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Millers baseball team

The rivalry could occasionally erupt into inter-city violence, as happened at a 1923 game between the Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Millers and the St. Paul Saints , both baseball teams of the American Association . In the 1950s, both cities competed for a major league baseball franchise (which resulted in two rival stadiums being built), and there was a brief period in the mid-1960s where the two cities could not agree on a common calendar for daylight saving time , resulting in a period of a few weeks where people in Minneapolis
Minneapolis
were one hour "behind" anyone living or traveling in St. Paul.

The cities' mutual antagonism was largely healed by the end of the 1960s, aided by the simultaneous arrival in 1961 of the Minnesota Twins of the American League and the Minnesota
Minnesota
Vikings of the National Football League , both of which identified themselves with the state as a whole (the former explicitly named for both Twin Cities) and not with either of the major cities (unlike the earlier Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Lakers ). Since 1961, it has been common practice for any major sports team based in the Twin Cities to be named for Minnesota
Minnesota
as a whole. In terms of development, the two cities remain distinct in their progress, with Minneapolis
Minneapolis
absorbing new and avant-garde architecture while St. Paul continues to carefully integrate new buildings into the context of classical and Victorian styles.

CULTURE

See also: Culture of Minnesota
Minnesota

OUTDOORS

A Saint Paul Bouncing Team aerialist exhibition in St. Paul

There are numerous lakes in the region, and cities in the area have some very extensive park systems for recreation . Organized recreation includes the Great River Energy bicycle festival , the Twin Cities Marathon , and the U.S. pond hockey championships. Some studies have shown that area residents take advantage of this, and are among the most physically fit in the country, though others have disputed that. Nonetheless, medicine is a major industry in the region and the southeasterly city of Rochester , as the University of Minnesota
Minnesota
has joined other colleges and hospitals in doing significant research, and major medical device manufacturers started in the region (the most prominent is Medtronic ). Technical innovators have brought important advances in computing , including the Cray
Cray
line of supercomputers .

It is common for residents of the Twin Cities area to own or share cabins and other properties along lakes and forested areas in the central and northern regions of the state, and weekend trips "up North" happen through the warmer months. Ice fishing
Ice fishing
is also a major pastime in the winter, although each year some overambitious fishermen find themselves in dangerous situations when they venture out onto the ice too early or too late. Hunting
Hunting
, snowmobiling , ATV riding and numerous other outdoor activities are also popular. This connectedness with the outdoors also brings a strong sense of environmentalism to many Minnesotans.

In 2011 and 2012, the American College
College
of Sports Medicine named Minneapolis–Saint Paul the healthiest metropolitan area in America.

DEMOGRAPHY

PLACE OF BIRTH

Approximately 93.2% of the metropolitan area's population was native to the United States. Approximately 92.6% were born in the U.S. while 0.6% were born in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, or born abroad to American parents. The rest of the population (6.8%) were foreign-born.

The highest percentages of immigrants came from Asia (38.2%), Latin America (25.4%), and Africa (20.1%); smaller percentages of newcomers came from Europe (13.1%), other parts of North America (3.0%), and Oceania (0.2%).

RELIGION

Guardian Angels Catholic
Catholic
Church in Chaska

Minneapolis–Saint Paul is also a major center for religion in the state, especially Christianity . The state headquarters of five major Christian churches are found here: the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
Minneapolis
, the Episcopal Diocese of Minnesota
Minnesota
, the Presbyterian Synod of Lakes and Prairies, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The Presbyterian and LDS churches both have missions in Saint Paul, Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and Bloomington as well as the orthodox church in America

The headquarters of the former American Lutheran
Lutheran
Church (ALC) , Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church , Lutheran
Lutheran
Free Church and the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church were located in Minneapolis; the headquarters of Augsburg Fortress
Augsburg Fortress
publishing house still is. The Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Area Synod and the Saint Paul Area Synod are the first and third largest synods of the Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in America (ELCA ), respectively.

The Evangelical Free Church of America has its headquarters in Bloomington, and the Association of Free Lutheran
Lutheran
Congregations is headquartered in Plymouth, along with its seminary and a Bible School.

The Twin Cities are home to several synagogues serving the Jewish population, which is concentrated in the western Minneapolis
Minneapolis
suburbs of Golden Valley, St. Louis Park, Plymouth and Minnetonka. There is also a Hindu temple located in the Twin Cities suburb of Maple Grove . A recent influx of immigrants from Laos
Laos
and Northern Africa has brought many more religions to the area. There are several Islamic Masjids in the area. There is a temple for the religion of Eckankar
Eckankar
in the suburb of Chanhassen
Chanhassen
known as the Temple of Eck. In addition, many Hmong and Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
peoples live in Saint Paul; a Hmong Buddhist
Buddhist
temple opened in suburban Roseville in 1995. The LDS St. Paul Minnesota
Minnesota
Temple opened in Oakdale, a suburb east of Saint Paul, in 2000. There are several very strong Unitarian Universalist communities such as the First Unitarian Society of Minneapolis, as well as several Pagan and Buddhist
Buddhist
groups. The cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis
Minneapolis
have been called Paganistan due to the large numbers of Pagans living there. There are an estimated 20,000 Pagans living in the Twin Cities area.

Minneapolis
Minneapolis
is where the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association started and was its home for more than fifty years.

SPORTS

Main articles: Sports in Minneapolis–Saint Paul and Sports in Minnesota
Minnesota

The following table shows the professional sports teams in the Minneapolis—Saint Paul MSA:

CLUB SPORT LEAGUE VENUE CITY TITLES

Minnesota
Minnesota
Twins Baseball
Baseball
American League , Major League Baseball
Baseball
Target Field
Target Field
Minneapolis 1987 , 1991

St. Paul Saints
St. Paul Saints
Baseball
Baseball
AAIPB CHS Field
CHS Field
St. Paul

Minnesota
Minnesota
Vikings American football National Football League U.S. Bank Stadium Minneapolis 1969 (Not Super Bowl
Super Bowl
)

Minnesota
Minnesota
Wild Ice
Ice
hockey National Hockey League Xcel Energy Center St. Paul

Minnesota
Minnesota
Timberwolves Basketball
Basketball
National Basketball
Basketball
Association Target Center
Target Center
Minneapolis

Minnesota
Minnesota
Lynx Basketball
Basketball
Women\'s National Basketball
Basketball
Association Target Center
Target Center
Minneapolis 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017

Minnesota
Minnesota
United FC Soccer Major League Soccer TCF Bank Stadium
TCF Bank Stadium
Minneapolis
Minneapolis
(Temporary home) 2011 (NASL )

Over 3,700 fans attend the opening bout of the 2007 Minnesota RollerGirls season

The Twin Cities is one of thirteen American metropolitan areas to have teams in all four major sports — MLB, NFL, NBA and NHL. Including Major League Soccer (MLS), it is one of ten metro areas to have five major sports. To avoid favoring either of the Twin Cities, most teams based in the area use only the word Minnesota
Minnesota
in their name, rather than Minneapolis
Minneapolis
or St. Paul. In 1992, Minneapolis
Minneapolis
hosted Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXVI . It was the farthest north that a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
has ever been played. The NFL picked Minneapolis
Minneapolis
to host Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LII in 2018.

The Twin Cities host three nationally competing Roller Derby leagues: The Minnesota
Minnesota
RollerGirls of the Women\'s Flat Track Derby Association Division 1, the North Star Roller Girls of WFTDA Division 2, and Minnesota
Minnesota
Men's Roller Derby, a league of the Men\'s Roller Derby Association . MNRG and NSRG possess four home teams each: the Dagger Dolls, Garda Belts, Rockits, and Atomic Bombshells of MNRG and the Banger Sisters, Delta Delta Di, Kilmore Girls and Violent Femmes of NSRG, as well as two traveling teams each. MMRD possesses three home teams: The Gentlemen's Club, Destruction Workers, and Thunderjacks, and two traveling teams.

The annual Twin Cities Marathon
Twin Cities Marathon
is held in the fall with a course running through Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and St. Paul. Minneapolis
Minneapolis
was the birthplace of Rollerblade
Rollerblade
and is a center for inline skating , as well as home to the most golfers per capita of any city in the U.S. Additionally, water skiing got its start on Lake
Lake
Pepin , a short distance southeast of the metropolitan area.

Some other sports teams gained their names from being in Minnesota before relocating. The Los Angeles Lakers get their name from once being based in Minneapolis, the City
City
of Lakes. The Dallas Stars
Dallas Stars
also derived their present name from their tenure as a Minnesota
Minnesota
team, the Minnesota
Minnesota
North Stars .

POLITICS

See also: Politics of Minnesota
Minnesota

The 2008 Republican National Convention was held at the Xcel Energy Center in St. Paul. Prior, both cities had combined to submit bids to host both the 2008 Democratic National Convention and the Republican National Convention. They competed against Denver
Denver
and New York for the Democratic Convention, and against New York, Cleveland
Cleveland
and Tampa
Tampa
for the Republican Convention. Previously, Minneapolis
Minneapolis
was host to the 1892 Republican National Convention
1892 Republican National Convention
.

ECONOMY

See also: Economy of Minnesota
Minnesota
and List of companies based in Minneapolis–Saint Paul

The Minneapolis–Saint Paul area is home to 16 of Minnesota's 17 Fortune 500 headquarters - UnitedHealth Group , Target , Best Buy
Best Buy
, CHS , 3M , US Bancorp , Supervalu , General Mills , Land O\'Lakes , Ecolab
Ecolab
, CH Robinson Worldwide
CH Robinson Worldwide
, Ameriprise Financial
Ameriprise Financial
, Xcel Energy , Thrivent Financial , Mosaic , and Patterson . A number of private companies are also headquartered in the Twin Cities area, including Cargill
Cargill
, the country's largest private company, Carlson , Mortenson , Holiday Stationstores , and Andersen . Foreign companies with U.S. headquarters in the Twin Cities include Aimia , Allianz
Allianz
, Canadian Pacific , Coloplast , Medtronic , Pearson VUE , Pentair and RBC .

The Twin Cities's economy is the 13th largest in the U.S. and ranks second in the Midwest
Midwest
. The Minneapolis-St. Paul area also ranks as the second largest medical device manufacture center in North America and the fourth-biggest U.S. banking center, based on total assets of banks headquartered in the metro area, ranking behind the New York, San Francisco, and Charlotte, N.C. metropolitan areas.

HISTORY

See also: History of Minnesota
Minnesota
and History of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
St. Croix River , Stillwater

The first European settlement in the region was near what is now known as the town of Stillwater, Minnesota
Minnesota
. The city is approximately 20 miles (30 km) from downtown Saint Paul and lies on the western bank of the St. Croix River , which forms the border of central Minnesota and Wisconsin. Another settlement that began fueling early interest in the area was the outpost at Fort Snelling , which was constructed from 1820 to 1825 at the confluence of the Minnesota
Minnesota
River and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
.

Fort Snelling held jurisdiction over the land south of Saint Anthony Falls , thus a town known as Saint Anthony grew just north of the river. For several years, the only European resident to live on the south bank of the river was Colonel John H. Stevens , who operated a ferry service across the river. As soon as the land area controlled by Fort Snelling was reduced, new settlers began flocking across to the new village of Minneapolis. The town grew quickly, and Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and Saint Anthony eventually merged. On the eastern side of the Mississippi, a few villages such as Pig's Eye and Lambert's Landing developed and would soon grow to become Saint Paul. St. Paul , showing barges on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
, the Capitol dome , and Minneapolis
Minneapolis
in the background. In the lower right is a typical nineteenth century home.

Natural geography played a role in the settlement and development of the two cities. The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Valley in this area is defined by a series of stone bluffs that line both sides of the river. Saint Paul grew up around Lambert's Landing, the last place to unload boats coming upriver at an easily accessible point, some seven miles (11 km) downstream from Saint Anthony Falls , the geographic feature that, due to the value of its immense water power for industry, defined the location of Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and its prominence as the Mill City. The falls can be seen today from the Mill City Museum
Mill City Museum
, housed in the former Washburn "A" Mill , which was among the world's largest mills in its time.

The oldest farms in the state are located in Washington County, the eastern most county on the Minnesota
Minnesota
side of the metropolitan area. Joseph Haskell was Minnesota's first farmer, harvesting the first crops in the state in 1840 on what is now part of Afton Township on Trading Post Trail. Lock and Dam No. 1, Mississippi River
Mississippi River
just upstream of the Minnesota
Minnesota
River

The Grand Excursion , a trip into the Upper Midwest
Midwest
sponsored by the Rock Island Railroad , brought more than a thousand curious travelers into the area by rail and steamboat in 1854. The next year, in 1855, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published The Song of Hiawatha
The Song of Hiawatha
, an epic poem based on the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
legends of Hiawatha . A number of natural area landmarks were included in the story, such as Lake
Lake
Minnetonka and Minnehaha Falls
Minnehaha Falls
. Tourists inspired by the coverage of the Grand Excursion in eastern newspapers and those who read Longfellow's story flocked to the area in the following decades.

At one time, the region also had numerous passenger rail services, including both interurban streetcar systems and interstate rail. Due to the width of the river at points further south, the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area was briefly one of the few places where the Mississippi could be crossed by railroad . A great amount of commercial rail traffic also ran through the area, often carrying grain to be processed at mills in Minneapolis
Minneapolis
or delivering other goods to Saint Paul to be transported along the Mississippi. Saint Paul had long been at the head of navigation on the river, prior to a new lock and dam facility being added upriver in Minneapolis.

Passenger travel hit its peak in 1888 with nearly eight million traversing to and from the Saint Paul Union Depot
Saint Paul Union Depot
. This amounted to approximately 150 trains daily. Before long, other rail crossings were built farther south and travel through the region began to decline. In an effort by the rail companies to combat the rise of the automobile , some of the earliest streamliners ran from Chicago
Chicago
to Minneapolis/Saint Paul and eventually served distant points in the Pacific Northwest . Today, the only vestige of this interstate service comes by Amtrak
Amtrak
's Empire Builder train, running once daily in each direction. It is the railroad's busiest long-distance train and is named after James J. Hill
James J. Hill
, a railroad tycoon who settled on Summit Avenue in Saint Paul at what is now known as the James J. Hill
James J. Hill
House .

Like many Northern cities that grew up with the Industrial Revolution , Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and St. Paul experienced shifts in their economic base as heavy industry declined, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. Along with the economic decline of the 60s and 70s came population decline in the central city areas , white flight to suburbs, and, in the summer of 1967, race riots on Minneapolis's North Side. By the 1980s and 1990s, however, Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and St. Paul were frequently cited as former Rust Belt cities that had made successful transitions to service, high-technology, finance, and information economies.

GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

See also: Geology of Minnesota
Minnesota

Along with much of Minnesota, the Twin Cities area was shaped by water and ice over the course of millions of years. The land of the area sits on top of thick layers of sandstone and limestone laid down as seas encroached upon and receded from the region. Erosion caused natural caves to develop, which were expanded into mines when white settlers came to the area. In the time of Prohibition
Prohibition
, at least one speakeasy was built into these hidden spaces—eventually refurbished as the Wabasha Street Caves
Wabasha Street Caves
in Saint Paul.

Lakes across the area were formed and altered by the movement of glaciers . This left many bodies of water in the region, and unusual shapes may appear. For example, Lake
Lake
Minnetonka out toward the western side of the Twin Cities consists of a complex arrangement of channels and large bays. Elevations in the metropolitan area range from 1,376 feet (419 m) above sea level in the northwest metro to 666 feet (203 m) at the edge of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in the southeast. Bald eagle in Burnsville

Because it is comparatively easy to dig through limestone and there are many natural and man-made open spaces, it has often been proposed that the area should examine the idea of building subways for public transportation. In theory, it could be less expensive in the Twin Cities than in many other places, but the cost would still be much greater than surface projects.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of the Twin Cities August swimming at Quarry Park
Park
and Nature Preserve, Waite Park
Park
near St. Cloud

Owing to its northerly latitude and inland location, the Twin Cities experience the coldest climate of any major metropolitan area in the United States. However, due to its southern location in the state and aided further by the urban heat island , the Twin Cities is one of the warmest locations in Minnesota. The average annual temperature at the Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport is 45.4 °F (7.4 °C); 3.5 °F (1.9 °C) colder than Winona, Minnesota
Minnesota
, and 8.8 °F (4.9 °C) warmer than Roseau, Minnesota
Minnesota
. Monthly average daily high temperatures range from 21.9 °F (−5.6 °C) in January to 83.3 °F (28.5 °C) in July; the average daily minimum temperatures for the two months are 4.3 °F (−15.4 °C) and 63.0 °F (17.2 °C) respectively. Viewing the Saint Paul Winter Carnival parade in January.

Minimum temperatures of 0 °F (−18 °C) or lower are seen on an average of 29.7 days per year, and 76.2 days do not have a maximum temperature exceeding the freezing point. Temperatures above 90 °F (32 °C) occur an average of 15 times per year. High temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) have been common in recent years; the last occurring on July 6, 2012. The lowest temperature ever reported at the Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport was −34 °F (−37 °C) on January 22, 1936; the highest, 108 °F (42 °C), was reported on July 14 of the same year. Early settlement records at Fort Snelling show temperatures as low as −42 °F (−41 °C). Recent records include −40 °F (−40 °C) at Vadnais Lake
Lake
on February 2, 1996 (National Climatic Data Center)

Precipitation averages 29.41 inches (74.7 cm) per year, and is most plentiful in June (4.34 inches (11.0 cm)) and February (0.79 inches (2.0 cm)) the least so. The greatest one-day rainfall amount was 9.15 inches (23.2 cm), reported on July 23, 1987. The city's record for lowest annual precipitation was set in 1910, when 11.54 inches (29.3 cm) fell throughout the year; coincidentally, the opposite record was set the following year, which observed a total 40.15 inches (1,020 mm). At an average of 56.3 inches (1,430 mm) per year, snowfall is generally abundant (though some recent years have proved an exception).

The Twin Cities area takes the brunt of many types of extreme weather, including high-speed straight-line winds, tornadoes, flash floods, drought, heat, bitter cold, and blizzards. The costliest weather disaster in Twin Cities history was a derecho event on May 15, 1998. Hail and Wind
Wind
damage exceeded $ 950 million, much of it in the Twin Cities. Other memorable Twin Cities weather-related events include the tornado outbreak on May 6, 1965, the Armistice Day Blizzard on November 11, 1940, and the Halloween Blizzard of 1991. In 2014, Minnesota
Minnesota
experienced temperatures below those in areas of Mars when a polar vortex dropped temperatures as low as −40 °F (−40 °C) in Brimson and Babbitt with a windchill as low as −63 °F (−53 °C) in Grand Marais.

A normal growing season in the metro extends from late April or early May through the month of October. The USDA places the area in the 4a plant hardiness zone .

BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

The tallest buildings in Minneapolis
Minneapolis
are, left to right, the IDS Center , Capella Tower and the Wells Fargo Center .

The four tallest buildings in the area are located in downtown Minneapolis. The first skyscraper built west of the Mississippi in 1929 was the Foshay Tower . Today there is some contention over exactly which building is the tallest—most Minnesotans would immediately think of the IDS Center if queried on the point, although most sources seem to agree that Capella Tower is slightly taller. But in early 2005, it was found that the IDS Center is taller by a 16-foot (5 m) washroom garage on top, which brings its total height to 792 feet (241 m). Capella Tower and the Wells Fargo Center only differ in height by a foot or two, a rather negligible amount.

Buildings have gone up and been torn down rapidly across the region. Some city blocks have been demolished six or seven times since the mid-19th century, and will undoubtedly reach an eighth or ninth cycle in short order. No single architectural style dominates the region. Instead, the cities have a mish-mash of different designs, although structures from a few eras stand out. There were once a great many stone buildings constructed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style (or at least Romanesque-inspired variants). Minneapolis
Minneapolis
City
City
Hall is one prominent example of this, though buildings of all types—including personal residences such as the James J. Hill
James J. Hill
House —were similarly designed. A few decades later, Art Deco brought several structures that survive today, including St. Paul City Hall , the Foshay Tower , and the Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Post Office . The style of buildings in the two cities varies greatly. In Minneapolis, the trend has been buildings with sleek lines and modern glass facades while St. Paul tends to follow a more traditional style of buildings so as to better accompany its older structures. The Mendota Bridge over the Minnesota
Minnesota
River between Fort Snelling and Mendota

St. Paul and Minneapolis
Minneapolis
in particular went through some massive urban renewal projects in the post- World War II
World War II
era, so a vast number of buildings are now lost to history. Some of the larger and harder to demolish structures have survived. In fact, the area might be signified more by bridges than buildings. A series of reinforced concrete arch spans crossing the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
were built in the 1920s and 1930s. They still carry daily traffic, but remain pleasing to the eye despite their age (a number have undergone major repair work, but retain the original design). Several of the bridges are listed on the National Register of Historic Places . They include the 10th Avenue Bridge
Bridge
, Intercity Bridge
Bridge
(Ford Parkway), Robert Street Bridge
Bridge
, and the longest, the 4119 ft (1255 m) Mendota Bridge next to Fort Snelling. The area is also noted for having the first known permanent crossing of the Mississippi. That structure is long gone, but a series of Hennepin Avenue
Hennepin Avenue
Bridges have been built since then at the site. Both downtowns have extensive networks of enclosed pedestrian bridges known as skyways . Guthrie Theater
Guthrie Theater
on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in Minneapolis
Minneapolis

Several prominent buildings in Minneapolis
Minneapolis
have helped modernize the city. These include the Walker Art Center
Walker Art Center
, Central Public Library , Weisman Art Museum
Weisman Art Museum
and the Guthrie Theater
Guthrie Theater
. Opened in April 2005, the new Walker Art Center, nearly double in size, includes increased indoor and outdoor facilities. The Walker is recognized internationally as a singular model of a multidisciplinary arts organization and as a national leader for its innovative approaches to audience engagement. The Guthrie received a large amount of media coverage for its opening in June, 2006. The design is the work of architect Jean Nouvel and is a 285,000 square foot (26,500 m²) facility that houses three theaters: (1) the theater's signature thrust stage, seating 1,100, (2) a 700-seat proscenium stage, and (3) a black-box studio with flexible seating. In 2002 the National Trust for Historic Preservation put the old Guthrie building on its list of the most endangered historic properties in the United States
United States
in response to plans announced by the Walker Art Center
Walker Art Center
to expand on the land occupied by the theater. However, the original Guthrie building was torn down in 2006. These building projects have rejuvenated the downtown area.

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

* Adler Graduate School - Richfield * Anoka-Ramsey Community College
College
- Coon Rapids * Anoka Technical College
College
- Anoka * Augsburg University
Augsburg University
- Minneapolis * Bethel University - Arden Hills * Capella University - Minneapolis * Century College
College
- White Bear Lake * Concordia University - St. Paul * Crown College
College
- St. Bonifacius * Dakota County Technical College
College
- Rosemount * Dunwoody College
College
of Technology - Minneapolis * Hamline University - St. Paul * Hennepin Technical College
College
- Eden Prairie and Brooklyn Park * Inver Hills Community College
College
- Inver Grove Heights * Luther Seminary
Luther Seminary
- St. Paul * Macalester College
College
- St. Paul * McNally Smith College
College
of Music - St. Paul * Metropolitan State University - St. Paul and Minneapolis * Minneapolis
Minneapolis
College
College
of Art and Design - Minneapolis * Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Community and Technical College
College
- Minneapolis * Minnesota
Minnesota
State University - Edina * Mitchell Hamline School Of Law - St. Paul * Normandale Community College
College
- Bloomington * North Central University - Minneapolis * North Hennepin Community College
College
- Brooklyn Park * Northwestern Health Sciences University - Bloomington * Rasmussen College
College
- Bloomington, Blaine, Brooklyn Park, Eagan and Lake
Lake
Elmo * St. Catherine University - St. Paul and Minneapolis * St. Cloud State University - St. Cloud and Maple Grove * St. Mary\'s University of Minnesota
Minnesota
- Minneapolis * Saint Paul College
College
- St. Paul * United Theological Seminary - New Brighton * University of Minnesota
Minnesota
- Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and St. Paul (Falcon Heights) * University of Northwestern - Saint Paul - Roseville * University of St. Thomas - St. Paul and Minneapolis * University of Wisconsin-River Falls - River Falls and Hudson * Walden University
Walden University
- Minneapolis

TRANSPORTATION

See also: Transportation in Minnesota
Minnesota

ROADS AND HIGHWAYS

Walker Art Center
Walker Art Center
on Hennepin Avenue
Hennepin Avenue
in Minneapolis
Minneapolis

In the 20th century, the Twin Cities area expanded outward significantly. Automobiles made it possible for suburbs to grow greatly. The area now has a number of freeways to transport people by car. The area incorporates a large number of traffic cameras and ramp meters to monitor and manage traffic congestion . There is some use of HOV (high-occupancy vehicle ) express lanes, which is becoming much more common. In order to use an express lane, you need to own a MNPASS or have multiple people in the car. MNPASS rates are determined by the amount of traffic on the road and/or the time of day. During non-peak times, the MNPASS express lanes are open to all traffic.

Interstate 94 comes into the area from the east and heads northwest from Minneapolis. Two spur routes form the I-494 /I-694 loop , and I-394 continues west when I-94 turns north. Additionally, Interstate 35 splits in Burnsville in the southern part of the Twin Cities region, bringing I-35E into St. Paul and I-35W into Minneapolis. They join together again to the north in Columbus , (just south of Forest Lake
Lake
) and continue to the highway's terminus in Duluth . This is one of only two examples of an Interstate highway splitting off into branches and then rejoining into one again; the other split occurs in Dallas-Fort Worth , where I-35 splits into I-35E for motorists going to Dallas and I-35W for traffic heading into Fort Worth.

On Wednesday, August 1, 2007, a large portion of the I-35W Mississippi River
Mississippi River
bridge near University Avenue in the city of Minneapolis
Minneapolis
collapsed into the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
around 6:05pm CDT . A replacement bridge opened on Thursday, September 18, 2008.

INTERSTATES

* Interstate 35
Interstate 35
* Interstate 35E * Interstate 35W * Interstate 94 * Interstate 394 * Interstate 494 * Interstate 694

U.S. ROUTE FREEWAYS

* US 10 * US 12 * US 52 (Lafayette Freeway) * US 61 (Blues Highway) * US 169 (Johnson Memorial Highway) * US 212 ( Minnesota
Minnesota
Veterans Memorial Highway)

MAJOR STATE HIGHWAYS

* MN 36 * MN 55 (Olson Memorial Highway) * MN 62 (Crosstown Highway) * MN 77 * MN 100 * MN 610

AIR TRAVEL

The main airport in the region is Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport
Airport
(MSP), which is a major hub for Delta Air Lines . The airport is also the main hub and operating base for Sun Country Airlines . A number of other smaller airports are also in the area, a number of which are owned and operated by the Metropolitan Airports Commission (the same agency operates the main MSP airport). Some people even commute by air to the Twin Cities from the northern part of the state.

PUBLIC TRANSIT

Metro Transit storefront, Minneapolis
Minneapolis

Metro Transit , by far the biggest bus service provider in the area, owes its existence to the old streetcar lines that ran in the area. Metro Transit provides about 95% of the public transit rides in the region with nearly 900 buses, although some suburbs have other bus services. The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities operates a free bus system between its campuses. This system includes the Campus Connector Bus Rapid Transit
Bus Rapid Transit
line which travels between the Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and St. Paul Campuses by a dedicated bus line, and throughout the two campuses on normal access roads. The METRO Blue Line LRT (light rail ) began operations in June 2004, connecting downtown Minneapolis, Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport
Airport
and the Mall of America
Mall of America
in Bloomington. It was followed by the METRO Red Line BRT (bus rapid transitway) in 2013 connecting the Mall of America
Mall of America
with Lakeville along Cedar Avenue
Cedar Avenue
through the southern suburbs. The METRO Green Line LRT connecting downtown Minneapolis, the University of Minnesota campus and downtown St. Paul along University Avenue opened in June 2014. All three lines are operated by Metro Transit. Additionally, the Northstar Line
Northstar Line
commuter rail line connecting Minneapolis
Minneapolis
with Big Lake
Lake
opened in November 2009; the line may be extended to St. Cloud as ridership numbers warrant.

In many ways the light rail of today is a return to the streetcars that existed in the past, it is being used as a stepping-stone to other projects. Bicycle rack on the METRO Blue Line LRT

A variety of rail services are currently being pondered by state and local governments, including neighborhood streetcar systems, intercity light rail service, and commuter rail options out to exurban regions. In addition, Minnesota
Minnesota
is one of several states in the Midwest examining the idea of setting up high-speed rail service using Chicago as a regional hub.

The Minneapolis–St. Paul area has been criticized for inadequate public transportation. Compared to many other cities its size, the public transportation system in the Minneapolis–St. Paul area is less robust. As the metropolitan area has grown, the roads and highways have been updated and widened, but traffic volume is growing faster than the projects needed to widen them, and public transportation has not expanded enough to commensurate with the population. The Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area is ranked as the fifth worst for congestion growth of similar-sized U.S. metropolitan areas. Additional lines and spurs are needed to upgrade public transportation in the Twin Cities. Plans are underway for Green Line extension connecting downtown Minneapolis
Minneapolis
to the southwest suburb of Eden Prairie . A northwest LRT (Blue Line extension) along Bottineau Boulevard is being planned from downtown Minneapolis
Minneapolis
to Brooklyn Park
Park
. The METRO Orange Line BRT will open in 2019, connecting downtown Minneapolis
Minneapolis
with Lakeville to the south along I-35W.

MEDIA

Main article: Media in Minneapolis–St. Paul

PRINT

The Twin Cities have two major daily newspapers: the Star Tribune
Star Tribune
and the Saint Paul Pioneer Press . Additionally, the Minnesota
Minnesota
Daily serves the University of Minnesota
Minnesota
's Twin Cities campus and surrounding neighborhoods. There is one general-interest neighborhood weekly newspaper still in the cities: The East Side Review , devoted to the 90,000 residents in the eastern third of St. Paul. Other weekly papers are devoted to specific audiences/demographics including City Pages .

TELEVISION

KARE
KARE
television broadcast, Minnesota
Minnesota
State Fair

The region is currently ranked as the 15th largest television market according to Nielson Media Research. Twin Cities PBS
Twin Cities PBS
operates both KTCA and KTCI
KTCI
. Hubbard Broadcasting built by Stanley E. Hubbard owns KSTP and has a second TV station, KSTC , which is not affiliated with any network. Diversified from radio, KSTP-TV became the first television channel to air in the region with a show reaching 3,000 television sets in 1948, and the 17th station to broadcast in the U.S. WCCO-TV building Minneapolis
Minneapolis

KMSP and WFTC
WFTC
have now merged as well, and KARE
KARE
currently has a marketing agreement with KPXM-TV . The only station with its main studios in Minneapolis
Minneapolis
is WCCO , while St. Paul is host to KSTP/KSTC, KTCA/KTCI, and WUCW . KARE
KARE
has a sprawling broadcasting complex in west suburban Golden Valley . KMSP is located in southwest suburban Eden Prairie . Other stations are located in the suburbs. For much of the last two decades, WCCO and KARE
KARE
have shared in having the most popular evening newscasts of the area channels. On the other end, KSTP has struggled to maintain ratings on its news programs. KMSP has had a 9 o'clock newscast since at least the early 1990s when it was an independent channel.

Communities in the region have their own Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable television channels. One channel, the Metro Cable Network, is available on channel 6 on cable systems across the seven-county region.

Several television programs originating in the Twin Cities have been aired nationally on terrestrial and cable TV networks. KTCA created the science program Newton\'s Apple and distributes a children's program today. A few unusual comedic shows also originated in the area. In the 1980s, KTMA (predecessor to KMWB) created a number of low-budget shows, including cult classic Mystery Science Theater 3000 . The short-lived Let\'s Bowl started on KARE, and PBS series Mental Engineering originated on the St. Paul cable access network.

RADIO

The radio market in the Twin Cities is considered to be somewhat smaller than for TV, ranked 16th. For decades, WCCO radio was the most well-known and most popular broadcaster in the region, with an all-day talk format. WCCO was eventually pushed out of the top spot by KQRS-FM , a classic rock station with a popular morning show. Minnesota Public Radio
Radio
in St. Paul

KSTP also has some fairly popular radio stations, with pop music format on FM and ESPN Radio
Radio
on AM. KSTP-AM and FM are owned by Hubbard Broadcasting . In 1985, Hubbard – valued at $400 million – was one of the larger corporate media companies in the United States; in 2005, valued at US $1.2 billion, Hubbard is a fairly small major-market media operation.

The Twin Cities have a peculiar mix of commercial and non-commercial radio. The city's market is dominated by Clear Channel Communications which operates seven stations but two small independent stations are award winners— KUOM operated by the University of Minnesota
Minnesota
and KFAI public access radio in Cedar Riverside .

Minnesota
Minnesota
Public Radio
Radio
(MPR) is also a major force in the state and across the country, best known across the U.S. for the variety show A Prairie Home Companion . Doing business under the name American Public Media , the company is the second largest producer of national public radio content, behind National Public Radio
Radio
(of which MPR is an affiliate). The Current is an affiliate of MPR, as well, and it is member supported. The station gives the audience a taste of the local music scene and it is widely popular among indie listeners.

INDEPENDENT MEDIA

The Twin Cities is also home to many independent media organizations, including The UpTake , MinnPost and Twin Cities Daily Planet .

HONORS

The United States
United States
Navy currently has one ship named for the region, the USS Minneapolis–Saint Paul , a Los Angeles-class submarine launched in 1983. Previously, two sets of two ships each had carried the names USS Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and USS Saint Paul .

REFERENCES

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United States
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United States
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United States
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United States
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United States
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College
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EXTERNAL LINKS

* Minnesota