Cricket itself was probably first played in England in the Late Middle Ages, but it did not rise to prominence until the eighteenth century. A set of laws were drawn up in 1744, and the game achieved a level of relative standardisation by the late nineteenth century.[6] One-day cricket was trialled in 1962, and the first domestic tournament played the following year,[7] and in 1971, England and Australia contested the first One Day International. The match consisted of one innings for each side, with 40 eight-ball overs.[8]

In the 1990s, a number of countries were exploring the possibility of a shorter game still: in New Zealand, Martin Crowe developed Cricket Max, in which each team bats for 10 eight-ball overs,[9] while in Australia they considered an eight-a-side contest they dubbed "Super 8s". At the same time, the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) conducted consumer research, and proposed the idea of a 20 overs-per-side contest, which would last for about three hours.[10] The first match was played in 2003 between Hampshire and Sussex.[11]


The first Twenty20 International match between two men's sides was played on 17 February 2005, involving Australia and New Zealand. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack reported that "neither side took the game especially seriously",[12] and it was noted by ESPNcricinfo that but for a large score for Ricky Ponting, "the concept would have shuddered".[13] However, Ponting himself said "if it does become an international game then I'm sure the novelty won't be there all the time".[14]

Two further matches were played that year; England beat Australia in June, and South Africa were defeated by New Zealand in October.[15] Early the following year, a contest between New Zealand and the West Indies finished as the first tied match, and a tiebreak was played for the first time in men's international cricket: the two sides took part in a bowl-out to determine a winner; New Zealand won 3–0.[16]

The game had initially been developed to boost the interest in domestic cricket, and to aid this the international teams were only allowed to host three T20Is each year. The cricket manager for the ICC, David Richardson, also commented that "Part of the success of Twenty20 cricket is making sure it can coexist with Test cricket and one-dayers."[17] Despite this, the first international tournament was held in 2007 in South Africa; the 2007 ICC World Twenty20.[17] That tournament was won by India, who defeated their close rivals Pakistan in the final. Writing for The Guardian, Dilip Premachandran suggested that the competition's success meant that "the format is here to stay".[18] The next tournament was scheduled for 2009, and it was decided that they would take place biannually (more frequently than the 50 over Cricket World Cup, which occurs once every four years).[19] In the opening match of the 2007 World Twenty20, Chris Gayle scored the first century in a T20I, the achievement being reached in the twentieth match of the format.[20]

The 500th T20I match was contested between Ireland and the United Arab Emirates at the Sheikh Zayed Stadium, Abu Dhabi on 16 February 2016.[21]

Current international rankings

ICC T20I Championship
Rank Team Matches Points Rating
1  Pakistan 29 3,763 130
2  Australia 20 2,513 126
3  India 36 4,341 121
4  New Zealand 26 3,013 116
5  England 21 2,402 114
6  South Africa 23 2,551 111
7  West Indies 25 2,770 111
8  Sri Lanka 33 2,921 89
9  Afghanistan 27 2,385 88
10  Bangladesh 24 1,846 77
11  Scotland 11 737 67
12  Zimbabwe 15 915 61
13  United Arab Emirates 16 827 52
14  Netherlands 9 441 49
15  Hong Kong 13 599 46
16  Papua New Guinea 6 235 39
17  Oman 9 345 38
18  Ireland 15 534 36
Reference: ICC rankings for Tests, ODIs, Twenty20 & Women, 03 April 2018
"Matches" is the number of matches played in the 12-24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.

Teams with T20I status

The 12 Test-playing nations (which are also the 12 full members of the ICC) have permanent T20I status. The nations are listed below with the date of each nation's T20I debut after gaining permanent T20I status shown in brackets:

  1.  New Zealand (17 February 2005)
  2.  Australia (17 February 2005)
  3.  England (13 June 2005)
  4.  South Africa (21 October 2005)
  5.  West Indies (16 February 2006)
  6.  Sri Lanka (15 June 2006)
  7.  Pakistan (28 August 2006)
  8.  Bangladesh (28 November 2006)
  9.  Zimbabwe (28 November 2006)
  10.  India (1 December 2006)
  11.  Afghanistan (5 February 2018)
  12.  Ireland (27 June 2018)

Since 2005, the ICC has granted temporary ODI and T20I status to six other teams (known as Associate members). Teams earn this temporary status for a period of four years based on their performance in the quadrennial ICC World Cricket League – or, more specifically, based on the top six finishing positions at the ICC World Cup Qualifier, which is the final event of the World Cricket League. On 28 June 2014, the ICC granted T20I status to Nepal and Netherlands, both of whom qualified for and took part in the 2014 ICC World Twenty20, but had both failed to gain/retain ODI status.[22] The following six teams currently have this status (the dates listed in brackets are of their first T20I match after gaining temporary ODI or T20I status):

So far, six other nations have held this temporary T20I status before being promoted to Test Status or relegated after underperforming at the World Cup Qualifier or World Twenty20 Qualifier:

Cricket at international multi-sport events

Ajantha Mendis was the first player to take six wickets in a T20I

Cricket was played as part of the 1900 Summer Olympics, when England and France contested a two-day match.[24] In 1998, cricket was played as part of the Commonwealth Games, on this occasion in the 50-over format. There was some talk about Twenty20 cricket being part of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, which were held in Delhi, but at the time the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), were not in favour of the short format of the game, and it was not included.[25]

Cricket was played in 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China[26] and 2014 Asian Games in Incheon, South Korea.[27] India skipped both times.[28] There was further calls for subsequent Commonwealth Games and Olympic Games. The Commonwealth Games Federation asked the ICC to participate in the 2014 and 2018 Commonwealth Games, but the ICC turned down the invitation.[29] In 2010, the International Olympic Committee recognised cricket as a sport which could apply to be included in the Olympic Games,[30] but in 2013 the ICC announced that it had no intentions to make such an application, primarily due to opposition from the BCCI. ESPNcricinfo suggested that the opposition might be based on the possible loss of income.[31] In April 2016, ICC chief executive David Richardson said that Twenty20 cricket can have a chance of getting in for the 2024 Summer Games, but there must be collective support shown by the ICC's membership base, in particular from BCCI, in order for there to be a chance of inclusion.[32]


The highest team total in a T20I was made by Australia in September 2016, against Sri Lanka. Australia scored 263 runs for the loss of three wickets (263/3).[33][34] The lowest total also came in a match involving Sri Lanka: in 2014, the Netherlands were bowled out for just 39 runs against them.[35] The highest successful chase was made in February 2018, when Australia scored 245 runs to overhaul New Zealand's target and win the match.[36]

Martin Guptill has accrued the most runs in the format, and is the only batsman to have scored more than 2,200 runs.[37] He is one of less than twenty players to have scored a century in T20Is, and as of March 2018. The highest total in a T20I though, was scored by Aaron Finch, who totalled 156 runs in a match against England in 2013.[38] Three Pakistani bowlers lead the records for the most wickets; each having taken over 80 in T20Is: Saeed Ajmal, Umar Gul and Shahid Afridi.[39] Similarly, Sri Lanka's Ajantha Mendis has recorded the best two set of bowling figures in T20Is, and is the only bowler to have taken six wickets in a match, doing so against both Zimbabwe in 2012, and Australia in 2011.[40] Virat Kohli is the fastest cricketer to score 1000 runs in Twenty20 Internationals in 27 innings.[41][42]

See also


  1. ^ "Uniform DRS likely from October". 
  2. ^ "ICC takes a huge decision which may slow down T20s". 
  3. ^ "According to the new playing conditions which came into effect on September 28, DRS would now be used in T20 Internationals in addition to Tests and ODIs". 
  4. ^ "More results, more Kohli runs, and more T20Is than ODIs". 
  5. ^ http://www.icc-cricket.com/team-rankings/t20i
  6. ^ Birley, Derek (2003) [1999]. A Social History of English Cricket. Aurum Press. pp. 3–107. ISBN 1-85410-941-3. 
  7. ^ Williamson, Martin (9 April 2011). "The low-key birth of one-day cricket". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  8. ^ Williamson, Martin. "The birth of the one-day international". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  9. ^ "Cricket Max – The Game Invented By Martin Crowe". ESPNcricinfo. 2 February 1996. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  10. ^ "History of Twenty20 cricket". England and Wales Cricket Board. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  11. ^ "Meet the man who invented Twenty20 cricket – the man missing out on millions". Daily Mail. London. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  12. ^ Ramsay, Andrew (2006). "New Zealand v Australia". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  13. ^ English, Peter (18 February 2005). "Saved by Private Ricky". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  14. ^ "South Africa's Superman". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  15. ^ "Records / 2005 / Twenty20 Internationals / Match results". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  16. ^ "WI beat NZ in historical tiebreaker". International Cricket Council. 26 December 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  17. ^ a b "Is twenty plenty?". ESPNcricinfo. 24 March 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  18. ^ Premachandran, Dileep (26 September 2007). "Great win, but easy on the chest-thumping". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  19. ^ "Global Tournaments". International Cricket Council. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  20. ^ Gopalakrishna, HR; Vaghese, Mathew (11 September 2007). "Gayle and Gibbs run riot". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  21. ^ "(500) games of T20I cricket". cricket.com.au. Retrieved 18 February 2016. 
  22. ^ http://www.espncricinfo.com/ci-icc/content/story/756175.html
  23. ^ "Oman secure World T20 spot with memorable win". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  24. ^ Buchanan, Ian (1993). Mallon, Bill, ed. "Cricket at the 1900 Games" (PDF). Journal of Olympic History. International Society of Olympic Historians. 1 (2): 4. 
  25. ^ "Cricket unlikely at 2010 Games". ESPNcricinfo. 23 January 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  26. ^ "Guangzhou Asian Games". 
  27. ^ "2014 Asian Games". 
  28. ^ "India to skip Asian Games again in 2014". 
  29. ^ "ICC rejects 2018 offer, cricket stays out of Commonwealth Games". Reuters. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  30. ^ "Cricket gets Olympic approval". ESPNcricinfo. 12 February 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  31. ^ Qaiser Mohammad Ali (1 July 2013). "BCCI rejects plans to make cricket an Olympic sport due to 'conflict'". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  32. ^ "ICC's chief executive David Richardson wants to expand World T20 first round to 18 teams, have Super 12 phase". 
  33. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records / Highest innings totals". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  34. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records / Largest margin of victory (by runs)". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  35. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records / Lowest innings totals". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  36. ^ "Statistics / Statsguru / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 20 March 2018. 
  37. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Batting records / Most runs in career". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  38. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Batting records / Most runs in an innings". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  39. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Bowling records / Most wickets in career". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  40. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Bowling records / Best figures in an innings". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  41. ^ "T20I 1000 runs club". 
  42. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Batting records / Most runs in career".