Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt



The Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXI, alternatively 21st Dynasty or Dynasty 21) is usually classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian
Third Intermediate Period The Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt began with the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1077 BC, which ended the New Kingdom, and was eventually followed by the Late Period. Various points are offered as the beginning for the latte ...
, lasting from 1077 BC to 943 BC.


After the reign of
Ramesses III Usermaatre Meryamun Ramesses III (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt. He is thought to have reigned from 26 March 1186 to 15 April 1155 BC and is considered to be the last great mona ...
, a long, slow decline of royal power in
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مصر , ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Medite ...
followed. The pharaohs of the Twenty-first Dynasty ruled from
Tanis Tanis ( grc, Τάνις or Τανέως ) or San al-Hagar ( ar, صان الحجر, Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar; egy, ḏꜥn.t ; ; cop, ϫⲁⲛⲓ or or ) is the Greek name for ancient Egyptian ''ḏꜥn.t'', an important archaeological site in the ...
, but were mostly active only in
Lower Egypt Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى '; ) is the northernmost region of Egypt, which consists of the fertile Nile Delta between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea, from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur. Historicall ...
, which they controlled. This dynasty is described as 'Tanite' because its political capital was based at Tanis. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. The later Egyptian Priest Manetho of Sebennytos states in his Epitome on Egyptian royal history that "the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years".Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC), 3rd edition, 1986, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, p.531

Pharaohs of the 21st Dynasty

Timeline of the 21st Dynasty

ImageSize = width:800 height:auto barincrement:12 PlotArea = top:100 bottom:100 right:100 left:100 AlignBars = early DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:-1077 till:-925 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:-1077 Colors = id:canvas value:rgb(0.97,0.97,0.97) id:PA value:green id:GP value:red Backgroundcolors = canvas:canvas BarData = barset:Rulers PlotData= width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till barset:Rulers from: -1077 till: -1051 color:PA text:" Smendes ( 1077 BC1051 BC)" from: -1051 till: -1047 color:PA text:" Amenemnisu ( 1051 BC1047 BC)" from: -1047 till: -1001 color:PA text:"
Psusennes I Psusennes I ( egy, pꜣ-sbꜣ-ḫꜥ-n-njwt; Greek Ψουσέννης) was the third pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047 and 1001 BC. ''Psusennes'' is the Greek version of his original name Pasibkhanu or Pasebakhaenniu ...
( 1047 BC1001 BC)" from: -1001 till: -992 color:PA text:" Amenemope ( 1001 BC992 BC)" from: -992 till: -986 color:PA text:" Osorkon the Elder ( 992 BC986 BC)" from: -986 till: -967 color:PA text:" Siamun ( 986 BC967 BC)" from: -967 till: -943 color:PA text:" Psusennes II ( 967 BC943 BC)" barset:skip



Further reading

* Jaroslav Černý, Studies in the Chronology of the Twenty-First Dynasty, JEA 32 (1946), 24-30

See also

* Family tree of the Twenty-first, Twenty-second, and Twenty-third Dynasties of Egypt *
Theban High Priests of Amun The High Priest of Amun or First Prophet of Amun ('' ḥm nṯr tpj n jmn'') was the highest-ranking priest in the priesthood of the ancient Egyptian god Amun. The first high priests of Amun appear in the New Kingdom of Egypt, at the beginni ...

External links

* States and territories established in the 11th century BC States and territories disestablished in the 10th century BC 21 Nile Delta 11th century BC in Egypt 10th century BC in Egypt 11th-century BC establishments in Egypt 10th-century BC disestablishments in Egypt 21 21 Tanis