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In Christian theology
Christian theology
and ecclesiology, the apostles (Greek: ἀπόστολος, translit. apóstolos, lit. 'one who is sent away'), particularly the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
(also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity. During the life and ministry of Jesus
Jesus
in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus. The word disciple is sometimes used interchangeably with apostle; for instance, the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
makes no distinction between the two terms[citation needed]. In modern usage, prominent missionaries are often called apostles, a practice which stems from the Latin
Latin
equivalent of apostle, i.e. missio, the source of the English word missionary. For example, Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
(AD 373–463) was the " Apostle
Apostle
of Ireland", Saint Boniface
Saint Boniface
(680–755) was the "Apostle to the Germans", [1] Saint José de Anchieta
José de Anchieta
(1534-1597) was the " Apostle
Apostle
of Brazil" and Saint Peter
Saint Peter
of Betancur (1626-1667) was the " Apostle
Apostle
of Guatemala". While Christian tradition often refers to the apostles as being 12 in number, different gospel writers give different names for the same individual, and apostles mentioned in one gospel are not mentioned in others. The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
during the ministry of Jesus
Jesus
is recorded in the Synoptic Gospels. After his resurrection, Jesus
Jesus
sent 11 of them (minus Judas Iscariot, who by then had died) by the Great Commission
Great Commission
to spread his teachings to all nations. This event is commonly called the Dispersion of the Apostles. There is also an Eastern Christian tradition derived from the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke of there having been as many as 70 apostles during the time of Jesus' ministry. Prominent figures in early Christianity, notably Paul, were often called apostles, even though their ministry or mission came after the life of Jesus. The period of early Christianity
Christianity
during the lifetimes of the apostles is called the Apostolic Age.[1] During the 1st century AD, the apostles established churches throughout the territories of the Roman Empire and, according to tradition, through the Middle East, Africa, and India.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Background 3 History of the Twelve Apostles

3.1 Calling by Jesus 3.2 Replacement of Judas 3.3 Paul, Apostle
Apostle
of the Gentiles 3.4 Deaths

3.4.1 Tombs of the Apostles

4 List of the Twelve Apostles

4.1 List of the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
as identified by the Bible

5 Other apostles mentioned in the New Testament

5.1 Men who followed Jesus 5.2 Women who followed Jesus 5.3 The Seventy Disciples 5.4 The authors of the Gospels

5.4.1 Authors attributed to be of the Twelve Apostles 5.4.2 Authors that were not of the Twelve Apostles

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Etymology[edit]

The Synaxis
Synaxis
of the Twelve Apostles. Russian, 14th century, Moscow Museum.

The word "apostle" comes from the Greek word ἀπόστολος (apóstolos), formed from the prefix ἀπό- (apó-, "from") and root στέλλω (stéllō, "I send", "I depart") and originally meaning "messenger, envoy". It has, however, a stronger sense than the word messenger, and is closer to a "delegate".[2] The Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament
New Testament
argues that its Christian use translated a Jewish position known in Hebrew as the sheliach (שליח). This ecclesiastical meaning of the word was later translated into Latin
Latin
as missio, the source of the English "missionary". Background[edit] In the New Testament, the names of the majority of the apostles are Hebrew names, although some had Greek names.[3] Even Paul, the "apostle of the Gentiles", who said that Jesus
Jesus
revealed himself to him only after his ascension and appointed him to his mission,[4] was a Jew
Jew
by birth and proud of it, although after his conversion he adopted the Roman cognomen Paulus, rendered in English as Paul, as his name.[Acts 13:9] Paul claimed with much insistency this title and its rights,[2] and made the case to the Corinthian Church that he was an apostle by the evidence of the fruits of his ministry, of which they themselves were.[1Cor 9:1–2] Mark 6:7–13 states that Jesus
Jesus
initially sent out these twelve in pairs (cf. Mt 10:5–42, Lk 9:1–6) to towns in Galilee. The text states that their initial instructions were to heal the sick and drive out demons.[2] They are also instructed to "take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse, but to wear sandals, and not put on two tunics", and that if any town rejects them they ought to shake the dust off their feet as they leave, a gesture which some scholars think was meant as a contemptuous threat (Miller 26). Their carrying of just a staff (Matthew and Luke say not even a staff) is sometimes given as the reason for the use by Christian bishops of a staff of office in those denominations that believe they maintain an apostolic succession. Later in the Gospel
Gospel
narratives the twelve apostles are described as having been commissioned to preach the Gospel
Gospel
to "all the nations",[5] regardless of whether Jew
Jew
or Gentile.[6] Paul emphasized the important role of the apostles in the church of God when he said that the household of God is "built upon the foundation of apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus
Jesus
himself being the cornerstone".[Ephesians 2:19–20] Although not one of the apostles commissioned during the life of Jesus, Paul, a Jew
Jew
named Saul of Tarsus, claimed a special commission from the risen Jesus
Jesus
and is considered "the apostle of the Gentiles",[Romans 11:13] for his missions to spread the gospel message after his conversion. In his writings, the epistles to Christian churches throughout the Levant, Paul did not restrict the term "apostle" to the Twelve, and often refers to his mentor Barnabas
Barnabas
as an apostle.[1] The restricted usage appears in the Revelation to John.[7] By the 2nd century AD, association with the apostles was esteemed as an evidence of authority. Churches which are believed to have been founded by one of the apostles are known as apostolic sees. Paul's epistles were accepted as scripture, and two of the four canonical gospels were associated with apostles, as were other New Testament works. Various Christian texts, such as the Didache
Didache
and the Apostolic Constitutions, were attributed to the apostles. Bishops
Bishops
traced their lines of succession back to individual apostles, who were said to have dispersed from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and established churches across great territories. Christian bishops have traditionally claimed authority deriving, by apostolic succession, from the Twelve.[1] Early Church Fathers who came to be associated with apostles, such as Pope Clement I with St. Peter, are referred to as the Apostolic Fathers. The Apostles' Creed, popular in the West, was said to have been composed by the apostles themselves. History of the Twelve Apostles[edit] Calling by Jesus[edit]

James Tissot, The Exhortation to the Apostles.

Main article: Commissioning of the Twelve Apostles The three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
record the circumstances in which some of the disciples were recruited, Matthew only describing the recruitment of Simon, Andrew, James, and John. All three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
state that these four were recruited fairly soon after Jesus
Jesus
returned from being tempted by the devil. Despite Jesus
Jesus
only briefly requesting that they join him, they are all described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets to do so. Traditionally the immediacy of their consent was viewed as an example of divine power, although this statement is not made in the text itself. The alternative and much more ordinary solution is that Jesus
Jesus
was simply friends with the individuals beforehand, as implied by the Gospel
Gospel
of John, which states that Peter (Simon) and Andrew
Andrew
are the disciples of John the Baptist, and started following Jesus
Jesus
as soon as Jesus
Jesus
had been baptized. The Bible
Bible
identifies Jesus
Jesus
as a tekton,[Mk 6:3] a Greek word meaning builder or artisan,[8] traditionally translated as carpenter. Considering this profession, it is plausible that Jesus
Jesus
had been employed to build and repair fishing vessels, thus having many opportunities to interact with and befriend such fishermen. Albright and Mann extrapolate from Simon's and Andrew's abandonment of their nets that Matthew is emphasizing the importance of renunciation by converting to Christianity, since fishing was profitable, although required large start-up costs, and abandoning everything would have been an important sacrifice. Regardless, Simon and Andrew's abandonment of what were effectively their most important worldly possessions was taken as a model by later Christian ascetics.

Adriaen van de Venne's Fishers of Men. Oil on panel, 1614

Matthew describes Jesus
Jesus
meeting James and John, also fishermen and brothers, very shortly after recruiting Simon and Andrew. Matthew and Mark identify James and John as sons of Zebedee. Luke adds to Matthew and Mark that James and John worked as a team with Simon and Andrew. Matthew states that at the time of the encounter, James and John were repairing their nets, but readily joined Jesus
Jesus
without hesitation. This parallels the accounts of Mark and Luke, but Matthew implies that the men have also abandoned their father (since he is present in the ship they abandon behind them), and Carter feels this should be interpreted to mean that Matthew's view of Jesus
Jesus
is one of a figure rejecting the traditional patriarchal structure of society, where the father had command over his children; most scholars, however, just interpret it to mean that Matthew intended these two to be seen as even more devoted than the other pair. The Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
go on to describe that much later, after Jesus had later begun his ministry, he noticed, while teaching, a tax collector in his booth. The tax collector, 'Levi' according to some Gospels, 'Matthew' according to others, is asked by Jesus
Jesus
to become one of his disciples. Matthew/Levi is stated to have accepted and then invited Jesus
Jesus
for a meal with his friends. Tax collectors were seen as villains in Jewish society, and the Pharisees
Pharisees
are described as asking Jesus
Jesus
why he is having a meal with such disreputable people. The reply Jesus
Jesus
gives to this is now well known: "it is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners". Replacement of Judas[edit] Main article: Saint Matthias After Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
betrayed Christ and then in guilt committed suicide before Christ's resurrection (in one Gospel
Gospel
account), the apostles numbered eleven. When Jesus
Jesus
had been taken up from them, in preparation for the coming of the Holy Spirit that he had promised them, Peter advised the brethren:

Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus... For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry... For it is written in the book of Psalms, "Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein", and, "Let another take his office"... So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus
Jesus
went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day he was taken up from us, must become with us a witness to his resurrection — Acts 1:15–26

So, between the ascension of Christ and the day of Pentecost, the remaining apostles elected a twelfth apostle by casting lots, a traditional Israelite way to determine the will of God (see Proverbs 16:33). The lot fell upon Matthias.[9] Paul the Apostle
Apostle
in his First Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians, appears to give the first historical reference to the twelve apostles:

For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me. — 1 Corinthians 15:3–8

Paul, Apostle
Apostle
of the Gentiles[edit]

Part of a series of articles on

Paul in the Bible

Pauline literature

Romans

I Corinthians II Corinthians

Galatians Ephesians

Philippians Colossians

I Thessalonians II Thessalonians

Pastoral epistles

I Timothy II Timothy Titus

Philemon Hebrews

Authorship

Paul the Apostle

Related literature

Lost epistles Apocalypse of Paul

Coptic Apocalypse of Paul

Corinthians to Paul Acts of Paul

Paul and Thecla Peter and Paul

Prayer of Paul

See also

Apostle
Apostle
(Christian) Pauline Christianity

v t e

Main article: Paul the Apostle In his writings, Paul the Apostle, although not one of the original twelve, described himself as an apostle, one "born out of due time" (e.g., Romans 1:1, 1 Corinthians 15:8 and other letters). He was called by the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
himself during his Road to Damascus vision and given the name "Paul".[Acts 9:1–9] With Barnabas, he was allotted the role of apostle in the church.[Acts 13:2] He referred to himself as the apostle of the Gentiles.[Rom 11:13] As the Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
states, "It is at once evident that in a Christian sense, everyone who had received a mission from God, or Christ, to man could be called 'Apostle'"; thus extending the original sense beyond the twelve.[citation needed] Since Paul claimed to have received the gospel through a revelation of Jesus
Jesus
Christ[10] after the latter's death and resurrection (rather than before like the twelve), he was often obliged to defend his apostolic authority (1 Cor. 9:1 "Am I not an apostle?") and proclaim that he had seen and was anointed by Jesus
Jesus
while on the road to Damascus. James, Peter and John in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
accepted his calling to the apostleship from the Lord to the Gentiles (specifically those not circumcised) as of equal authority as Peter's to the Jews (specifically those circumcised) according to Paul.[Gal 2:7–9] "James, Peter and John, those reputed to be pillars ... agreed that we [Paul and Barnabas] should go to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews."[Gal 2:9] Paul, despite his divine calling as an apostle, considered himself perhaps inferior to the other apostles because he had originally persecuted Christ's followers.[1 Cor. 15:9] In addition, despite the Little Commission of Matthew 10, the twelve did not limit their mission to solely Jews
Jews
as Cornelius the Centurion
Cornelius the Centurion
is widely considered the first Gentile convert and he was converted by Peter, and the Great Commission of the Resurrected Jesus
Jesus
is specifically to "all nations". Deaths[edit] Of the twelve Apostles
Apostles
to hold the title after Matthias' selection, Christian tradition has generally passed down that all but one were martyred, with John surviving into old age. Only the death of James, son of Zebedee
Zebedee
is described in the New Testament.[11] Matthew 27:5 says that Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
threw the silver he received for betraying Jesus
Jesus
down in the Temple, then went and hanged himself. Acts 1:18 says that he purchased a field, then "falling headlong he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out". According to Edward Gibbon, early Christians (second half of the second century and first half of the third century) believed that only Peter, Paul, and James, son of Zebedee, were martyred.[12] The remainder of the claims of martyred apostles do not rely upon historical or biblical evidence.[13][14] Tombs of the Apostles[edit]

Basilica of St John Lateran (Rome)[15]

The relics of the Apostles
Apostles
are claimed by various Churches, many in Italy.[16]

Peter: buried in St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in Vatican City, Rome, Italy Andrew: buried in St Andrew's Cathedral, Patras, Greece James, son of Zebedee: buried in Santiago de Compostela Cathedral
Santiago de Compostela Cathedral
in Galicia (Spain) John: buried in the Basilica of St. John
Basilica of St. John
in Ephesus
Ephesus
Turkey Philip: buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles
Apostles
in Rome
Rome
or possibly Hierapolis, near Denizli, Turkey[17] Bartholomew: buried in the Basilica of Benevento, Italy, or Basilica of St. Bartholomew
St. Bartholomew
on the Island, Rome, Italy Matthew: buried in the Salerno
Salerno
Cathedral, Salerno, Italy James, son of Alpheus: buried in the Cathedral of St. James in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or the Church of the Holy Apostles
Apostles
in Rome Thomas: buried in the Basilica of St. Thomas the Apostle
Apostle
in Ortona, Abruzzo, Italy
Italy
or in the San Thome Basilica
San Thome Basilica
in Madras, India Simon: buried in St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in Rome
Rome
under the St. Joseph altar with St. Jude Jude Thaddeus: buried in St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
under the St. Joseph altar with St. Simon; two bones (relics) located at National Shrine of St Jude in Chicago, Illinois Matthias: buried in the Saint Matthias
Saint Matthias
Benedictine Abbey in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Paul: relics located in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome Judas Iscariot: remains located in Akeldama, near the Valley of Hinnom, in Jerusalem, Israel

List of the Twelve Apostles[edit]

Jesus
Jesus
and the 12 apostles in Domus Galilaeae, Israel.

The following is a list of the Twelve Apostles, named as they are most commonly referred to:

Peter (born Simon) Andrew, brother of Peter James, son of Zebedee John, brother of James, son of Zebedee Philip Bartholomew Thomas Matthew James, son of Alphaeus Judas Thaddeus, also known as Jude Simon the Zealot, also known as Simon the Canaanite Judas Iscariot Matthias is not an original apostle and is a replacement for Judas Iscariot after the betrayal of Jesus. Paul is also not one of the original apostles, but is referred to and treated like one. He played a large role in composing the Bible
Bible
and listing the lives of Jesus
Jesus
Christ and the Twelve Apostles.

List of the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
as identified by the Bible[edit] Each of the four listings of apostles in the New Testament
New Testament
(Mark 3:13–19, Matthew 10:1–4, Luke 6:12–16, and Acts 1:13) indicate that all the apostles were men. The canonical gospels and the book of Acts give varying names of the twelve apostles. The list in the Gospel of Luke differs from Matthew and Mark at two points. It lists "Judas the son of James" instead of "Thaddeus". (For more information, see Jude the Apostle.) Unlike the Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel
Gospel
of John does not offer a formal list of apostles. Although it refers to "the Twelve" (John 6:67–71), the gospel does not present any elaboration of who these twelve actually were, and the author of the Gospel
Gospel
of John does not mention them all by name. There is also no separation of the terms "apostles" and "disciples" in John.

Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew[18] Gospel
Gospel
of Mark[19] Gospel
Gospel
of Luke[20] Gospel
Gospel
of John Acts of the Apostles[21]

Simon ("who is called Peter") Simon Simon Simon Peter[22] Peter

Andrew
Andrew
("his [Peter's] brother") Andrew Andrew Andrew Andrew

James ("son of Zebedee") James James one of the "sons of Zebedee" James

John ("his [James's] brother") John / one of the "Boanerges" John one of the "sons of Zebedee" John

Philip Philip Philip Philip Philip

Bartholomew Bartholomew Bartholomew Nathanael Bartholomew

Thomas Thomas Thomas Thomas ("also called Didymus")[23] Thomas

Matthew ("the publican") Matthew Matthew not mentioned Matthew

James ("son of Alphaeus") James James not mentioned James

Lebbaeus
Lebbaeus
("whose surname was Thaddaeus") Thaddaeus Judas ("son of James") Jude ("not Iscariot")[24] Judas son of James

Simon ("the Canaanite") Simon ("the Cananaean") Simon ("who was called the Zealot") not mentioned Simon the Zealot

Judas Iscariot Judas Iscariot Judas Iscariot Judas ("son of Simon Iscariot")[25] (Judas replaced by Matthias)

Other apostles mentioned in the New Testament[edit] Men who followed Jesus[edit]

Person called apostle Where in Scripture Notes

Barnabas Acts 14:14 —

Andronicus and Junia Rom 16:7 Paul states that Andronicus and Junia
Junia
were "of note among the apostles." This has been traditionally interpreted in one of two ways:

That Andronicus and Junia
Junia
were "of note among the apostles," that is, distinguished apostles.[26] That Andronicus and Junia
Junia
were "well known among the apostles" meaning "well known to the apostles"

If the first view is correct then Paul may be referring to a female apostle[27][28] - the Greek name (Iounian) is in the accusative and could be either Junia
Junia
(a woman) or Junias (a man)[29]. Later manuscripts add accents to make it unambiguously Junias, however while "Junia" was a common name, "Junias" was not[28], and both options are favoured by different Bible
Bible
translations. In the second view, it is believed that Paul is simply making mention of the outstanding character of these two people which was acknowledged by the apostles. Historically it has been virtually impossible to tell which of the two views were correct. The second view, in recent years, has been defended from a scholarly perspective by Daniel Wallace and Michael Burer.[30]

Silas 1 Thes. 1:1, 2:6 Referred to as one along with Timothy and Paul, he also performs the functioning of an apostle as Paul's companion in Paul's second missionary journey in Acts 15:40ff.

Timothy 1 Thes. 1:1, 2:6 Timothy is referred to as an apostle along with Silas
Silas
and Paul. However, in 2 Cor. 1:1 he is only called a "brother" when Paul refers to himself as "an apostle of Christ". Timothy performs many of the functions of an apostle in the commissioning of Paul in 1st and 2nd Timothy, though in those epistles Paul refers to him as his "son" in the faith.

Apollos 1 Cor. 4:9 Included among "us apostles" along with Paul and Cephas (Peter). (see also: 4:6, 3:22, and 3:4–6)

Women who followed Jesus[edit] In Luke (10:38–42), Mary, sister of Lazarus, is contrasted with her sister Martha, who was "cumbered about many things" while Jesus
Jesus
was their guest, while Mary had chosen "the better part," that of listening to the master's discourse. John names her as the "one who had anointed the Lord with perfumed oil and dried his feet with her hair" (11:2). In Luke, an unidentified "sinner" in the house of a Pharisee anoints Jesus' feet. In Medieval Catholic folklore, Mary, the sister of Lazarus, was seen as the same as Mary Magdalene. Luke refers to a number of people accompanying Jesus
Jesus
and the twelve. From among them he names three women: "Mary, called Magdalene, ... and Joanna the wife of Herod's steward Chuza, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their resources" (Luke 8:2-3). Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and Joanna are among the women who went to prepare Jesus' body in Luke's account of the resurrection, and who later told the apostles and other disciples about the empty tomb and words of the "two men in dazzling clothes". Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
is the most well-known of the disciples outside of the Twelve. More is written in the gospels about her than the other female followers. There is also a large body of lore and literature covering her. Other gospel writers differ as to which women witness the crucifixion and witness to the resurrection. Mark includes Mary, the mother of James and Salome
Salome
(not to be confused with Salomé the daughter of Herodias) at the crucifixion and Salome
Salome
at the tomb. John includes Mary the wife of Clopas at the crucifixion. The Seventy Disciples[edit] Main article: Seventy Disciples The "seventy disciples" or "seventy-two disciples" (known in the Eastern Christian traditions as the "Seventy Apostles") were early emissaries of Jesus
Jesus
mentioned in the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke 10:1–24. According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text. In Western Christianity, they are usually referred to as disciples,[31] whereas in Eastern Christianity
Christianity
they are usually referred to as Apostles.[32] Using the original Greek words, both titles are descriptive, as an apostle is one sent on a mission (the Greek uses the verb form: apesteilen) whereas a disciple is a student, but the two traditions differ on the scope of the words apostle and disciple. The authors of the Gospels[edit] Main article: Gospel Main article: Synoptic Gospels Authors attributed to be of the Twelve Apostles[edit] The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew is anonymous: the author is not named within the text, and the superscription "according to Matthew" was added some time in the 2nd century.[33][34] The tradition that the author was Matthew the Apostle
Apostle
begins with Papias of Hierapolis
Hierapolis
(c. AD 100–140), an early bishop and Apostolic Father, who is cited by the Church historian Eusebius
Eusebius
(AD 260–340), as follows: "Matthew collected the oracles [logia: sayings of or about Jesus] in the Hebrew language [Hebraïdi dialektōi], and each one interpreted [hērmēneusen—perhaps 'translated'] them as best he could."[35][Notes 1] Although the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
is anonymous,[36] Christian tradition historically has attributed it to John the Apostle, son of Zebedee
Zebedee
and one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. The gospel
The gospel
is so closely related in style and content to the three surviving Johannine epistles
Johannine epistles
that commentators treat the four books,[37] along with the Book
Book
of Revelation, as a single corpus of Johannine literature, albeit not necessarily written by the same author.[Notes 2] Authors that were not of the Twelve Apostles[edit] The Gospel
Gospel
of Mark was written anonymously.[38] Early Christian tradition, first attested by Papias of Hierapolis, ascribes it to John Mark, a companion and interpreter of the apostle Peter.[39] Hence its author is often called Mark, even though most modern scholars are doubtful of the Markan tradition and instead regard the author as unknown.[40] It was probably written c. AD 66–70, during Nero's persecution of the Christians in Rome
Rome
or the Jewish revolt, as suggested by internal references to war in Judea and to persecution.[41] The author used a variety of pre-existing sources, such as conflict stories (Mark 2:1–3:6), apocalyptic discourse (4:1–35), and collections of sayings (although not the Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas and probably not the Q source).[42] According to Church tradition, Luke the Evangelist, the companion of Paul, is believed to have authored the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, though anonymously written and lacking an author's name; but while this view is still occasionally put forward the scholarly consensus emphasises the many contradictions between Acts and the authentic Pauline letters.[43][44] The most probable date for its composition is around 80–110 AD, and there is evidence that it was still being revised well into the 2nd century.[45] See also[edit]

Book: Apostle
Apostle
(Christian)

Apostles' Fast Council of Jerusalem Disciples of Jesus
Jesus
in Islam Female disciples of Jesus Great Commission New Apostolic Church Old Apostolic Church Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
(LDS Church) Seventy disciples The Twelve Imams

Notes[edit]

^ Eusebius, "History of the Church" 3.39.14–17, c. 325 CE, Greek text 16: "ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἱστόρηται τῷ Παπίᾳ περὶ τοῦ Μάρκου· περὶ δὲ τοῦ Ματθαῖου ταῦτ’ εἴρηται· Ματθαῖος μὲν οὖν Ἑβραΐδι διαλέκτῳ τὰ λόγια συνετάξατο, ἡρμήνευσεν δ’ αὐτὰ ὡς ἧν δυνατὸς ἕκαστος. Various English translations published, standard reference translation by Philip Schaff
Philip Schaff
at CCEL: "[C]oncerning Matthew he [Papias] writes as follows: 'So then(963) Matthew wrote the oracles in the Hebrew language, and every one interpreted them as he was able.'(964)" Online version includes footnotes 963 and 964 by Schaff. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
(died c. 202 CE) makes a similar comment, possibly also drawing on Papias, in his Against Heresies, Book
Book
III, Chapter 1: "Matthew also issued a written Gospel
Gospel
among the Hebrews in their own dialect". See Bingham, Dwight Jeffrey (1998). Irenaeus' Use of Matthew's Gospel
Gospel
in Adversus Haereses. Traditio exegetica Graeca. 7. Louvain, Belgium: Peeters Publishers. pp. 64ff. ISBN 9789068319644.  ^ Harris 2006, p. 479: "Most scholars believe that the same person wrote all three documents but that he is not to be identified with either the apostle John or the author of the Gospel."

References[edit]

^ a b c d "Apostle." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-19-280290-9 ^ a b c "Catholic Encyclopedia: Apostles".  ^ As was not uncommon for Jews
Jews
at the time, some of them had two names, one Hebrew/Aramaic and the other Greek. Hence the lists of Jesus' twelve apostles contains 14 names not 12; the 4 Greek names are Andrew, Philip, Thaddaeus
Thaddaeus
and Lebbaeus. Reference: John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew. ^ Acts 9:1–19 Gal 1:11–12 ^ Mt 28:19, Mk 13:10, and 16:15 ^ Cf. also Acts 15:1–31, Galatians 2:7–9, Acts 1:4–8, and Acts 10:1–11:18. ^ Revelation 21:14. ^ An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. The Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Clarendon Press: Oxford, p. 797. ^ "Who were the 12 disciples?". Retrieved 2017-09-19.  ^ cf. Gal 1:12; Acts 9:3–19, 9:26–27, 22:6–21, 26:12–23 ^ "Who were the 12 disciples?".  ^ Gibbon, Edward (1826). "Chapter XVI. The Conduct of the Roman Government toward the Christians, from the Reign of Nero
Nero
to that of Constantine". The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire. II. New York: J. & J. Harper for Collins & Hanney. p. 20. 27. In the time of Tertullian and Clemens of Alexandria the glory of martyrdom was confined to St. Peter, St. Paul and St. James. It was gradually bestowed on the rest of the apostles by the more recent Greeks, who prudently selected for the theatre of their preaching and sufferings some remote country beyond the limits of the Roman empire. See Mosheim, p. 81. and Tillemont, Memoires Ecclesiastiques, tom. i. part 3.  ^ Were the Disciples Martyred for Believing the Resurrection? A Blast From the Past, ehrmanblog.org (behind paywall). ^ Wills, Garry (10 March 2015). The Future of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with Pope Francis. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-698-15765-1. (Candida Moss marshals the historical evidence to prove that "we simply don't know how any of the apostles died, much less whether they were martyred.")6  Citing Moss, Candida (5 March 2013). The Myth of Persecution: How Early Christians Invented a Story of Martyrdom. HarperCollins. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-06-210454-0.  ^ Many of the alternate locations of relics are sourced from this page http://www.saintsinrome.com/?m=0 ^ "Welcome".  ^ As stated in St. Philips wiki article ^ Matt 10:1–4 ^ Mark 3:13–19 ^ Luke 6:12–16 ^ Acts 1:13 ^ John 6:67-71 ^ John 11:16John 20:24John 21:2 ^ John 14:22 ^ John 6:67-71 ^ May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977. ^ Crossan, J. D. and Reed, J. L., In Search of Paul, Harper San Francisco (2004), pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-0-06-051457-0. ^ a b Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus
Jesus
in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, US. 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-530013-0. ^ CBMW "A Female Apostle?", June 26, 2007 ^ See Daniel B. Wallace and Michael H. Burer, "Was Junia
Junia
Really an Apostle?" NTS 47 (2001): 76–91. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Disciple: "The disciples, in this disciples, in this context, are not the crowds of believers who flocked around Christ, but a smaller body of His followers. They are commonly identified with the seventy-two (seventy, according to the received Greek text, although several Greek manuscripts mention seventy-two, as does the Vulgate) referred to (Luke 10:1) as having been chosen by Jesus. The names of these disciples are given in several lists (Chronicon Paschale, and Pseudo-Dorotheus in Migne, P.G., XCII, 521-524; 543-545; 1061–1065); but these lists are unfortunately worthless." ^ " Synaxis
Synaxis
of the Seventy Apostles". oca.org.  ^ Harrington 1991, p. 8. ^ Nolland 2005, p. 16. ^ Turner 2008, pp. 15–16. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 215. ^ Lindars 1990, p. 63. ^ Sanders 1995, pp. 63–64. ^ Burkett 2002, pp. 155–56. ^ Reddish 2011, p. 36. ^ Perkins 1998, p. 241. ^ Boring 2006, pp. 13–14. ^ Theissen & Merz 1998, p. 32. ^ Ehrman 2005, pp. 172, 235. ^ Perkins 2009, pp. 250–53.

Further reading[edit]

The Navarre Bible. (RSV, Catholic Edition), Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1999. Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible
Bible
Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971. Pope Benedict XVI, The Apostles. Full title is The Origins of the Church – The Apostles
Apostles
and Their Co-Workers. published 2007, in the US: ISBN 978-1-59276-405-1; different edition published in the UK under the title: Christ and His Church – Seeing the face of Jesus
Jesus
in the Church of the Apostles, ISBN 978-1-86082-441-8. Carson, D.A. "The Limits of Functional Equivalence in Bible Translation – and other Limits Too." in The Challenge of Bible Translation: Communicating God's Word to the World. edited by Glen G Scorgie, Mark L. Strauss, Steven M. Voth. Carter, Warren. "Matthew 4:18–22 and Matthean Discipleship: An Audience-Oriented Perspective." Catholic Bible
Bible
Quarterly. Vol. 59. No. 1. 1997. Clarke, Howard W. The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew and its Readers: A Historical Introduction to the First Gospel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. "Fishers of Men." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992. France, R.T. The Gospel
Gospel
According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985. Karrer, Martin. "Apostle, Apostolate." In The Encyclopedia of Christianity, edited by Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, 107–08. Vol. 1. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1999. ISBN 0-8028-2413-7 Mack, Burton L., The Lost Gospel
Gospel
– The Book
Book
of Q & Christian Origins. HarperCollins 1994. Manek, Jindrich. "Fishers of Men." Novum Testamentum. 1958 p. 138 Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975. Wuellner, Wilhelm H. The Meaning of "Fishers of Men". Westminster Press, 1967.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Apostles.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Apostles

Apostle
Apostle
article from Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge Texts on Wikisource:

"Apostle". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.  "Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 196–199.  "Apostles". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  Coppieters, Honoré-Joseph (1913). "Apostles". Catholic Encyclopedia.  "Apostle". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Apostle". Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary. 1897. 

Liddell & Scott Strong's G652[permanent dead link] Apostle
Apostle
and Apostleship article from Jewish Encyclopedia The Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
The Biographies of The Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
of Jesus Christ, the son of God. Apostles.com Biographies of Christ's Apostles Cast Your Nets: Fishing at the Time of Jesus The Fishing Economy in Galilee The Twelve Apostles
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an Eastern Orthodox
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perspective by Rev. George Mastrantonis Apostle
Apostle
article from OrthodoxWiki Christian History: The Twelve Apostles Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints. "The Twelve Apostles" at the Christian Iconography website

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