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Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
(/ˌtuːtənkɑːˈmuːn/;[3][a] alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen,[4] -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom
New Kingdom
or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since the discovery of his intact tomb, been referred to colloquially as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence.[5] He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, and likely the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome.[6] The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter
Howard Carter
of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb, funded by Lord Carnarvon,[7][8] received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of the mummy found in the tomb KV55, believed by some to be Akhenaten. His mother was his father's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35.[9] The "mysterious" deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamun's tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs.[10]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Reign 1.2 Health and appearance 1.3 Genealogy 1.4 Death 1.5 Aftermath

2 Significance 3 Tomb

3.1 Reuse of Neferneferuaten's funerary objects for Tutankhamun's burial 3.2 Tutankhamun's curse

4 Legacy 5 Names 6 Ancestry 7 See also 8 Notelist 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Life

Wooden bust of the boy king, found in his tomb

Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
receives flowers from Ankhesenamen

Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was the son of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of Akhenaten's sisters,[11] or possibly one of his cousins.[12] As a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten.[13] He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name Nebkheperure.[14] His wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara.[15] His teacher was most likely Sennedjem. When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn.[9] Computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter was born prematurely at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at full-term, 9 months. No evidence was found in either mummy of congenital anomalies or an apparent cause of death.[16] Reign Given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb
Horemheb
(Grand Vizier Ay's possible son in law and successor) and Grand Vizier Ay (who succeeded Tutankhamun). Horemheb
Horemheb
records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared.[17] In his third regnal year, under the influence of his advisors, Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
reversed several changes made during his father's reign. He ended the worship of the god Aten
Aten
and restored the god Amun
Amun
to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun
Amun
was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten
Akhetaten
abandoned.[18] This is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, "Living image of Amun", reinforcing the restoration of Amun. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak
Karnak
in Thebes, where he dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods". The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet, and Opet. His restoration stela says:

The temples of the gods and goddesses ... were in ruins. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown. Their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roads ... the gods turned their backs upon this land ... If anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he would never respond.[19]

The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians
Nubians
and Asiatics
Asiatics
were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. His tomb contained body armor and folding stools appropriate for military campaigns. However, given his youth and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk (he died c. age 19), historians speculate that he did not personally take part in these battles.[9][20] Health and appearance

Stripped of all its jewels, the mummy of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
remains in the Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
in his KV62
KV62
chamber

Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was slight of build, and was roughly 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) tall.[21] He had large front incisors and an overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid
Thutmosid
royal line to which he belonged. Between September 2007 and October 2009, various mummies were subjected to detailed anthropological, radiological, and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
Family Project. The research showed that Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
also had "a slightly cleft palate"[22] and possibly a mild case of scoliosis, a medical condition in which the spine deviates to the side from the normal position. X-rays clearly show that the king suffered from Klippel–Feil syndrome, the congenital fusion of any two of the cervical vertebrae. All seven vertebrae in his neck were completely fused together, so he was unable to move his head.[23] Examination of Tutankhamun's body has also revealed deformations in his left foot, caused by necrosis of bone tissue. The affliction may have forced Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
to walk with the use of a cane, many of which were found in his tomb.[24] In DNA tests of Tutankhamun's mummy, scientists found DNA from the mosquito-borne parasites that cause malaria. This is currently the oldest known genetic proof of the disease. More than one strain of the malaria parasite was found, indicating that Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
contracted multiple malarial infections. According to National Geographic, "The malaria would have weakened Tutankhamun's immune system and interfered with the healing of his foot. These factors, combined with the fracture in his left thighbone, which scientists had discovered in 2005, may have ultimately been what killed the young king."[24] Genealogy In 2008, a team began DNA research on Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and the mummified remains of other members of his family. The results indicated that his father was Akhenaten, and that his mother was not one of Akhenaten's known wives but one of his father's five sisters. The techniques used in the study, however, have been questioned.[25][26] The team reported it was over 99.99 percent certain that Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
was the father of the individual in KV55, who was in turn the father of Tutankhamun.[27] The young king's mother was found through the DNA testing of a mummy designated as 'The Younger Lady' (KV35YL), which was found lying beside Queen Tiye
Tiye
in the alcove of KV35. Her DNA proved that, like his father, she was a child of Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
and Tiye; thus, Tutankhamun's parents were brother and sister.[28] Queen Tiye
Tiye
held much political influence at court and acted as an adviser to her son after the death of her husband. Some geneticists dispute these findings, however, and "complain that the team used inappropriate analysis techniques."[29] While the data are still incomplete, the study suggests that one of the mummified fetuses found in Tutankhamun's tomb is the daughter of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
himself, and the other fetus is probably his child as well. So far, only partial data for the two female mummies from KV21 has been obtained.[30] One of them, KV21A, may well be the infants' mother, and, thus, Tutankhamun's wife, Ankhesenamun. It is known from history that she was the daughter of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and Nefertiti, and thus likely to be her husband's half-sister. One consequence of inbreeding can be children whose genetic defects do not allow them to be brought to term. Death There are no surviving records of Tutankhamun's final days. What caused Tutankhamun's death has been the subject of considerable debate. Major studies have been conducted in an effort to establish the cause of death. There is some evidence, advanced by Harvard microbiologist Ralph Mitchell, that his burial may have been hurried. Mitchell reported that dark brown splotches on the decorated walls of Tutankhamun's burial chamber suggested that he had been entombed even before the paint had a chance to dry.[31] Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was assassinated, the consensus is that his death was accidental.[32] A CT scan
CT scan
taken in 2005 showed that he had suffered a compound left leg fracture[33] shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. DNA analysis conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system, leading to the belief that malaria and Köhler disease
Köhler disease
II combined led to his death.[34] In June 2010, German scientists said they believed there was evidence that he had died of sickle cell disease. Other experts, however, rejected the hypothesis of homozygous sickle cell disease[35] based on survival beyond the age of 5 and the location of the osteonecrosis, which is characteristic of Freiberg-Kohler syndrome rather than sickle-cell disease.[citation needed] Research conducted in 2005 by archaeologists, radiologists, and geneticists, who performed CT scans on the mummy, found that he was not killed by a blow to the head, as previously thought.[36] New CT images discovered congenital flaws, which are more common among the children of incest. Siblings are more likely to pass on twin copies of deleterious alleles, which is why children of incest more commonly manifest genetic defects.[37] It is suspected he also had a partially cleft palate, another congenital defect.[38] Various other diseases, invoked as possible explanations to his early demise, included Marfan syndrome, Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome, Fröhlich syndrome (adiposogenital dystrophy), Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, aromatase excess syndrome in conjunction with sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome, Antley–Bixler syndrome
Antley–Bixler syndrome
or one of its variants,[39] and temporal lobe epilepsy.[40] A research team, consisting of Egyptian scientists Yehia Gad and Somaia Ismail from the National Research Centre in Cairo, conducted further CT scans under the direction of Ashraf Selim and Sahar Saleem of the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University. Three international experts served as consultants: Carsten Pusch of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Germany; Albert Zink of the EURAC-Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano, Italy;[41] and Paul Gostner of the Central Hospital Bolzano.[42] STR analysis based DNA fingerprinting analysis combined with the other techniques have rejected the hypothesis of gynecomastia and craniosynostoses (e.g., Antley-Bixler syndrome) or Marfan syndrome, but an accumulation of malformations in Tutankhamun's family was evident. Several pathologies including Köhler disease
Köhler disease
II were diagnosed in Tutankhamun; none alone would have caused death. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1 genes specific for Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium falciparum
revealed indications of malaria tropica in 4 mummies, including Tutankhamun's.[9] However, their exact contribution to the causality of his death still is highly debated. As stated above, the team discovered DNA from several strains of a parasite proving he was infected with the most severe strain of malaria several times in his short life. Malaria
Malaria
can trigger circulatory shock or cause a fatal immune response in the body, either of which can lead to death. If Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
did suffer from a bone disease which was crippling, it may not have been fatal. "Perhaps he struggled against other [congenital flaws] until a severe bout of malaria or a leg broken in an accident added one strain too many to a body that could no longer carry the load", wrote Zahi Hawass, archeologist and head of Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquity involved in the research. A review of the medical findings to date found that he suffered from mild kyphoscoliosis, pes planus (flat feet), hypophalangism of the right foot, bone necrosis of second and third metatarsal bones of the left foot, malaria, and a complex fracture of the right knee shortly before death.[43] In late 2013, Egyptologist Dr. Chris Naunton and scientists from the Cranfield Institute performed a "virtual autopsy" of Tutankhamun, revealing a pattern of injuries down one side of his body. Car-crash investigators then created computer simulations of chariot accidents. Naunton concluded that Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was killed in a chariot crash: a chariot smashed into him while he was on his knees, shattering his ribs and pelvis. Naunton also referenced Howard Carter's records of the body having been burnt. Working with anthropologist Dr. Robert Connolly and forensic archaeologist Dr. Matthew Ponting, Naunton produced evidence that Tutankhamun's body was burnt while sealed inside his coffin. Embalming oils combined with oxygen and linen had caused a chemical reaction, creating temperatures of more than 7002473150000000000♠200 °C. Naunton said, "The charring and possibility that a botched mummification led to the body spontaneously combusting shortly after burial was entirely unexpected."[44][45] A further investigation, in 2014, revealed that it was unlikely he had been killed in a chariot accident. Scans found that all but one of his bone fractures, including those to his skull, had been inflicted after his death. The scans also showed that he had a partially clubbed foot and would have been unable to stand unaided, thus making it unlikely he ever rode in a chariot; this was supported by the presence of many walking sticks among the contents of his tomb. Instead, it is believed that genetic defects arising from his parents being siblings, complications from a broken leg and his suffering from malaria, together caused his death.[46][47] As at March 2018:

There has been recent theory[48] that some of the tomb images of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
leading an army to war, depict truth, and that he died in battle in Syria. There is strong suspicion[49] that in the north wall of Tutankhamun's tomb chamber is a doorway, blocked and hidden by decorated plaster, leading to another chamber, which may contain a burial of Nefertiti. There are plans to investigate by drilling a narrow hole through the supposed blockage and sending a camera through it.

Aftermath

Statue of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
at Luxor, hacked at during the damnatio memoriae campaign against the Amarna
Amarna
era pharaohs

With the death of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and the two stillborn children buried with him, the Thutmoside family line came to an end. The Amarna letters indicate that Tutankhamun's wife, recently widowed, wrote to the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, asking if she could marry one of his sons. The letters do not say how Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
died. In the message, Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
says that she was very afraid, but would not take one of her own people as husband. However, the son was killed before reaching his new wife. Shortly afterward, Ay married Tutankhamun's widow and became Pharaoh
Pharaoh
as a war was fought between the two countries, and Egypt was left defeated.[50] The fate of Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
is not known, but she disappears from record and Ay's second wife Tey
Tey
became Great Royal Wife. After Ay's death, Horemheb
Horemheb
usurped the throne and instigated a campaign of damnatio memoriae against him. Tutankhamun's father Akhenaten, stepmother Nefertiti, his wife Ankhesenamun, half sisters and other family members were also included. Not even Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was spared. His images and cartouches were also erased. Horemheb
Horemheb
himself was left childless and willed the throne to Paramessu, who founded the Ramesside family line of pharaohs. Significance Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was nine years old when he became Pharaoh, and he reigned for about ten years.[51] Historically, Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
is significant because his reign was near the apogee of Egypt as a world power and because he rejected the radical religious innovations introduced by his predecessor and father, Akhenaten.[52] Secondly, his tomb in the Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
was discovered by Carter almost completely intact—the most complete ancient Egyptian royal tomb found. As Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
began his reign so young, his vizier and eventual successor, Ay, was probably making most of the important political decisions during Tutankhamun's reign. Kings were venerated after their deaths through mortuary cults and associated temples. Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was one of the few kings worshiped in this manner during his lifetime.[53] A stela discovered at Karnak
Karnak
and dedicated to Amun-Ra and Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
indicates that the king could be appealed to in his deified state for forgiveness and to free the petitioner from an ailment caused by sin. Temples of his cult were built as far away as in Kawa and Faras
Faras
in Nubia. The title of the sister of the Viceroy of Kush
Viceroy of Kush
included a reference to the deified king, indicative of the universality of his cult.[54] Tomb Further information: KV62

Howard Carter
Howard Carter
and associates opening the shrine doors in the burial chamber (1924 reconstruction of the 1923 event)

Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
was buried in a tomb that was unusually small considering his status. His death may have occurred unexpectedly, before the completion of a grander royal tomb, so that his mummy was buried in a tomb intended for someone else. This would preserve the observance of the customary 70 days between death and burial.[55] In 1915, George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, the financial backer of the search for and the excavation of Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, employed English archaeologist Howard Carter
Howard Carter
to explore it. After a systematic search, Carter discovered the actual tomb of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
(KV62) in November 1922.[56] King Tutankhamun's mummy
Tutankhamun's mummy
still rests in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. On 4 November 2007, 85 years to the day after Carter's discovery, the 19-year-old pharaoh went on display in his underground tomb at Luxor, when the linen-wrapped mummy was removed from its golden sarcophagus to a climate-controlled glass box. The case was designed to prevent the heightened rate of decomposition caused by the humidity and warmth from tourists visiting the tomb.[57] His tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based on the items taken (including perishable oils and perfumes) and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, it seems clear that these robberies took place within several months at most of the initial burial. Eventually, the location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by stone chips from subsequent tombs, either dumped there or washed there by floods. In the years that followed, some huts for workers were built over the tomb entrance, clearly without anyone's knowing what lay beneath. When at the end of the 20th Dynasty the Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
burial sites were systematically dismantled, Tutankhamun's tomb was overlooked, presumably because knowledge of it had been lost, and his name may have been forgotten. 5,398 items were found in the tomb, including a solid gold coffin, face mask, thrones, archery bows, trumpets, a lotus chalice, food, wine, sandals, and fresh linen underwear. Howard Carter
Howard Carter
took 10 years to catalog the items.[58] Recent analysis suggests a dagger recovered from the tomb had an iron blade made from a meteorite; study of artifacts of the time including other artifacts from Tutankhamun's tomb could provide valuable insights into metalworking technologies around the Mediterranean at the time.[59][60][61][62] Reuse of Neferneferuaten's funerary objects for Tutankhamun's burial According to Nicholas Reeves, almost 80% of Tutankhamun's burial equipment originated from the female pharaoh Neferneferuaten's funerary goods including his famous gold mask, middle coffin, canopic coffinettes, several of the gilded shrine panels, the shabti-figures, the boxes and chests, the royal jewelry, etc.[63][64] In 2015, Reeves published evidence showing that an earlier cartouche on Tutankhamun's famous gold mask read "Ankheperure mery-Neferkheperure" or (Ankheperure beloved of Akhenaten); therefore, the mask was originally made for Nefertiti, Akhenaten's chief queen, who used the royal name Ankheperure when she most likely assumed the throne after her husband's death.[65] This development implies that either Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
(likely Nefertiti if she assumed the throne after Akhenaten's death) was deposed in a struggle for power, possibly deprived of a royal burial—and buried as a Queen—or that she was buried with a different set of king's funerary equipment—possibly Akhenaten's own funerary equipment by Tutankhamun's officials since Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
succeeded her as king.[66] Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
was likely succeeded by Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
based on the presence of her funerary goods in his tomb. Tutankhamun's curse For many years, rumors of a "curse of the pharaohs" (probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery[67]) persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had entered the tomb. A study showed that of the 58 people who were present when the tomb and sarcophagus were opened, only eight died within a dozen years. All the others were still alive, including Howard Carter, who died of lymphoma in 1939 at the age of 64.[68][69] The last survivors included Lady Evelyn Herbert, Lord Carnarvon's daughter who was among the first people to enter the tomb after its discovery in November 1922, who lived for a further 57 years and died in 1980,[70] and American archaeologist J.O. Kinnaman who died in 1961, 39 years after the event.[71] Legacy

Gilded bier from the base of Tutankhamun's sarcophagus

Pectoral belonging to Tutankhamun, representing his prenomen

Tutankhamun's chest now in the Cairo Museum

Further information: Exhibitions of artifacts from the tomb of Tutankhamun If Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
is the world's best known pharaoh, it is largely because his tomb is among the best preserved, and his image and associated artifacts the most-exhibited. As Jon Manchip White
Jon Manchip White
writes, in his foreword to the 1977 edition of Carter's The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun, "The pharaoh who in life was one of the least esteemed of Egypt's Pharoahs has become in death the most renowned." The discoveries in the tomb were prominent news in the 1920s. Tutankhamen came to be called by a modern neologism, "King Tut". Ancient Egyptian references became common in popular culture, including Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley
songs; the most popular of the latter was "Old King Tut" by Harry Von Tilzer
Harry Von Tilzer
from 1923, which was recorded by such prominent artists of the time as Jones & Hare and Sophie Tucker. "King Tut" became the name of products, businesses, and even the pet dog of U.S. President Herbert Hoover. Relics from Tutankhamun's tomb are among the most traveled artifacts in the world. They have been to many countries, but probably the best-known exhibition tour was The Treasures of Tutankhamun
The Treasures of Tutankhamun
tour, which ran from 1972 to 1979. This exhibition was first shown in London at the British Museum
British Museum
from 30 March until 30 September 1972. More than 1.6 million visitors saw the exhibition, some queuing for up to eight hours. It was the most popular exhibition in the Museum's history.[citation needed] The exhibition moved on to many other countries, including the USA, USSR, Japan, France, Canada, and West Germany. The Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
organized the U.S. exhibition, which ran from 17 November 1976 through 15 April 1979. More than eight million attended. In 2004, the tour of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
funerary objects entitled Tutankhamen: The Golden Hereafter, consisting of fifty artifacts from Tutankhamun's tomb and seventy funerary goods from other 18th Dynasty tombs, began in Basel, Switzerland and went on to Bonn, Germany, on the second leg of the tour. This European tour was organised by the Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA), and the Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
in cooperation with the Antikenmuseum Basel and Sammlung Ludwig. Deutsche Telekom sponsored the Bonn exhibition.[72] In 2005, Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, in partnership with Arts and Exhibitions International and the National Geographic Society, launched a tour of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
treasures and other 18th Dynasty funerary objects, this time called Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs. It featured the same exhibits as Tutankhamen: The Golden Hereafter in a slightly different format. It was expected to draw more than three million people.[73] The exhibition started in Los Angeles, then moved to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Chicago and Philadelphia. The exhibition then moved to London[74] before finally returning to Egypt in August 2008. An encore of the exhibition in the United States ran at the Dallas Museum of Art from October 2008 to May 2009.[75] The tour continued to other U.S. cities.[76] After Dallas the exhibition moved to the de Young Museum in San Francisco, followed by the Discovery Times Square Exposition
Discovery Times Square Exposition
in New York City.[77] In 2011, the exhibition visited Australia for the first time, opening at the Melbourne Museum in April for its only Australian stop before Egypt's treasures returned to Cairo in December 2011.[78] The exhibition included 80 exhibits from the reigns of Tutankhamun's immediate predecessors in the Eighteenth dynasty, such as Hatshepsut, whose trade policies greatly increased the wealth of that dynasty and enabled the lavish wealth of Tutankhamun's burial artifacts, as well as 50 from Tutankhamun's tomb. The exhibition does not include the gold mask that was a feature of the 1972–1979 tour, as the Egyptian government has decided that damage which occurred to previous artifacts on tours precludes this one from joining them.[79] A separate exhibition called Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and the World of the Pharaohs began at the Ethnological Museum in Vienna from 9 March to 28 September 2008, showing a further 140 treasures.[80] Renamed Tutankhamun: The Golden King and the Great Pharaohs, the exhibition toured the US and Canada from November 2008 to 6 January 2013.[81] Names

Partially restored alabaster jar with 2 handles. It bears the cartouches of pharaoh Tutankhamen and Queen Ankhesenamun. 18th Dynasty. From Gurob, Fayum, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Horus name

𓅃𓃒𓂡𓏏𓅱𓏏𓄟𓋴𓏏𓅱𓏪𓊁 Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth

Nebti name

𓅒𓄤𓉔𓊪𓅱𓇩𓏪𓋴𓎼𓂋𓎛𓂝𓇿𓇿𓈅𓈅𓅨𓉥𓉐𓏤𓇋𓏠𓈖𓎟𓂋𓇥𓂋𓀯 Neferhepusegerehtawy Werahamun Nebrdjer One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands; Great of the palace of Amun; Lord of all[82]

Golden Horus name

𓅉𓍞𓈍𓏥𓊃𓊵𓏏𓊪𓊹𓊹𓊹𓋾𓈎𓏛𓁦𓋴𓊵𓏏𓊪𓊹𓊹𓊹𓅱𓍿𓊃𓍞𓈍𓏥𓇋𓏏𓆑𓀯𓆑𓁛𓍞𓈍𓏥𓋭𓊃𓇾𓇾𓅓 Wetjeskhausehetepnetjeru Heqamaatsehetepnetjeru Wetjeskhauitefre Wetjeskhautjestawyim Who wears crowns and pleases the gods; Ruler of Truth, who pleases the gods; Who wears the crowns of his father, Re; Who wears crowns, and binds the two lands therein

Prenomen

𓇓𓆤 𓍹𓇳𓆣𓏥𓎟𓍺 Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re

Son of Re

 

𓅭𓇳 𓍹𓇋𓏠𓈖𓏏𓅱𓏏𓋹𓋾𓉺𓇗𓍺 Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis

At the reintroduction of traditional religious practice, his name changed. It is transliterated as twt-ꜥnḫ-ỉmn ḥqꜣ-ỉwnw-šmꜥ, and according to modern Egyptological convention is written Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
Hekaiunushema, meaning "Living image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis". On his ascension to the throne, Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
took a praenomen. This is transliterated as nb-ḫprw-rꜥ, and, again, according to modern Egyptological convention is written Nebkheperure, meaning "Lord of the forms of Re". The name Nibhurrereya (𒉌𒅁𒄷𒊑𒊑𒅀) in the Amarna
Amarna
letters may be closer to how his praenomen was actually pronounced. Ancestry

 

 

 

Amenhotep II

 

Tiaa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thutmose IV

 

Mutemwiya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yuya

 

Tjuyu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amenhotep III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tiye

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KV55, possibly Akhenaten

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Younger Lady

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tutankhamun

See also

Tutankhamun's mummy Tutankhamun's mask Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger blade Tutankhamun's trumpets Tutankhamun's Anubis Shrine

Notelist

^ Reconstructed pronunciation in Early Late Egyptian: *IPA: [taˈwaːt ˈʕaːnxu ʔaˈmaːn]; see Egyptological pronunciation for more.

References

^ Clayton, Peter A. (2006). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 128. ISBN 0-500-28628-0.  ^ Frail boy-king Tut died from malaria, broken leg by Paul Schemm, Associated Press. 16 February 2010. Archived 27 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
or Tutankhamen". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ Pronouncedˌ/ˌtuːtənˈkɑːmɛn/. (" Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
or Tutankhamen". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014. ) ^ Zauzich, Karl-Theodor (1992). Hieroglyphs Without Mystery. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-292-79804-5.  ^ "Manetho's King List".  ^ "The Egyptian Exhibition at Highclere Castle". Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  ^ Hawass, Zahi A. The golden age of Tutankhamun: divine might and splendor in the New Kingdom. American Univ in Cairo Press, 2004. ^ a b c d Hawass, Zahi; et al. (17 February 2010). "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 303 (7): 638–647. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.121. PMID 20159872. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  ^ "Digging up trouble: beware the curse of King Tutankhamun". The Guardian.  ^ Hawass, Zahi; et al. (17 February 2010). "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 303 (7): 640–641. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  ^ Powell, Alvin (12 February 2013). "A different take on Tut". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 12 February 2013.  ^ Jacobus van Dijk. "The Death of Meketaten" (PDF). p. 7. Retrieved 2 October 2008.  ^ "Classroom TUTorials: The Many Names of King Tutankhamun" (pdf). Michael C. Carlos Museum. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ "Egypt Update: Rare Tomb May Have Been Destroyed". Science Mag. Retrieved 1 November 2013.  ^ Hawass, Zahi and Saleem, Sahar N. "Mummified daughters of King Tutankhamun: Archaeological and CT studies." The American Journal of Roentgenology 2011. Vol 197, No. 5, pp. W829–836. ^ Booth pp. 86–87 ^ Erik Hornung, Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and the Religion of Light, Translated by David Lorton, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8014-8725-0. ^ Hart, George (1990). Egyptian Myths. University of Texas Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-292-72076-9.  ^ Booth pp. 129–130 ^ "Radiologists Attempt To Solve Mystery Of Tut's Demise" from ScienceDaily.com ^ Handwerk, Brian (8 March 2005). "King Tut Not Murdered Violently, CT Scans Show". National Geographic News. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  ^ The Medical Dictionary: CSI Egypt: who killed King Tut? Detectives use modern science to solve a 3,300-year-old murder mystery - Special Report, 2003 ^ a b "King Tut Was Disabled, Malarial, and Inbred, DNA Shows". nationalgeographic.com.  ^ Nature 472, 404-406 (2011); Published online 27 April 2011; Original link ^ NewScientist.com; January 2011; Royal Rumpus over King Tutankhamun's Ancestry ^ "King Tut's Family Secrets". National Geographic. September 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "King Tut's Family Secrets". National Geographic. September 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "DNA experts disagree over Tutankhamun's ancestry". Archaeology News Network. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.  ^ "King Tut's Family Secrets". National Geographic. September 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Was King Tut Buried in a Hurry?". History.com.  ^ "Who was King Tutankhamun?". news18.com. 2012-05-09. Retrieved 2017-03-23.  ^ Hawass, Zahi. "Tutankhamon, segreti di famiglia". National Geographic. Retrieved 2 June 2013.  ^ Roberts, Michelle (16 February 2010). "'Malaria' killed King Tutankhamun". BBC News. Retrieved 12 March 2010.  ^ Pays, JF (December 2010). " Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and sickle-cell anaemia". Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 103 (5, number 5): 346–347. doi:10.1007/s13149-010-0095-3. PMID 20972847. Retrieved 21 October 2013. (Abstract) ^ "King Tut's Family Secrets". National Geographic. September 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  ^ Bates, Claire (20 February 2010). "Unmasked: The real faces of the crippled King Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
(who walked with a cane) and his incestuous parents". Daily Mail. London.  ^ "King Tut's Family Secrets". National Geographic. September 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ Markel, H. (17 February 2010). "King Tutankhamun, modern medical science, and the expanding boundaries of historical inquiry". JAMA. 303 (7): 667–668. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.153. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  (subscription required) ^ Rosenbaum, Matthew (14 September 2012). "Mystery of King Tut's death solved?". ABC News. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  ^ "EURAC research – Research – Institutes – Institute for Mummies and the Iceman". Eurac.edu. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "King Tut's Family Secrets". National Geographic. September 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ Hussein, Kais; Matin, Ekatrina; Nerlich, Andreas G. (2013). "Paleopathology of the juvenile Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Tutankhamun—90th anniversary of discovery". Virchows Archiv. 463 (3): 475–479. doi:10.1007/s00428-013-1441-1.  ^ Owen, Jonathan (3 November 2013). "Solved: The mystery of King Tutankhamun's death". The Independent. Retrieved 3 November 2013.  ^ Joseph, Claudia; Webb, Sam (2 November 2013). "Mummy-fried! Tutankhamun's body spontaneously combusted inside his coffin following botched embalming job after he died in speeding chariot accident". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 3 November 2013.  ^ Buchanan, Rose Troup (20 October 2014). "King Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
did not die in chariot crash, virtual autopsy reveals". The Independent. Retrieved 13 June 2017.  ^ " Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
died of illness, not from chariot racing". Russia Today. 25 October 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2017.  ^ Channel 5 (UK)
Channel 5 (UK)
(television channel), Saturday 24 March 2018, 9 to 9.55 pm: King Tut's Treasure Secrets, part 1 of 3 ^ Channel 5 (UK)
Channel 5 (UK)
(television channel), Saturday 24 March 2018, 9.55 to 10.50 pm: King Tut's Tomb: The Hidden Chamber, part 5 of 6 ^ Interview with G.A. Gaballa, of Cairo University. "The Hittites: A Civilization that Changed the World" by Cinema Epoch 2004. Directed by Tolga Ornek. Documentary. ^ Redford, Donald B., PhD; McCauley, Marissa. "How were the Egyptian pyramids built?". Research. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 11 December 2012.  ^ Aude Gros de Beler, Tutankhamun, foreword Aly Maher Sayed, Molière, ISBN 2-84790-210-4 ^ Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, Editor Donald B. Redford, p. 85, Berkley, ISBN 0-425-19096-X ^ The Boy Behind the Mask, Charlotte Booth, p. 120, Oneworld, 2007, ISBN 978-1-85168-544-8 ^ "The Golden Age of Tutankhamun: Divine Might and Splendour in the New Kingdom", Zahi Hawass, p. 61, American University in Cairo Press, 2004, ISBN 977-424-836-8 ^ Reeves and Wilkinson (1996) p.81 ^ Michael McCarthy (5 October 2007). "3,000 years old: the face of Tutankhaten". The Independent. London.  ^ Williams, A. R.; 24, National Geographic PUBLISHED November. "King Tut: The Teen Whose Death Rocked Egypt". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2015-11-26.  ^ Dagger in Tutankhamun's tomb was made with iron from a meteorite The Guardian ^ King Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
buried with dagger made of space iron, study finds, ABC News
ABC News
Online, 2 June 2016 ^ Comelli, Daniela; d'Orazio, Massimo; Folco, Luigi, et. al (2016). "The meteoritic origin of Tutankhamun's iron dagger blade". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. Wiley Online. Bibcode:2016M&PS..tmp..331C. doi:10.1111/maps.12664. "Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in a printed issue)". ^ Walsh, Declan (2 June 2016). "King Tut's Dagger Made of 'Iron From the Sky,' Researchers Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 June 2016.  ^ Nicholas Reeves Tutankhamun's Mask Reconsidered BES 19 (2014), pp.511-522 ^ Peter Hessler, Inspection of King Tut's Tomb Reveals Hints of Hidden Chambers National Geographic, September 28, 2015 ^ Nicholas Reeves, The Gold Mask of Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol.7 No.4, (December 2015) pp.77-79 & click download this PDF file ^ Nicholas Reeves,Tutankhamun's Mask Reconsidered BES 19 (2014), pp.523-524 ^ Hankey, Julie (2007). A Passion for Egypt: Arthur Weigall, Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and the 'Curse of the Pharaohs'. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-1-84511-435-0.  ^ David Vernon in Skeptical – a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal, ed. Donald Laycock, David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, ISBN 0-7316-5794-2, p. 25. ^ Egypt: The Mummy Curse of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
- Tour Egypt ^ Bill Price. Tutankhamun, Egypt's Most Famous Pharaoh. p. 138. Published Pocket Essentials, Hertfordshire. 2007. ISBN 9781842432402.  ^ "Death Claims Noted Biblical Archaeologist", Lodi News-Sentinel, 8 September 1961, Retrieved 9 May 2014 [1] ^ "Under Tut's spell". Al-Ahram Weekly. 16 July 2004. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.  ^ "King Tut exhibition. Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
& the Golden Age of the Pharaohs. Treasures from the Valley of the Kings". Arts and Exhibitions International. Archived from the original on 2 December 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2006.  ^ Return of the King (Times Online) Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Dallas Museum of Art
Dallas Museum of Art
Website". Dallasmuseumofart.org. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.  ^ Associated Press, "Tut Exhibit to Return to US Next Year" Archived 26 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs
Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs
King Tut Returns to San Francisco, June 27, 2009 – March 28, 2010". Famsf.org. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.  ^ Melbourne Museum's Tutenkhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaoh's Official Site Archived 1 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Jenny Booth (6 January 2005). " CT scan
CT scan
may solve Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
death riddle". The Times. London.  ^ Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna Archived 21 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Farewell To Tut And Egypt's Treasures". Pacificsciencecenter.org. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014.  ^ "Digital Egypt for Universities: Tutankhamun". University College London. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 5 August 2006. 

Library resources about Tutankhamun

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading

Andritsos, John. Social Studies of Ancient Egypt: Tutankhamun. Australia 2006. Booth, Charlotte. The Boy Behind the Mask, Oneworld, ISBN 978-1-85168-544-8. Brier, Bob. The Murder of Tutankhamun: A True Story. Putnam Adult, 13 April 1998, ISBN 0-425-16689-9 (paperback)/ISBN 0-399-14383-1 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-613-28967-6 (School & Library Binding). Carter, Howard and Arthur C. Mace, The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Courier Dover Publications, 1 June 1977, ISBN 0-486-23500-9 The semi-popular account of the discovery and opening of the tomb written by the archaeologist responsible. Desroches-Noblecourt, Christiane. Sarwat Okasha (Preface), Tutankhamun: Life and Death of a Pharaoh. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1963, ISBN 0-8212-0151-4 (1976 reprint, hardcover) /ISBN 0-14-011665-6 (1990 reprint, paperback). Edwards, I.E.S., Treasures of Tutankhamun. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1976, ISBN 0-345-27349-4 (paperback)/ISBN 0-670-72723-7 (hardcover). Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, The Mummy of Tutankhamun: The CT Scan Report, as printed in Ancient Egypt, June/July 2005. Haag, Michael. The Rough Guide to Tutankhamun: The King: The Treasure: The Dynasty. London 2005. ISBN 1-84353-554-8. Hoving, Thomas. The Search for Tutankhamun: The Untold Story of Adventure and Intrigue Surrounding the Greatest Modern archeological find. New York: Simon & Schuster, 15 October 1978, ISBN 0-671-24305-5 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-8154-1186-3 (paperback) This book details a number of anecdotes about the discovery and excavation of the tomb. James, T. G. H. Tutankhamun. New York: Friedman/Fairfax, 1 September 2000, ISBN 1-58663-032-6 (hardcover) A large-format volume by the former Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, filled with colour illustrations of the funerary furnishings of Tutankhamun, and related objects. Neubert, Otto. Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and the Valley of the Kings. London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1972, ISBN 0-583-12141-1 (paperback) First hand account of the discovery of the Tomb. Reeves, C. Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London: Thames & Hudson, 1 November 1990, ISBN 0-500-05058-9 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-500-27810-5 (paperback) Fully covers the complete contents of his tomb. Rossi, Renzo. Tutankhamun. Cincinnati (Ohio) 2007 ISBN 978-0-7153-2763-0, a work all illustrated and coloured.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tutankhamun.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Treasure of Tutankhamun.

Grim secrets of Pharaoh's city—BBC News Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and the Age of the Golden Pharaohs website British Museum
British Museum
Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
highlight "Swiss geneticists examine Tutankhamun's genetic profile" by Reuters Ultimate Tut Documentary produced by the PBS
PBS
Series Secrets of the Dead

v t e

Tutankhamun

Family

Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(father) "The Younger Lady" (mother) Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
(wife) Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
(grandfather)

Discovery

Howard Carter George Herbert KV62
KV62
(Tutankhamun's tomb) Tutankhamun's mask Mummy Lotus chalice Trumpets Meteoric iron dagger blade Anubis Shrine

Other

Curse of the pharaohs Exhibitions

Popular culture

Steve Martin song Of Time, Tombs and Treasures
Of Time, Tombs and Treasures
(1977 documentary) The Curse of King Tut's Tomb (1980 film) Mysteries of Egypt
Mysteries of Egypt
(1998 film) Tutenstein
Tutenstein
(2003 series) The Curse of King Tut's Tomb (2006 film) Tut (2015 miniseries) Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
(2016 miniseries)

v t e

Amarna
Amarna
Period

Pharaohs

Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten Tutankhamun Ay

Royal family

Tiye Nefertiti Kiya "The Younger Lady" Tey

Children

Meritaten Meketaten Ankhesenamun Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tasherit Neferneferure Setepenre Meritaten
Meritaten
Tasherit Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit

Nobles Officials

Mutbenret Aperel Bek Huya Meryre II Nakhtpaaten Panehesy Parennefer Penthu Thutmose

Locations

Akhetaten Karnak KV55 KV62 Amarna
Amarna
Tombs

Other

Amarna
Amarna
letters Amarna
Amarna
succession Aten Atenism Dakhamunzu Amarna
Amarna
Art Style

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom
New Kingdom
and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148503630 LCCN: n79066005 ISNI: 0000 0000 9993 1817 GND: 118624792 SUDOC: 028202171 BNF:

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