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The Turkic languages
Turkic languages
are a language family of at least thirty-five[2] documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of Eurasia
Eurasia
from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia
West Asia
all the way to North Asia
North Asia
(particularly in Siberia) and East Asia
East Asia
(including the Far East). The Turkic languages
Turkic languages
originated in a region of East Asia spanning Western China to Mongolia, where Proto-Turkic is thought to have been spoken, according to one estimate, around 2,500 years ago,[3] from where they expanded to Central Asia
Central Asia
and farther west during the first millennium.[4] Turkic languages
Turkic languages
are spoken as a native language by some 170 million people, and the total number of Turkic speakers, including second language speakers, is over 200 million.[5][6][7] The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish, spoken mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Balkans, the native speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers.[4] Characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family.[4] There is also a high degree of mutual intelligibility among the various Oghuz languages, which include Turkish, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, and Oghuz-influenced Crimean Tatar.[8] Although methods of classification vary, the Turkic languages
Turkic languages
are usually considered to be divided equally into two branches: Oghur, the only surviving member of which is Chuvash, and Common Turkic, which includes all other Turkic languages including the Oghuz subbranch. The characteristics of the Turkic family also show some similarities to the surrounding East Asian language families of the Mongolic, Tungusic, Koreanic, and Japonic languages, leading to the obsolete Altaic language family. Apparent similarities with the Uralic languages family even caused these families to be regarded as one for a long time under the hypothesis of Ural-Altaic languages.[9][10][11] However, there has not been sufficient evidence to conclude the existence of either of these macrofamilies, the shared characteristics between the languages being attributed presently to extensive prehistoric language contact.

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History

2.1 Pre-history 2.2 Early written records 2.3 Geographical expansion and development

3 Classification

3.1 Schema 3.2 Members

4 Vocabulary comparison 5 Endangered Turkic languages

5.1 Russia 5.2 China 5.3 Iran 5.4 Afghanistan 5.5 Iraq

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Characteristics[edit] See also: Altaic languages Turkic languages
Turkic languages
are null-subject languages, have vowel harmony, extensive agglutination by means of suffixes and postpositions, and lack of grammatical articles, noun classes, and grammatical gender. Subject–object–verb word order is universal within the family. The root of a word is basically of one, two or three consonants. History[edit] See also: Proto-Turkic language, Turkic peoples, and Turkic migration The geographical distribution of Turkic-speaking peoples across Eurasia
Eurasia
ranges from the North-East of Siberia
Siberia
to Turkey
Turkey
in the West, since the Ottoman era (see picture in the box on the right above).[12] Pre-history[edit] Extensive contact took place between Proto-Turks and Proto-Mongols approximately during the first millennium BC; the shared cultural tradition between the two Eurasian nomadic groups is called the "Turco-Mongol" tradition. The two groups shared a religion, Tengrism, and there exists a multitude of evident loanwords between Turkic languages and Mongolic languages. Although the loans were bidirectional, today Turkic loanwords constitute the largest foreign component in Mongolian vocabulary.[13] The most famous of these loanwords include "lion" (Turkish: aslan or arslan; Mongolian: arslan), "gold" (Turkish: altın; Mongolian: altan or alt), and "iron" (Turkish: demir; Mongolian: tömör). Some lexical and extensive typological similarities between Turkic and the nearby Tungusic and Mongolic families, as well as the Korean and Japonic families (all formerly widely considered to be part of the so-called Altaic language family) has in more recent years been instead attributed to prehistoric contact amongst the group, sometimes referred to as the Northeast Asian sprachbund. A more recent (circa first millennium BCE) contact between "core Altaic" (Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic) is distinguished from this, due to the existence of definitive common words that appear to have been mostly borrowed from Turkic into Mongolic, and later from Mongolic into Tungusic, as Turkic borrowings into Mongolic significantly outnumber Mongolic borrowings into Turkic, and Turkic and Tungusic do not share any words that do not also exist in Mongolic. Alexander Vovin (2004, 2010)[14][15] notes that Old Turkic had borrowed significantly from the Ruan-ruan language (the language of the Rouran Khaganate), which Vovin considers to be an extinct non-Altaic language that is not related to any modern-day language. Early written records[edit] The first established records of the Turkic languages
Turkic languages
are the eighth century AD Orkhon inscriptions
Orkhon inscriptions
by the Göktürks, recording the Old Turkic language, which were discovered in 1889 in the Orkhon Valley
Orkhon Valley
in Mongolia. The Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Divânü Lügati't-Türk), written during the 11th century AD by Kaşgarlı Mahmud of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, constitutes an early linguistic treatment of the family. The Compendium is the first comprehensive dictionary of the Turkic languages
Turkic languages
and also includes the first known map of the Turkic speakers' geographical distribution. It mainly pertains to the Southwestern branch of the family.[16] The Codex Cumanicus
Codex Cumanicus
(12th–13th centuries AD) concerning the Northwestern branch is another early linguistic manual, between the Kipchak language and Latin, used by the Catholic missionaries sent to the Western Cumans
Cumans
inhabiting a region corresponding to present-day Hungary
Hungary
and Romania. The earliest records of the language spoken by Volga Bulgars, the parent to today's Chuvash language, are dated to the 13th–14th centuries AD. Geographical expansion and development[edit] With the Turkic expansion
Turkic expansion
during the Early Middle Ages (c. 6th–11th centuries AD), Turkic languages, in the course of just a few centuries, spread across Central Asia, from Siberia
Siberia
to the Mediterranean. Various terminologies from the Turkic languages
Turkic languages
have passed into Persian, Hindustani, Russian, Chinese, and to a lesser extent, Arabic.[17]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008)

Classification[edit]

Relative numbers of speakers of Turkic languages

For centuries, the Turkic-speaking peoples have migrated extensively and intermingled continuously, and their languages have been influenced mutually and through contact with the surrounding languages, especially the Iranian, Slavic, and Mongolic languages.[18] This has obscured the historical developments within each language and/or language group, and as a result, there exist several systems to classify the Turkic languages. The modern genetic classification schemes for Turkic are still largely indebted to Samoilovich (1922).[citation needed] The Turkic languages
Turkic languages
may be divided into six branches:[19]

Common Turkic

Southwestern (Oghuz Turkic) Northwestern (Kipchak Turkic) Southeastern (Karluk Turkic) Northeastern (Siberian Turkic) Arghu Turkic

Oghur Turkic

In this classification, Oghur Turkic is also referred to as Lir-Turkic, and the other branches are subsumed under the title of Shaz-Turkic or Common Turkic. It is not clear when these two major types of Turkic can be assumed to have actually diverged.[20] With less certainty, the Southwestern, Northwestern, Southeastern and Oghur groups may further be summarized as West Turkic, the Northeastern, Kyrgyz-Kipchak and Arghu (Khalaj) groups as East Turkic.[21] Geographically and linguistically, the languages of the Northwestern and Southeastern subgroups belong to the central Turkic languages, while the Northeastern and Khalaj languages are the so-called peripheral languages. Schema[edit] The following isoglosses are traditionally used in the classification of the Turkic languages:[19]

Rhotacism (or in some views, zetacism), e.g. in the last consonant of the word for "nine" *tokkuz. This separates the Oghur branch, which exhibits /r/, from the rest of Turkic, which exhibits /z/. In this case, rhotacism refers to the development of *-/r/, *-/z/, and *-/d/ to /r/,*-/k/,*-/kh/ in this branch.[22] See Antonov and Jacques (2012) [23] on the debate concerning rhotacism and lambdacism in Turkic. Intervocalic *d, e.g. the second consonant in the word for "foot" *hadaq Word-final -G, e.g. in the word for "mountain" *tāg Suffix-final -G, e.g. in the suffix *lIG, in e.g. *tāglïg

Additional isoglosses include:

Preservation of word initial *h, e.g. in the word for "foot" *hadaq. This separates Khalaj as a peripheral language. Denasalisation of palatal *ń, e.g. in the word for "moon", *āń

isogloss Old Turkic Turkish Azerbaijani Qashqai Uzbek Uyghur Tatar Kazakh Kyrgyz Altay Western Yugur Fu-yü Gyrgys Khakas Tuvan Sakha/Yakut Khalaj Chuvash

z/r (nine) toquz dokuz doqquz doqquz toʻqqiz toqquz tuɣïz toɣïz toɣuz toɣus dohghus doɣus toɣïs tos toɣus toqquz tăχăr

*h- (foot) adaq ayak ayaq ayaq oyoq ayaq ayaq ayaq ayaq ayaq azaq azïχ azaχ adaq ataχ hadaq ura

*VdV (foot) adaq ayak ayaq ayaq oyoq ayaq ayaq ayaq ayaq ayaq azaq azïχ azaχ adaq ataχ hadaq ura

*-ɣ (mountain) tāɣ dağ* dağ daɣ togʻ tagh taw taw tō tū taɣ daχ taɣ daɣ tıa tāɣ tu

suffix *-lïɣ (mountainous) tāɣlïɣ dağlı dağlı daɣlïɣ togʻlik taghliq tawlï tawlï tōlū tūlu taɣliɣ daɣluɣ

*In the standard Istanbul dialect of Turkish, the ğ in dağ and dağlı is not realized as a consonant, but as a slight lengthening of the preceding vowel. Members[edit] The following table is based upon the classification scheme presented by Lars Johanson (1998)[24]

Proto-Turkic Common Turkic Southwestern Common Turkic (Oghuz)

 

Pecheneg (extinct)

West Oghuz

Old Anatolian Turkish (extinct) Ottoman Turkish (extinct) Turkish Iraqi Turkmen Gagauz Azerbaijani Balkan Gagauz Turkish

East Oghuz

Turkmen Khorasani Turkic

South Oghuz

Afshar Dialects of Iran
Iran
such as Qashqai, Sonqori, Aynallu, etc.

(Arghu)  

Khalaj[25]

Northwestern Common Turkic (Kipchak)

 

Kipchak (extinct)

West Kipchak

Kumyk Karachay-Balkar Crimean Tatar, Urum[26] Krymchak Cuman (extinct) Karaim

North Kipchak (Volga–Ural Turkic)

Kazan Tatar Mishar Tatar West Siberian Tatar[27] Bashkir

South Kipchak (Aralo-Caspian)

Kazakh Karakalpak Kyrgyz[28] Kipchak Uzbek (Fergana Kipchak language) (extinct) Nogay

Southeastern Common Turkic (Karluk)

West

Uzbek

East

Uyghur Taranchi Salar[29] Chagatai (extinct) Aini[30] Ili Turki

Northeastern Common Turkic (Siberian) North Siberian

Sakha (Yakut) Dolgan

South Siberian Sayan Turkic

Tuvan (Soyot, Uriankhai) Tofa

Yenisei Turkic

Khakas Fuyü Gïrgïs Shor (Saghay Qaca, Qizil) Western Yugur
Yugur
(Yellow Uyghur)[28][31][32][33][34]

Chulym Turkic

Chulym (Küerik)

Altai Turkic[28]

Altay Oirot and dialects such as Tuba, Qumanda, Qu, Teleut, Telengit

Oghur    

Chuvash Khazar (?) (extinct) Bulgar (extinct)

(extinct)

Vocabulary comparison[edit]

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The following is a brief comparison of cognates among the basic vocabulary across the Turkic language family (about 60 words). Empty cells do not necessarily imply that a particular language is lacking a word to describe the concept, but rather that the word for the concept in that language may be formed from another stem and is not a cognate with the other words in the row or that a loanword is used in its place. Also, there may be shifts in the meaning from one language to another, and so the "Common meaning" given is only approximate. In some cases the form given is found only in some dialects of the language, or a loanword is much more common (e.g. in Turkish, the preferred word for "fire" is the Persian-derived ateş, whereas the native od is dead). Forms are given in native Latin
Latin
orthographies unless otherwise noted.

Common meaning Proto-Turkic Old Turkic Turkish Azerbaijani Qashqai Turkmen Tatar Bashkir Kazakh Kyrgyz Uzbek Uyghur Sakha/Yakut Chuvash

- father, ancestor *ata, *kaŋ ata, apa, qaŋ baba, ata baba, ata bowa/ata ata ata, atay ata, atay ata ata ota ata ata atte, aśu, aşşe

mother *ana, *ög ana, ög ana, anne ana ana/nänä ene ana, äni ana, inä(y)/asay ana ene ona ana iye anne, annü, amăşĕ

son *ogul oɣul oğul oğul oğul ogul ul ul ul uul oʻgʻil oghul uol ıvăl, ul

man *ēr, *érkek er erkek ər/erkək kiši erkek ir ir, irkäk er, erkek erkek erkak er er ar/arşın

girl *kï̄ŕ qïz kız qız qïz/qez gyz qız qıð qız kız qiz qiz kııs hĕr

person *kiĺi, *yạlaŋuk kiši, yalaŋuq kişi kişi

kişi keşe keşe kisi kişi kishi kishi kihi şın

bride *gélin kelin gelin gəlin gälin gelin kilen kilen kelin kelin kelin kelin kılın kin

mother-in-law

kaynana qaynana qäynänä gaýyn ene qayın ana qäynä qayın ene kaynene qaynona qeyinana

huńama

Body parts heart *yürek yürek yürek ürək iräg/üräg ýürek yöräk yöräk jürek jürök yurak yürek sürex çĕre

blood *kiān qan kan qan qan gan qan qan qan kan qon qan xaan yun

head *baĺč baš baş baş baš baş baş baş bas baş bosh bash bas puś/poś

hair *s(i)ač, *kïl sač, qïl saç, kıl saç, qıl tik/qel saç, gyl çäç, qıl säs, qıl şaş, qıl çaç, kıl soch, qil sach, qil as, kıl śüś, hul

eye *göŕ köz göz göz gez/göz köz küz küð köz köz koʻz köz xarax, kös kuś/koś

eyelash *kirpik kirpik kirpik kirpik kirpig kirpik kerfek kerpek kirpik kirpik kiprik kirpik kirbii hărpăk

ear *kulkak qulqaq kulak qulaq qulaq gulak qolaq qolaq qulaq kulak quloq qulaq kulgaax hălha

nose *burun burun burun burun burn burun borın moron murın murun burun burun murun

arm *kol qol kol qol qol gol qul qul qol kol qoʻl qol хol hul

hand *el-ig elig el əl äl el

alaqan alakan

ilik ilii ală

finger *erŋek, *biarŋak erŋek parmak barmaq burmaq barmaq barmaq barmaq barmaq barmak barmoq barmaq

pürne/porńa

fingernail *dïrŋak tïrŋaq tırnak dırnaq dïrnaq dyrnak tırnaq tırnaq tırnaq tırmak tirnoq tirnaq tınırax çĕrne

knee *dīŕ, *dǖŕ tiz diz diz diz dyz tez teð tize tize tizza tiz tühex çĕrśi, çerkuśśi

calf *baltïr baltïr baldır baldır ballïr baldyr baltır baltır baltır baltyr boldir baldir ballır pıl

foot *(h)adak adaq ayak ayaq ayaq aýak ayaq ayaq ayaq ayak oyoq ayaq ataq ura

belly *kạrïn qarïn karın qarın qarn garyn qarın qarın qarın karın qorin qerin xarın hırăm

Animals horse *(h)at at at at at at at at at at ot at at ut/ot

cattle *dabar ingek, tabar inek, davar, sığır inək, sığır seğer sygyr sıyır hıyır sïır sıyır sigir siyir ınax ĕne

dog *ït, *köpek ït it, köpek it kepäg it et et ït it it it ıt yıtă

fish *bālïk balïq balık balıq balïq balyk balıq balıq balıq balık baliq beliq balık pulă

louse *bït bit bit bit bit bit bet bet bït bit bit bit bıt pıytă/puťă

Other nouns house *eb, *bark eb, barq ev, bark ev äv öý öy öy üy, yort üy uy öy

śurt

tent *otag, *gerekü otaɣ, kerekü çadır, otağ çadır; otaq čador çadyr; otag çatır satır şatır; otaw çatır chodir; oʻtoq chadir; otaq otuu çatăr

way *yōl yol yol yol yol ýol yul yul jol jol yoʻl yol suol śul

bridge *köprüg köprüg köprü körpü

köpri küper küper köpir köpürö koʻprik kövrük kürpe kĕper

arrow *ok oq ok ox ox/tir ok uq uq oq ok oʻq oq ox uhă

fire *ōt ōt od, ateş (Pers.) od ot ot ut ut ot ot oʻt ot uot vut/vot

ash *kül kül kül kül kil/kül kül köl köl kül kül kul kül kül kĕl

water *sub, *sïb sub su su su suw su hıw su suu suv su uu şıv/şu

ship, boat *gḗmi kemi gemi gəmi

gämi köymä kämä keme keme kema keme

kimĕ

lake *kȫl köl göl göl göl/gel köl kül kül köl köl koʻl köl küöl külĕ

sun/day *gün, *güneĺ kün güneş, gün günəş, gün gin/gün gün qoyaş, kön qoyaş, kön kün kün quyosh, kun quyash, kün kün hĕvel, kun

cloud *bulït bulut bulut bulud bulut bulut bolıt bolot bult bulut bulut bulut bılıt pĕlĕt

star *yultuŕ yultuz yıldız ulduz ulluz ýyldyz yoldız yondoð juldız jıldız yulduz yultuz sulus śăltăr

ground, earth *toprak topraq toprak torpaq torpaq toprak tufraq tupraq topıraq topurak tuproq tupraq toburax tăpra

hilltop *tepö, *töpö töpü tepe təpə

depe tübä tübä töbe töbö tepa töpe töbö tüpĕ

tree/wood *ïgač ïɣač ağaç ağac ağaĵ agaç ağaç ağas ağaş jygaç yogʻoch yahach

yıvăś

god (Tengri) *teŋri, *taŋrï teŋri, burqan tanrı tanrı tarï/Allah/Xoda taňry täñre täñre täñiri teñir tangri tengri tanara tură/toră

sky *teŋri, *kȫk kök, teŋri gök göy gey/göy gök kük kük kök kök koʻk kök küöx kăvak/koak

Adjectives long *uŕïn uzun uzun uzun uzun uzyn ozın oðon uzın uzun uzun uzun uhun vărăm

new *yaŋï, *yeŋi yaŋï yeni yeni yeŋi ýaňy yaña yañı jaña jañı yangi yengi sana śĕnĕ

fat *semiŕ semiz semiz, şişman kök

semiz simez himeð semiz semiz semiz semiz emis samăr

full *dōlï tolu dolu dolu dolu doly tulı tulı tolı tolo toʻla toluq toloru tulli

white *āk, *ürüŋ āq, ürüŋ ak, beyaz (Ar.) ağ aq ak aq aq aq ak oq aq

black *kara qara kara, siyah (Pers.) qara qärä gara qara qara qara kara qora qara xara xura, xora

red *kïŕïl qïzïl kızıl, kırmızı (Ar.) qızıl qïzïl gyzyl qızıl qıðıl qızıl kızıl qizil qizil kıhıl hĕrlĕ

Numbers 1 *bīr bir bir bir bir bir ber ber bir bir bir bir biir pĕrre

2 *éki eki iki iki ikki iki ike ike eki eki ikki ikki ikki ikkĕ

4 *dȫrt tört dört dörd derd/dörd dört dürt dürt tört tört toʻrt tört tüört tăvattă

7 *yéti yeti yedi yeddi yeddi ýedi cide yete jeti jeti yetti yetti sette śiççe

10 *ōn on on on on on un un on on oʻn on uon vunnă, vună, vun

100 *yǖŕ yüz yüz yüz iz/yüz ýüz yöz yöð jüz jüz yuz yüz süüs śĕr

Proto-Turkic Old Turkic Turkish Azerbaijani Qashqai Turkmen Tatar Bashkir Kazakh Kyrgyz Uzbek Uyghur Sakha/Yakut Chuvash

Endangered Turkic languages[edit]

Main Article : Endangered language Main Article : Lists of endangered languages

An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language. Language
Language
loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers and becomes a "dead language". Russia[edit]

Main Article : List of endangered languages in Russia and Languages of Russia

15 Turkic languages
Turkic languages
exist in endangered languages in Russia:

Altai language / Northern Altay language - Severely endangered - speakers 55,720 Baraba Tatar language
Tatar language
- Severely endangered - speakers 8,000 Bashkir language
Bashkir language
- Vulnerable - speakers 1,200,000 Chulym language - Critically endangered - speakers 44 Chuvash language
Chuvash language
- Vulnerable - speakers 1,042,989 Dolgan language
Dolgan language
- Definitely endangered - speakers 1,100 Karachay-Balkar language
Karachay-Balkar language
- Vulnerable - speakers 310,000 Khakas language - Definitely endangered - speakers 43,000 Kumyk language
Kumyk language
- Vulnerable - speakers 450,000 Nogai language
Nogai language
/ Yurt Tatar language
Tatar language
- Definitely endangered - speakers 87,000 Shor language - Severely endangered - speakers 2,800 Siberian Tatar language
Tatar language
- Definitely endangered - speakers 100,000 Tofa language
Tofa language
- Critically endangered - speakers 93 Tuvan language
Tuvan language
- Vulnerable - speakers 280,000 Yakut language
Yakut language
- Vulnerable - speakers 450,000

[35] [36] [37] [38] China[edit]

Main Article : Salar language

In Qinghai (Amdo), the Salar language has a heavy Chinese and Tibetan influence.[39] Although of Turkic origin, major linguistic structures have been absorbed from Chinese. Around 20% of the vocabulary is of Chinese origin, and 10% is also of Tibetan origin. Yet the official Communist Chinese government policy deliberately covers up these influences in academic and linguistics studies, trying to emphasize the Turkic element and completely ignoring the Chinese in the Salar language.[40] The Salar language has taken loans and influence from neighboring varieties of Chinese.[41] It is neighboring variants of Chinese which have loaned words to the Salar language.[41] In Qinghai, many Salar men speak both the Qinghai dialect of Chinese and Salar. Rural Salars can speak Salar fluently while urban Salars often assimilate into the Chinese speaking Hui population.[42] Iran[edit]

Main Article : Khalaj language

Ethnologue
Ethnologue
and ISO list an Iranian language
Iranian language
"Khalaj" with the same population,[43] but Glottolog
Glottolog
states it does not exist.[44] The Khalaj speak their Turkic language and Persian, and the supposed Iranian language of the Khalaj is spurious.[45]

Main Article : Khorasani Turkic language

Khorasani Turkic (Khorasani Turkic: خراسان تركچىسى, Pronunciation: [xorɑsɑn tyrktʃesi]; Persian: Zebān-e Torkī-ye Xorāsānī زبان ترکی خراسانی‎) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken in northern North Khorasan Province
North Khorasan Province
and Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. Nearly all Khorasani Turkic speakers are also bilingual in Persian.[46] [47] [48] Afghanistan[edit]

Main Article : Languages of Afghanistan

Many Turkic languages
Turkic languages
was died in Afghanistan. [49] Iraq[edit]

Main Article : Iraqi Turkmens
Iraqi Turkmens
and Iraqi_Turkmens#Language

In 1980, Saddam Hussein's government adopted a policy of assimilation of its minorities. Due to government relocation programs, thousands of Iraqi Turkmen were relocated from their traditional homelands in northern Iraq and replaced by Arabs, in an effort to Arabize the region.[50] Furthermore, Iraqi Turkmen villages and towns were destroyed to make way for Arab migrants, who were promised free land and financial incentives. For example, the Ba'th regime recognised that the city of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was historically an Iraqi Arab city and remained firmly in its cultural orientation.[51] Thus, the first wave of Arabization
Arabization
saw Arab families move from the centre and south of Iraq into Kirkuk
Kirkuk
to work in the expanding oil industry. Although the Iraqi Turkmen were not actively forced out, new Arab quarters were established in the city and the overall demographic balance of the city changed as the Arab migrations continued.[51] Several presidential decrees and directives from state security and intelligence organizations indicate that the Iraqi Turkmen were a particular focus of attention during the assimilation process during the Ba'th regime. For example, the Iraqi Military Intelligence issued directive 1559 on 6 May 1980 ordering the deportation of Iraqi Turkmen officials from Kirkuk, issuing the following instructions: "identify the places where Turkmen officials are working in governmental offices [in order] to deport them to other governorates in order to disperse them and prevent them from concentrating in this governorate [Kirkuk]".[52] In addition, on 30 October 1981, the Revolution's Command Council issued decree 1391, which authorized the deportation of Iraqi Turkmen from Kiruk with paragraph 13 noting that "this directive is specially aimed at Turkmen and Kurdish officials and workers who are living in Kirkuk".[52] As primary victims of these Arabization
Arabization
policies, the Iraqi Turkmen suffered from land expropriation and job discrimination, and therefore would register themselves as "Arabs" in order to avoid discrimination.[53] Thus, ethnic cleansing was an element of the Ba'thist policy aimed at reducing the influence of the Iraqi Turkmen in northern Iraq's Kirkuk.[54] Those Iraqi Turkmen who remained in cities such as Kirkuk
Kirkuk
were subject to continued assimilation policies;[54] school names, neighbourhoods, villages, streets, markets and even mosques with names of Turkic origin were changed to names that emanated from the Ba'th Party or from Arab heroes.[54] Moreover, many Iraqi Turkmen villages and neighbourhoods in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
were simply demolished, particularly in the 1990s.[54] See also[edit]

Altaic languages List of Ukrainian words of Turkic origin Middle Turkic Old Turkic alphabet Old Turkic language Proto-Turkic language

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Turkic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Dybo A.V., "Chronology of Türkic languages and linguistic contacts of early Türks", Moskow, 2007, p. 766, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-03-11. Retrieved 2005-03-11.  (In Russian) ^ Janhunen, Juha (2013). "Personal pronouns in Core Altaic". In Martine Irma Robbeets; Hubert Cuyckens. Shared Grammaticalization: With Special
Special
Focus on the Transeurasian Languages. p. 223.  ^ a b c Katzner, Kenneth (March 2002). Languages of the World, Third Edition. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-415-25004-7.  ^ Brigitte Moser, Michael Wilhelm Weithmann, Landeskunde Türkei: Geschichte, Gesellschaft und Kultur, Buske Publishing, 2008, p.173 ^ Deutsches Orient-Institut, Orient, Vol. 41, Alfred Röper Publushing, 2000, p.611 ^ http://www.zaman.com.tr/iskander-pala/turkceyi-kac-kisi-konusuyor_480993.html ^ " Language
Language
Materials Project: Turkish". UCLA
UCLA
International Institute, Center for World Languages. February 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  ^ Sinor, 1988, p.710 ^ George van DRIEM: Handbuch der Orientalistik. Volume 1 Part 10. BRILL 2001. Page 336 ^ M. A. Castrén, Nordische Reisen und Forschungen. V, St.-Petersburg, 1849 ^ Turkic Language
Language
tree entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking regions. ^ Clark, Larry V. (1980). "Turkic Loanwords in Mongol, I:The Treatment of Non-initial S, Z, Š, Č". Central Asiatic Journal. 24: 36–59.  ^ Vovin, Alexander 2004. ‘Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Old Turkic 12-Year Animal Cycle.’ Central Asiatic Journal 48/1: 118-32. ^ Vovin, Alexander. 2010. Once Again on the Ruan-ruan Language. Ötüken’den İstanbul’a Türkçenin 1290 Yılı (720-2010) Sempozyumu From Ötüken to Istanbul, 1290 Years of Turkish (720-2010). 3-5 Aralık 2010, İstanbul / 3th-5th December 2010, İstanbul: 1-10. ^ Soucek, Svat (March 2000). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65169-1.  ^ Findley, Carter V. (October 2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6.  ^ Johanson, Lars (2001). "Discoveries on the Turkic linguistic map" (PDF). Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. Retrieved 2007-03-18.  ^ a b Lars Johanson, The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds), The Turkic Languages, London, New York: Routledge, 81–125, 1998.Classification of Turkic languages ^ See the main article on Lir-Turkic. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Language
Language
Family Trees – Turkic". Retrieved 2007-03-18. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) The reliability of Ethnologue lies mainly in its statistics whereas its framework for the internal classification of Turkic is still based largely on Baskakov (1962) and the collective work in Deny et al. (1959–1964). A more up to date alternative to classifying these languages on internal camparative grounds is to be found in the work of Johanson and his co-workers. ^ Larry Clark, “Chuvash”, in The Turkic Languages, eds. Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (London–NY: Routledge, 2006), 434–452. ^ Anton Antonov & Guillaume Jacques, “Turkic kümüš ‘silver’ and the lambdaism vs sigmatism debate”, Turkic Languages 15, no. 2 (2012): 151–70. ^ Lars Johanson (1998) The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds) The Turkic Languages. London, New York: Routledge, 81–125. [1] ^ Khalaj is surrounded by Oghuz languages, but exhibits a number of features that classify it as non-Oghuz. ^ Crimean Tatar and Urum are historically Kipchak languages, but have been heavily influenced by Oghuz languages. ^ Tura, Baraba, Tomsk, Tümen, Ishim, Irtysh, Tobol, Tara, etc. are partly of different origin (Johanson 1998) [2] ^ a b c "turcologica". Retrieved 22 February 2017.  ^ Deviating. Historically developed from Southwestern (Oghuz) (Johanson 1998) [3] ^ Aini contains a very large Persian vocabulary component, and is spoken exclusively by adult men, almost as a cryptolect. ^ Coene 2009, p. 75 ^ Coene 2009, p. 75 ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Contributors Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (revised ed.). Elsevier. 2010. p. 1109. ISBN 0080877753. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ Johanson, Lars, ed. (1998). The Mainz Meeting: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Turkish Linguistics, August 3–6, 1994. Turcologica Series. Contributor Éva Ágnes Csató. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 28. ISBN 3447038640. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ http://www.unesco.org/languages-atlas/index.php?hl=en&page=atlasmap# ^ http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/endangered-languages/atlas-of-languages-in-danger/ ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/country/RU/languages ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/Russia/Mixed-and-deciduous-forest#ref422354 ^ Johanson, Lars; Utas, Bo, eds. (2000). Evidentials: Turkic, Iranian and Neighbouring Languages. Volume 24 of Empirical approaches to language typology. Walter de Gruyter. p. 58. ISBN 3110161583. ISSN 0933-761X. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ William Safran (1998). William Safran, ed. Nationalism and ethnoregional identities in China. Volume 1 of Cass series—nationalism and ethnicity (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-7146-4921-X. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ a b Raymond Hickey (2010). Raymond Hickey, ed. The Handbook of Language
Language
Contact (illustrated ed.). John Wiley and Sons. p. 664. ISBN 1-4051-7580-X. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Dwyer (2007:90) ^ Khalaj (Iranian) at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Khalaj (Iranian)". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue
Ethnologue
16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices ^ " Ethnologue
Ethnologue
report for Khorasani Turkic" ^ http://www.unesco.org/languages-atlas/ ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_endangered_languages_in_Asia#Iran ^ http://www.bbc.com/persian/afghanistan/2009/02/090221_a-afg-mother-language-day ^ Jenkins 2008, 15. ^ a b Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 64. ^ a b Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 65. ^ International Crisis Group 2006, 5. ^ a b c d Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 66.

Further reading[edit]

Akhatov G. Kh. 1960. "About the stress in the language of the Siberian Tatars
Tatars
in connection with the stress of modern Tatar literary language" .- Sat *"Problems of Turkic and the history of Russian Oriental Studies." Kazan. (in Russian) Akhatov G.Kh. 1963. "Dialect West Siberian Tatars" (monograph). Ufa. (in Russian) Baskakov, N.A. 1962, 1969. "Introduction to the study of the Turkic languages. Moscow. (in Russian) Boeschoten, Hendrik & Lars Johanson. 2006. Turkic languages
Turkic languages
in contact. Turcologica, Bd. 61. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-05212-0 Clausen, Gerard. 1972. An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Deny, Jean et al. 1959–1964. Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Dolatkhah, Sohrab. 2016. Parlons qashqay. In: collection "parlons". Paris: L'Harmattan. Dolatkhah, Sohrab. 2016. Le qashqay: langue turcique d'Iran. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (online). Dolatkhah, Sohrab. 2015. Qashqay Folktales. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (online). Johanson, Lars & Éva Agnes Csató (ed.). 1998. The Turkic languages. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08200-5. Johanson, Lars. 1998. "The history of Turkic." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 81–125.[4] Johanson, Lars. 1998. "Turkic languages." In: Encyclopædia Britannica. CD 98. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 5 sept. 2007.[5] Menges, K. H. 1968. The Turkic languages
Turkic languages
and peoples: An introduction to Turkic studies. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Öztopçu, Kurtuluş. 1996. Dictionary of the Turkic languages: English, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Uighur, Uzbek. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14198-2 Samoilovich, A. N. 1922. Some additions to the classification of the Turkish languages. Petrograd. Schönig, Claus. 1997–1998. "A new attempt to classify the Turkic languages I-III." Turkic Languages 1:1.117–133, 1:2.262–277, 2:1.130–151. Starostin, Sergei A., Anna V. Dybo, and Oleg A. Mudrak. 2003. Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-13153-1 Voegelin, C.F. & F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and index of the World's languages. New York: Elsevier.

External links[edit]

Turkic Languages Verb Comparison Turkic Inscriptions of Orkhon Valley, Mongolia Turkic Languages: Resources – University of Michigan Map of Turkic languages Classification of Turkic Languages Online Uyghur–English Dictionary Turkic languages
Turkic languages
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Turkic language vocabulary comparison tool / dictionary A Comparative Dictionary of Turkic Languages Open Project The Turkic Languages in a Nutshell with illustrations. Swadesh lists of Turkic basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix) Conferences on Turkic languages
Turkic languages
processing: Astana, Kazakhstan, 2013, Istanbul, Turkey, 2014, Kazan, Tatarstan, 2015

v t e

Turkic languages

Italics indicate extinct languages

Proto-language

Proto-Altaic Proto-Turkic

Common Turkic

Arghu

Khalaj

Karluk

Äynu1 Khorezmian Turki1 Chagatai Ili Turki Lop Uyghur Uzbek

Kipchak

Ponto-Caspian

Cuman Crimean Tatar Karachay-Balkar Karaim Kipchak Krymchak Kumyk Urum2

Aralo-Caspian

Siberian Tatar Fergana Kipchak Karakalpak Kazakh Kyrgyz Nogai

Uralo-Caspian

Bashkir Old Tatar Tatar

Oghuz

Afshar Azerbaijani

Salchuq

Crimean Turkish Gagauz Balkan Gagauz Turkish Khorasani Turkic Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish Pecheneg2 Qashqai Salar (Anatolian) Turkish Turkmen Urum2

Siberian

Altai Chulym Dolgan Fuyu Kyrgyz Khakas Old Turkic Old Uyghur Shor Tofa Tuvan

Dukhan

Yakut (Sakha) Western Yugur2

Oghur

Bulgar Chuvash Khazar

1 Mixed language. 2 Classification disputed.

v t e

Turkic topics

Languages

Afshar Altay Äynu Azerbaijani Bashkir Bulgar Chagatai Chulym Chuvash Crimean Tatar Cuman Dolgan Fuyü Gïrgïs Gagauz Ili Turki Karachay-Balkar Karaim Karakalpak Karamanli Turkish Kazakh Khakas Khalaj Khazar Khorasani Turkic Kipchak Krymchak Kumyk Kipchak languages Kyrgyz Nogai Old Turkic Ottoman Turkish Pecheneg Qashqai Sakha/Yakut Salar Shor Siberian Tatar Tatar Tofa Turkish Turkmen Tuvan Urum Uyghur Uzbek Western Yugur

Peoples

Afshar Ahiska Altays Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Bulgars Chulyms Chuvash Crimean Tatars Cumans Dolgans Dughlats Gagauz Iraqi Turkmens Karachays Karaites Karakalpaks Karluks Kazakhs Khakas Khalajs Khazars Khorasani Turks Kimek Kipchaks Krymchaks Kumandins Kumyks Kyrgyz Nogais Oghuz Turks Qarapapaqs Qashqai Salar Shatuo Shors Sybyrs Syrian Turkmen Tatars Telengits Teleuts Tofalar Turgesh Turkish people

in Bulgaria Turkish Cypriots in Kosovo in Egypt in the Republic of Macedonia in Romania in Western Thrace

Turkmens Tuvans Uyghurs Uzbeks Western Yugurs Yakuts Yueban

Politics

Grey Wolves Kemalism Burkhanism Pan-Turkism Turanism

Origins

Turkestan History Timeline of the Göktürks

Timeline 500–1300 migration

Nomadic empire Tian Shan / Altai Mountains Otuken

Locations

Sovereign states

Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus1 Turkey Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

Autonomous areas

Altai Republic Bashkortostan Chuvashia Gagauzia Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia Karakalpakstan Khakassia Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Sakha Republic Tatarstan Tuva Xinjiang

Studies

Old Turkic alphabet Proto-Turkic language Turkology

Religions

Turkic mythology Tengrism Shamanism Islam Alevism Batiniyya Bayramiye Bektashi Order Christianity Hurufism Kadiri Khalwati order Malamatiyya Qalandariyya Qizilbash Rifa'i* Safaviyya Zahediyeh Vattisen Yaly

Traditional sports

Kyz kuu Jereed Kokpar Dzhigit Chovgan

Organizations

Turkic Council International Organization of Turkic Culture
International Organization of Turkic Culture
(TÜRKSOY) Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status (TAKM) World Turks Qurultai

1 State with limited international recognition.

v t e

List of primary language families

Africa

Afro-Asiatic Austronesian Khoe Kx'a Niger–Congo Nilo-Saharan? Tuu Mande? Songhay? Ijaw? Ubangian? Kadu?

Isolates

Bangime Hadza Jalaa Sandawe Kwadi? Laal? Shabo?

Sign languages

Arab BANZSL French Lasima Tanzanian Others

Europe and Asia

Afro-Asiatic Ainu Austroasiatic Austronesian Chukotko-Kamchatkan Dravidian Eskimo–Aleut Great Andamanese Hmong–Mien Hurro-Urartian Indo-European Japonic Kartvelian Koreanic Mongolic Northeast Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Ongan Sino-Tibetan Tai–Kadai Tungusic Turkic Tyrsenian Uralic Yeniseian Yukaghir Dené–Yeniseian? Altaic? Austronesian–Ongan? Austro-Tai? Sino-Austronesian? Digaro? Kho-Bwa? Siangic? Miji? Vasconic?

Isolates

Basque Burushaski Elamite Hattic Kusunda Nihali Nivkh Sumerian Hruso? Miju? Puroik?

Sign languages

BANZSL French German Japanese Swedish Chinese Indo-Pakistani Arab Chiangmai–Bangkok Others

New Guinea and the Pacific

Arai–Samaia Arafundi Austronesian Baining Binanderean–Goilalan Border Bulaka River Central Solomons Chimbu–Wahgi Doso–Turumsa East Geelvink Bay East Strickland Eleman Engan Fas Kaure–Kosare Kiwaian Kutubuan Kwomtari Lakes Plain Lower Mamberamo Lower Sepik Madang Mairasi North Bougainville Pauwasi Piawi Ramu Senagi Sentani Sepik Skou South Bougainville Teberan Tor–Kwerba–Nimboran Torricelli Trans-Fly Trans–New Guinea Turama–Kikorian West Papuan Yam Yawa Yuat North Papuan? Northeast New Guinea? Papuan Gulf?

Isolates

Abinomn Anêm? Ata? Kol Kuot Porome Taiap? Pawaia Porome Sulka? Tambora Wiru

Sign languages

Hawai'i Sign Language Others

Australia

Arnhem/Macro-Gunwinyguan Bunuban Darwin River Eastern Daly Eastern Tasmanian Garawan Iwaidjan Jarrakan Mirndi Northern Tasmanian Northeastern Tasmanian Nyulnyulan Pama–Nyungan Southern Daly Tangkic Wagaydyic Western Daly Western Tasmanian Worrorran Yangmanic (Wardaman)

Isolates

Giimbiyu Malak-Malak Marrgu Tiwi Wagiman

North America

Algic Alsea Caddoan Chimakuan Chinookan Chumashan Comecrudan Coosan Eskimo–Aleut Iroquoian Kalapuyan Keresan Maiduan Muskogean Na-Dene Palaihnihan Plateau Penutian Pomoan Salishan Shastan Siouan Tanoan Tsimshianic Utian Uto-Aztecan Wakashan Wintuan Yokutsan Yukian Yuman–Cochimí Dené–Yeniseian? Hokan? Penutian?

Isolates

Chimariko Haida Karuk Kutenai Seri Siuslaw Takelma Timucua Waikuri Washo Yana Yuchi Zuni

Sign languages

Inuit (Inuiuuk) Plains Sign Talk Others

Mesoamerica

Chibchan Jicaquean Lencan Mayan Misumalpan Mixe–Zoque Oto-Manguean Tequistlatecan Totonacan Uto-Aztecan Xincan Totozoquean?

Isolates

Cuitlatec Huave Tarascan/Purépecha

Sign languages

Plains Sign Talk Mayan Others

South America

Arawakan Arauan Araucanian Arutani–Sape Aymaran Barbacoan Boran Borôroan Cahuapanan Cariban Catacaoan Chapacuran Charruan Chibchan Choco Chonan Guaicuruan Guajiboan Jê/Gê Harákmbut–Katukinan Jirajaran Jivaroan Kariri Katembri–Taruma Mascoian Matacoan Maxakalian Nadahup Nambikwaran Otomákoan Pano-Tacanan Peba–Yaguan Purian Quechuan Piaroa–Saliban Ticuna–Yuri Timotean Tiniguan Tucanoan Tupian Uru–Chipaya Witotoan Yabutian Yanomaman Zamucoan Zaparoan Chimuan? Esmeralda–Yaruro? Hibito–Cholón? Lule–Vilela? Macro-Jê? Tequiraca–Canichana?

Isolates (extant in 2000)

Aikanã? Alacalufan Andoque? Camsá Candoshi Chimane Chiquitano Cofán? Fulniô Guató Hodï/Joti Irantxe? Itonama Karajá Krenak Kunza Leco Maku-Auari of Roraima Movima Mura-Pirahã Nukak? Ofayé Puinave Huaorani/Waorani Trumai Urarina Warao Yamana Yuracaré

See also

Language
Language
isolates Unclassified languages Creoles Pidgins Mixed languages Artificial languages List of sign languages

Families with more than 30 languages are in bold. Families in italics have no living members.

Authority control

.