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The ACM A.M. TURING AWARD is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to "an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community". It is stipulated that the contributions "should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field". The Turing Award is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science and the " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
of computing ".

The award is named after Alan Turing , a British mathematician and reader in mathematics at the University of Manchester . Turing is often credited as being the key founder of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence . From 2007 to 2013, the award was accompanied by a prize of US $250,000, with financial support provided by Intel
Intel
and Google
Google
. Since 2014, the award has been accompanied by a prize of US $1 million, with financial support provided by Google
Google
.

The first recipient, in 1966, was Alan Perlis , of Carnegie Mellon University . The first female recipient was Frances E. Allen of IBM
IBM
in 2006.

RECIPIENTS

YEAR RECIPIENTS CITATION

1966 Alan J. Perlis For his influence in the area of advanced computer programming techniques and compiler construction

1967 Maurice Wilkes Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC , the first computer with an internally stored program . Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory . He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced

1968 Richard Hamming For his work on numerical methods , automatic coding systems, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes

1969 Marvin Minsky For his central role in creating, shaping, promoting, and advancing the field of artificial intelligence .

1970 James H. Wilkinson For his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the high-speed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis

1971 John McCarthy McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work

1972 Edsger W. Dijkstra Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950s to the development of the ALGOL , a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal proponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages

1973 Charles W. Bachman For his outstanding contributions to database technology

1974 Donald E. Knuth For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to " The Art of Computer Programming " through his well-known books in a continuous series by this title

1975 Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation , and subsequently with numerous faculty and student colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University , they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing

1976 Michael O. Rabin and Dana S. Scott For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines , which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott 2) ML , the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a type-safe exception-handling mechanism; 3) CCS , a general theory of concurrency . In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction , the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics .

1992 Butler W. Lampson For contributions to the development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations , networks , operating systems , programming systems, displays , security and document publishing .

1993 Juris Hartmanis
Juris Hartmanis
and Richard E. Stearns In recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory .

1994 Edward Feigenbaum and Raj Reddy For pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.

1995 Manuel Blum In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking .

1996 Amir Pnueli For seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification .

1997 Douglas Engelbart For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.

1998 Jim Gray For seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation.

1999 Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. For landmark contributions to computer architecture , operating systems , and software engineering .

2000 Andrew Chi-Chih Yao In recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation , including the complexity-based theory of pseudorandom number generation , cryptography , and communication complexity .

2001 Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard For ideas fundamental to the emergence of object-oriented programming , through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67 .

2002 Ronald L. Rivest , Adi Shamir and Leonard M. Adleman For their ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in practice.

2003 Alan Kay For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary object-oriented programming languages , leading the team that developed Smalltalk
Smalltalk
, and for fundamental contributions to personal computing.

2004 Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn For pioneering work on internetworking , including the design and implementation of the Internet
Internet
's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP , and for inspired leadership in networking.

2005 Peter Naur For fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of ALGOL 60 , to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer programming.

2006 Frances E. Allen For pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution.

2007 Edmund M. Clarke , E. Allen Emerson and Joseph Sifakis For their roles in developing model checking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries.

2008 Barbara Liskov For contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing.

2009 Charles P. Thacker For his pioneering design and realization of the Xerox Alto , the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC.

2010 Leslie G. Valiant For transformative contributions to the theory of computation , including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC ) learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation, and the theory of parallel and distributed computing.

2011 Judea Pearl For fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.

2012 Silvio Micali Shafi Goldwasser For transformative work that laid the complexity-theoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory.

2013 Leslie Lamport For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated state machines, and sequential consistency.

2014 Michael Stonebraker For fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems.

2015 Martin E. Hellman Whitfield Diffie For fundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper, "New Directions in Cryptography," introduced the ideas of public-key cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most regularly-used security protocols on the internet today.

2016 Tim Berners-Lee For inventing the World Wide Web , the first web browser , and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale.

SEE ALSO

* List of ACM Awards * List of prizes, medals and awards
List of prizes, medals and awards
* List of prizes named after people * IEEE John von Neumann Medal * List of Turing Award laureates by university affiliation * Turing Lecture * Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
* Schock Prize * Nevanlinna Prize * Kanellakis Award * Millennium Technology Prize

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Cacm Staff (2014). "ACM's Turing Award
Turing Award
prize raised to $1 million". _Communications of the ACM_. 57 (12): 20. doi :10.1145/2685372 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "A. M. Turing Award". ACM. Retrieved 2007-11-05. * ^ Dasgupta, Sanjoy; Papadimitriou, Christos ; Vazirani, Umesh (2008). _Algorithms_. McGraw-Hill . ISBN 978-0-07-352340-8 . , p. 317. * ^ Bibliography of Turing Award
Turing Award
lectures, DBLP * ^ Steven Geringer (27 July 2007). "ACM\'S Turing Award
Turing Award
Prize Raised To $250,000". ACM press release. Retrieved 2008-10-16. * ^ See also: Brown, Bob (June 6, 2011). "Why there\'s no Nobel Prize in Computing". Network World . Retrieved June 3, 2015. * ^ Homer, Steven and Alan L. (2001). _Computability and Complexity Theory_. Springer via Google
Google
Books limited view. p. 35. ISBN 0-387-95055-9 . Retrieved 2007-11-05. * ^ "ACM\'s Turing Award
Turing Award
Prize Raised to $1 Million". ACM. Retrieved 2014-11-13. * ^ "First Woman to Receive ACM Turing Award" (Press release). The Association for Computing Machinery. February 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-05. * ^ Perlis, A. J. (1967). "The Synthesis of Algorithmic Systems". _Journal of the ACM_. 14: 1. doi :10.1145/321371.321372 . * ^ Wilkes, M. V. (1968). "Computers then and Now". _Journal of the ACM_. 15: 1. doi :10.1145/321439.321440 . * ^ Hamming, R. W. (1969). "One Man's View of Computer Science". _Journal of the ACM_. 16: 3. doi :10.1145/321495.321497 . * ^ Minsky, M. (1970). "Form and Content in Computer Science (1970 ACM turing lecture)". _Journal of the ACM_. 17 (2): 197. doi :10.1145/321574.321575 . * ^ Wilkinson, J. H. (1971). "Some Comments from a Numerical Analyst". _Journal of the ACM_. 18 (2): 137. doi :10.1145/321637.321638 . * ^ McCarthy, J. (1987). "Generality in artificial intelligence". _Communications of the ACM_. 30 (12): 1030. doi :10.1145/33447.33448 .

* ^ Dijkstra, E. W. (1972). "The humble programmer". _Communications of the ACM_. 15 (10): 859. doi :10.1145/355604.361591 . * ^ Bachman, C. W. (1973). "The programmer as navigator". _Communications of the ACM_. 16 (11): 653. doi :10.1145/355611.362534 . * ^ Knuth, D. E. (1974). " Computer programming as an art". _Communications of the ACM_. 17 (12): 667. doi :10.1145/361604.361612 . * ^ Newell, A.; Simon, H. A. (1976). " Computer science
Computer science
as empirical inquiry: Symbols and search". _Communications of the ACM_. 19 (3): 113. doi :10.1145/360018.360022 . * ^ Rabin, M. O.; Scott, D. (1959). "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems". _ IBM
IBM
Journal of Research and Development_. 3 (2): 114. doi :10.1147/rd.32.0114 . * ^ Rabin, M. O. (1977). "Complexity of computations". _Communications of the ACM_. 20 (9): 625. doi :10.1145/359810.359816 .

* ^ Scott, D. S. (1977). "Logic and programming languages". _Communications of the ACM_. 20 (9): 634. doi :10.1145/359810.359826 .

* ^ Backus, J. (1978). "Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style?: A functional style and its algebra of programs". _Communications of the ACM_. 21 (8): 613. doi :10.1145/359576.359579 .

* ^ Floyd, R. W. (1979). "The paradigms of programming". _Communications of the ACM_. 22 (8): 455. doi :10.1145/359138.359140 .

* ^ Iverson, K. E. (1980). "Notation as a tool of thought". _Communications of the ACM_. 23 (8): 444. doi :10.1145/358896.358899 .

* ^ Hoare, C. A. R. (1981). "The emperor's old clothes". _Communications of the ACM_. 24 (2): 75. doi :10.1145/358549.358561 . * ^ Codd, E. F. (1982). "Relational database: A practical foundation for productivity". _Communications of the ACM_. 25 (2): 109. doi :10.1145/358396.358400 . * ^ Cook, S. A. (1983). "An overview of computational complexity". _Communications of the ACM_. 26 (6): 400. doi :10.1145/358141.358144 .

* ^ Milner, R. (1993). "Elements of interaction: Turing award lecture". _Communications of the ACM_. 36: 78–89. doi :10.1145/151233.151240 . * ^ Stearns, R. E. (1994). " Turing Award
Turing Award
lecture: It's time to reconsider time". _Communications of the ACM_. 37 (11): 95. doi :10.1145/188280.188379 . * ^ Reddy, R. (1996). "To dream the possible dream". _Communications of the ACM_. 39 (5): 105. doi :10.1145/229459.233436 .

* ^ 2007 Turing Award
Turing Award
Winners Announced * ^ Pearl, Judea (2011). "The Mechanization of Causal Inference: A "mini" Turing Test and Beyond" (mp4). _ACM Turing award lectures_. ACM. ISBN 978-1-4503-1049-9 . doi :10.1145/1283920.2351636 (inactive 2017-01-25). * ^ "Judea Pearl". ACM. * ^ "Turing award 2012". ACM. * ^ "Turing award 2013". ACM. * ^ Lamport, L. (1978). "Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system" (PDF). _ Communications of the ACM _ . 21 (7): 558–565. doi :10.1145/359545.359563 . * ^ "Turing award 2014". ACM. * ^ Diffie, W.; Hellman, M. (1976). "New directions in cryptography" (PDF). _IEEE Transactions on Information Theory_. 22 (6): 644–654. doi :10.1109/TIT.1976.1055638 . * ^ " Cryptography