The ACM A.M. TURING AWARD is an annual prize given by the Association
for Computing Machinery (ACM) to "an individual selected for
contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community".
It is stipulated that the contributions "should be of lasting and
major technical importance to the computer field". The Turing Award
is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science
and the "
**Nobel Prize**

Nobel Prize of computing ".

The award is named after
**Alan Turing**

Alan Turing , a British mathematician and
reader in mathematics at the
**University of Manchester** . Turing is
often credited as being the key founder of theoretical computer
science and artificial intelligence . From 2007 to 2013, the award
was accompanied by a prize of US $250,000, with financial support
provided by
**Intel**

Intel and
**Google**

Google . Since 2014, the award has been
accompanied by a prize of US $1 million, with financial support
provided by
**Google**

Google .

The first recipient, in 1966, was
**Alan Perlis** , of Carnegie Mellon
University . The first female recipient was
**Frances E. Allen**

Frances E. Allen of
**IBM**

IBM in
2006.

RECIPIENTS

YEAR
RECIPIENTS
CITATION

1966
Alan J. Perlis
For his influence in the area of advanced computer programming
techniques and compiler construction

1967
**Maurice Wilkes**

Maurice Wilkes
Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the
**EDSAC** , the first computer with an internally stored program . Built
in 1949, the
**EDSAC** used a mercury delay line memory . He is also known
as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of
Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program
libraries were effectively introduced

1968
**Richard Hamming**
For his work on numerical methods , automatic coding systems, and
error-detecting and error-correcting codes

1969
**Marvin Minsky**

Marvin Minsky
For his central role in creating, shaping, promoting, and advancing
the field of artificial intelligence .

1970
**James H. Wilkinson**
For his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the
high-speed digital computer, having received special recognition for
his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error
analysis

1971
John McCarthy
McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial
Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved
considerable recognition for his work

1972
**Edsger W. Dijkstra**
Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950s to
the development of the
**ALGOL** , a high level programming language which
has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the
principal proponents of the science and art of programming languages
in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their
structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of
publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic
manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the
field of programming languages

1973
Charles W. Bachman
For his outstanding contributions to database technology

1974
Donald E. Knuth
For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the
design of programming languages, and in particular for his
contributions to "
**The Art of Computer Programming** " through his
well-known books in a continuous series by this title

1975
**Allen Newell** and
**Herbert A. Simon** In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty
years, initially in collaboration with
**J. C. Shaw** at the RAND
Corporation , and subsequently with numerous faculty and student
colleagues at
**Carnegie Mellon University**

Carnegie Mellon University , they have made basic
contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human
cognition, and list processing

1976
**Michael O. Rabin** and
Dana S. Scott For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their
Decision Problem," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic
machines , which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept.
Their (Scott 2) ML , the first language to include polymorphic type
inference together with a type-safe exception-handling mechanism; 3)
CCS , a general theory of concurrency . In addition, he formulated and
strongly advanced full abstraction , the study of the relationship
between operational and denotational semantics .

1992
**Butler W. Lampson**
For contributions to the development of distributed, personal
computing environments and the technology for their implementation:
workstations , networks , operating systems , programming systems,
displays , security and document publishing .

1993
**Juris Hartmanis** and
**Richard E. Stearns** In recognition of their seminal paper which
established the foundations for the field of computational complexity
theory .

1994
**Edward Feigenbaum** and
**Raj Reddy** For pioneering the design and construction of large
scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical
importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence
technology.

1995
**Manuel Blum**
In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of
computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography
and program checking .

1996
**Amir Pnueli**
For seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science
and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification
.

1997
**Douglas Engelbart**

Douglas Engelbart
For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and
the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.

1998
Jim Gray
For seminal contributions to database and transaction processing
research and technical leadership in system implementation.

1999
Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.
For landmark contributions to computer architecture , operating
systems , and software engineering .

2000
**Andrew Chi-Chih Yao**
In recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of
computation , including the complexity-based theory of pseudorandom
number generation , cryptography , and communication complexity .

2001
**Ole-Johan Dahl** and
**Kristen Nygaard** For ideas fundamental to the emergence of
object-oriented programming , through their design of the programming
languages
**Simula I** and
**Simula 67** .

2002
Ronald L. Rivest ,
**Adi Shamir** and
Leonard M. Adleman For their ingenious contribution for making
public-key cryptography useful in practice.

2003
**Alan Kay**

Alan Kay
For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary
object-oriented programming languages , leading the team that
developed
**Smalltalk**

Smalltalk , and for fundamental contributions to personal
computing.

2004
**Vinton G. Cerf**

Vinton G. Cerf and
**Robert E. Kahn** For pioneering work on internetworking , including
the design and implementation of the
**Internet**

Internet 's basic communications
protocols,
**TCP/IP**

TCP/IP , and for inspired leadership in networking.

2005
**Peter Naur**
For fundamental contributions to programming language design and
the definition of
**ALGOL** 60 , to compiler design, and to the art and
practice of computer programming.

2006
**Frances E. Allen**

Frances E. Allen
For pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of
optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern
optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution.

2007
**Edmund M. Clarke** ,
**E. Allen Emerson** and
**Joseph Sifakis** For their roles in developing model checking into a
highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the
hardware and software industries.

2008
**Barbara Liskov**

Barbara Liskov
For contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of
programming language and system design, especially related to data
abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing.

2009
**Charles P. Thacker**
For his pioneering design and realization of the
**Xerox Alto**

Xerox Alto , the
first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions
to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC.

2010
**Leslie G. Valiant**
For transformative contributions to the theory of computation ,
including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC )
learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation,
and the theory of parallel and distributed computing.

2011
**Judea Pearl**
For fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through
the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.

2012
**Silvio Micali**
**Shafi Goldwasser**

Shafi Goldwasser For transformative work that laid the
complexity-theoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and
in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of
mathematical proofs in complexity theory.

2013
**Leslie Lamport**
For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of
distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts
such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated
state machines, and sequential consistency.

2014
**Michael Stonebraker**
For fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices
underlying modern database systems.

2015
**Martin E. Hellman**
**Whitfield Diffie** For fundamental contributions to modern
cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper, "New
Directions in Cryptography," introduced the ideas of public-key
cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most
regularly-used security protocols on the internet today.

2016
**Tim Berners-Lee**
For inventing the
**World Wide Web**

World Wide Web , the first web browser , and the
fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale.

SEE ALSO

* List of ACM Awards
*
**List of prizes, medals and awards**
*
**List of prizes named after people**
*
**IEEE John von Neumann Medal**
*
**List of Turing Award laureates by university affiliation**
*
**Turing Lecture**
*
**Nobel Prize**

Nobel Prize
*
**Schock Prize**
*
**Nevanlinna Prize**
*
**Kanellakis Award**
*
**Millennium Technology Prize**

REFERENCES

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**Turing Award**

Turing Award Prize
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