The ACM A.M. TURING AWARD is an annual prize given by the Association
for Computing Machinery (ACM) to "an individual selected for
contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community".
It is stipulated that the contributions "should be of lasting and
major technical importance to the computer field". The Turing Award
is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science
and the "
Nobel Prize
The award is named after
Alan Turing , a British mathematician and
reader in mathematics at the
University of Manchester . Turing is
often credited as being the key founder of theoretical computer
science and artificial intelligence . From 2007 to 2013, the award
was accompanied by a prize of US $250,000, with financial support
provided by
Intel
The first recipient, in 1966, was
Alan Perlis , of Carnegie Mellon
University . The first female recipient was
Frances E. Allen of
IBM
RECIPIENTS YEAR RECIPIENTS CITATION 1966 Alan J. Perlis For his influence in the area of advanced computer programming techniques and compiler construction 1967 Maurice Wilkes Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC , the first computer with an internally stored program . Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory . He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced 1968 Richard Hamming For his work on numerical methods , automatic coding systems, and errordetecting and errorcorrecting codes 1969 Marvin Minsky For his central role in creating, shaping, promoting, and advancing the field of artificial intelligence . 1970 James H. Wilkinson For his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the highspeed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis 1971 John McCarthy McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work 1972 Edsger W. Dijkstra Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950s to the development of the ALGOL , a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal proponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages 1973 Charles W. Bachman For his outstanding contributions to database technology 1974 Donald E. Knuth For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to " The Art of Computer Programming " through his wellknown books in a continuous series by this title 1975 Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation , and subsequently with numerous faculty and student colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University , they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing 1976 Michael O. Rabin and Dana S. Scott For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines , which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott 2) ML , the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a typesafe exceptionhandling mechanism; 3) CCS , a general theory of concurrency . In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction , the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics . 1992 Butler W. Lampson For contributions to the development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations , networks , operating systems , programming systems, displays , security and document publishing . 1993
Juris Hartmanis
1994 Edward Feigenbaum and Raj Reddy For pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology. 1995 Manuel Blum In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking . 1996 Amir Pnueli For seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification . 1997 Douglas Engelbart For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision. 1998 Jim Gray For seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation. 1999 Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. For landmark contributions to computer architecture , operating systems , and software engineering . 2000 Andrew ChiChih Yao In recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation , including the complexitybased theory of pseudorandom number generation , cryptography , and communication complexity . 2001 OleJohan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard For ideas fundamental to the emergence of objectoriented programming , through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67 . 2002 Ronald L. Rivest , Adi Shamir and Leonard M. Adleman For their ingenious contribution for making publickey cryptography useful in practice. 2003
Alan Kay
For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary
objectoriented programming languages , leading the team that
developed
Smalltalk
2004
Vinton G. Cerf and
Robert E. Kahn For pioneering work on internetworking , including
the design and implementation of the
Internet
2005 Peter Naur For fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of ALGOL 60 , to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer programming. 2006 Frances E. Allen For pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution. 2007 Edmund M. Clarke , E. Allen Emerson and Joseph Sifakis For their roles in developing model checking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries. 2008 Barbara Liskov For contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing. 2009 Charles P. Thacker For his pioneering design and realization of the Xerox Alto , the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC. 2010 Leslie G. Valiant For transformative contributions to the theory of computation , including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC ) learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation, and the theory of parallel and distributed computing. 2011 Judea Pearl For fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning. 2012 Silvio Micali Shafi Goldwasser For transformative work that laid the complexitytheoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory. 2013 Leslie Lamport For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated state machines, and sequential consistency. 2014 Michael Stonebraker For fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems. 2015 Martin E. Hellman Whitfield Diffie For fundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper, "New Directions in Cryptography," introduced the ideas of publickey cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most regularlyused security protocols on the internet today. 2016 Tim BernersLee For inventing the World Wide Web , the first web browser , and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale. SEE ALSO * List of ACM Awards
*
List of prizes, medals and awards
REFERENCES * ^ _A_ _B_ Cacm Staff (2014). "ACM's
Turing Award
* ^ Dijkstra, E. W. (1972). "The humble programmer".
_Communications of the ACM_. 15 (10): 859. doi :10.1145/355604.361591
.
* ^ Bachman, C. W. (1973). "The programmer as navigator".
_Communications of the ACM_. 16 (11): 653. doi :10.1145/355611.362534
.
* ^ Knuth, D. E. (1974). "
Computer programming as an art".
_Communications of the ACM_. 17 (12): 667. doi :10.1145/361604.361612
.
* ^ Newell, A.; Simon, H. A. (1976). "
Computer science
* ^ Scott, D. S. (1977). "Logic and programming languages". _Communications of the ACM_. 20 (9): 634. doi :10.1145/359810.359826 . * ^ Backus, J. (1978). "Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style?: A functional style and its algebra of programs". _Communications of the ACM_. 21 (8): 613. doi :10.1145/359576.359579 . * ^ Floyd, R. W. (1979). "The paradigms of programming". _Communications of the ACM_. 22 (8): 455. doi :10.1145/359138.359140 . * ^ Iverson, K. E. (1980). "Notation as a tool of thought". _Communications of the ACM_. 23 (8): 444. doi :10.1145/358896.358899 . * ^ Hoare, C. A. R. (1981). "The emperor's old clothes". _Communications of the ACM_. 24 (2): 75. doi :10.1145/358549.358561 . * ^ Codd, E. F. (1982). "Relational database: A practical foundation for productivity". _Communications of the ACM_. 25 (2): 109. doi :10.1145/358396.358400 . * ^ Cook, S. A. (1983). "An overview of computational complexity". _Communications of the ACM_. 26 (6): 400. doi :10.1145/358141.358144 . * ^ Milner, R. (1993). "Elements of interaction: Turing award
lecture". _Communications of the ACM_. 36: 78–89. doi
:10.1145/151233.151240 .
* ^ Stearns, R. E. (1994). "
Turing Award
* ^ 2007
Turing Award
