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Turin
Turin
(/tjʊəˈrɪn, ˈtʊərɪn/;[2] Italian: Torino [toˈriːno] ( listen); Piemontese: Turin
Turin
[tyˈɾiŋ])[3] is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin
Metropolitan City of Turin
(an administrative division of Italy) and of the Piedmont
Piedmont
region, and was the first capital city of Italy
Italy
from 1861 to 1865. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga
Superga
Hill. The population of the city proper is 886,837 (31 December 2016) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area
Turin metropolitan area
is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.[4] In 1997 a part of the historical center of Turin
Turin
was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-classical, and Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo
Palazzo
Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. The city used to be a major European political center. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy, and the first capital of the unified Italy
Italy
(the Kingdom of Italy) from 1861 to 1865.[5][6] Turin
Turin
is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour.[7] The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, and the Turin
Turin
Polytechnic. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio[8] and the Mole Antonelliana. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy
Italy
in 2008.[9] Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin
Turin
became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan
Milan
and Genoa. Turin
Turin
is ranked third in Italy, after Milan
Milan
and Rome, for economic strength.[10] With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin
Turin
is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power.[11] As of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC
GaWC
as a Gamma World city.[12] Turin
Turin
is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry.[13][14] Turin
Turin
is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F.C.
Juventus F.C.
and Torino F.C., the headquarters of automobile manufacturers FIAT, Lancia
Lancia
and Alfa Romeo, and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient origins 1.2 Roman times 1.3 Middle Ages 1.4 Early modern 1.5 Late modern and contemporary

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Administration 4 Main sights

4.1 City centre 4.2 San Salvario 4.3 Crocetta 4.4 Cenisia 4.5 Cit Turin 4.6 San Donato 4.7 Aurora 4.8 Vanchiglia 4.9 Main churches 4.10 Villas, parks and gardens

5 Demographics 6 Economy 7 Culture

7.1 Tourism 7.2 The Opera Houses 7.3 Literature 7.4 Media 7.5 Sports 7.6 Cinema 7.7 Cuisine

8 Education 9 Transport

9.1 Turin
Turin
Public Transportation Statistics

10 Notable people 11 International relations 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Turin

The Roman Palatine Towers.

Historical affiliations

Roman Republic
Roman Republic
58–27 BC Roman Empire
Roman Empire
27 BC–285 AD Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
285–476 Kingdom of Odoacer
Odoacer
476–493 Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
493–553 Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
553-569 Lombard Kingdom 569–773 Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
773–888 March of Ivrea 888–941 March of Turin 941–1046 County of Savoy
County of Savoy
1046–1416 Duchy of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy
1416–1792 First French Republic
First French Republic
1792–1804 First French Empire
First French Empire
1804–1814 Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
1814–1861 Kingdom of Italy
Italy
1861–1943 Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
1943–1945 Kingdom of Italy
Italy
1945–1946 Italian Republic
Italian Republic
1946–present

Ancient origins[edit] The Taurini
Taurini
were an ancient Celto-Ligurian[15] Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.

Siege of Turin.

In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal
Hannibal
as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres. The Taurini
Taurini
chief town (Taurasia) was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege.[16] As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum and afterwards Julia Augusta Taurinorum (modern Turin). Both Livy[17] and Strabo[18] mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times. Roman times[edit] In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus
Augustus
(Augusta Taurinorum). The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano (Roman Quadrilateral). Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani, later incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo
Palazzo
Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin
Turin
reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls. Middle Ages[edit] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli
Heruli
and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but then conquered again by the Lombards
Lombards
and then the Franks
Franks
of Charlemagne (773). The Contea di Torino (countship) was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa
Adelaide of Susa
with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin
Turin
(1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin
University of Turin
was also founded during this period. Early modern[edit]

Turin
Turin
in the 17th century.

Emmanuel Philibert, also known under the nickname of Iron Head (Testa 'd Fer), made Turin
Turin
the capital of the Duchy of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy
in 1563. Piazza Reale (named Piazza
Piazza
San Carlo today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Palazzo
Palazzo
Reale (Royal Palace of Turin) was also built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza
Piazza
Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
the Duke of Savoy acquired Sicily, soon traded for Sardinia, and part of the former Duchy of Milan, and was elevated to king; thus Turin
Turin
became the capital of a European kingdom. The architect Filippo Juvarra
Filippo Juvarra
began a major redesign of the city; Turin
Turin
had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time. Late modern and contemporary[edit]

A view of Turin
Turin
in the late 19th century. In the background, the Mole Antonelliana under construction.

Turin, like the rest of Piedmont, was annexed by the French Empire in 1802. The city thus became the seat of the prefecture of Pô department until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia
Sardinia
was restored with Turin
Turin
as its capital. In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia
Sardinia
led the struggle towards the unification of Italy. In 1861, Turin
Turin
became the capital of the newly proclaimed united Kingdom of Italy[19] until 1865, when the capital was moved to Florence, and then to Rome
Rome
after the 1870 conquest of the Papal States. The 1871 opening of the Fréjus Tunnel made Turin
Turin
an important communication node between Italy
Italy
and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Mole Antonelliana, the Egyptian Museum, the Gran Madre di Dio church and Piazza
Piazza
Vittorio Veneto
Veneto
were built in this period. The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialization, especially in the automotive sector: in 1899 Fiat was established in the city, followed by Lancia
Lancia
in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin
Turin
in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
design, and the city hosted the same event in 1911. By this time, Turin
Turin
had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.

Gran Madre di Dio.

After World War I, harsh conditions brought a wave of strikes and workers' protests. In 1920 the Lingotto
Lingotto
Fiat
Fiat
factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably Antonio Gramsci. On the other hand, Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
largely subsidized the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army. Turin
Turin
was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II, being heavily damaged in its industrial areas by the air raids. The Allied's campaign in Italy started off from the South and slowly moved northwards in the following two years, leaving the northern regions occupied by Germans and collaborationist forces for several years. Turin
Turin
was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of 1945. By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force
Brazilian Expeditionary Force
reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans, that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945. Days later, troops from the US Army's 1st Armored and 92nd Infantry Divisions came to substitute the Brazilians.[20][21] In the postwar years, Turin
Turin
was rapidly rebuilt. The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the Italian economic miracle
Italian economic miracle
of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundred of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy. The number of immigrants was so big that Turin
Turin
was said to be "the third southern Italian city after Naples
Naples
and Palermo". The population soon reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of the Automobile Capital of Italy
Italy
and the Detroit
Detroit
of Italy
Italy
( Turin
Turin
has been "twinned" with Detroit
Detroit
since 1998). In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years. The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 to slightly over 900,000 by the end of the century. In 2006, Turin
Turin
hosted the Winter Olympic Games. Geography[edit]

Turin
Turin
today

Turin
Turin
is located in northwest Italy. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps
Alps
and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural continuation of the hills of Monferrato. Four major rivers pass through the city: the Po and three of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia
Dora Riparia
(once known as Duria Minor by the Romans, from the Celtic noun duria meaning "water"), the Stura di Lanzo and the Sangone. Climate[edit] Turin
Turin
is located on the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa) in contrast to the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the coast of Italy. Winters are moderately cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less frequent but heavier (thunderstorms are frequent). During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains[22] but rarely on the city because of its location at the end of the Susa Valley. Its position on the east side of the Alps
Alps
makes the weather drier than on the west side because of the föhn wind effect. The highest temperature ever recorded was 37.1 °C (98.8 °F), while the lowest was −21.8 °C (−7.2 °F).

Climate data for Torino, Giardini Reali, 1971–2000, extremes 1946–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 25.1 (77.2) 24.8 (76.6) 27.4 (81.3) 31.0 (87.8) 32.3 (90.1) 35.6 (96.1) 36.8 (98.2) 37.1 (98.8) 32.2 (90) 30.0 (86) 22.8 (73) 21.4 (70.5) 37.1 (98.8)

Average high °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 9.1 (48.4) 13.4 (56.1) 16.6 (61.9) 20.7 (69.3) 24.8 (76.6) 27.9 (82.2) 27.1 (80.8) 23.0 (73.4) 17.3 (63.1) 11.1 (52) 7.6 (45.7) 17.1 (62.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.1 (35.8) 4.3 (39.7) 8.1 (46.6) 11.1 (52) 15.5 (59.9) 19.4 (66.9) 22.4 (72.3) 21.8 (71.2) 17.8 (64) 12.4 (54.3) 6.5 (43.7) 3.1 (37.6) 12.0 (53.6)

Average low °C (°F) −2.5 (27.5) −0.7 (30.7) 2.7 (36.9) 5.7 (42.3) 10.4 (50.7) 14.0 (57.2) 16.9 (62.4) 16.5 (61.7) 12.7 (54.9) 7.4 (45.3) 1.9 (35.4) −1.6 (29.1) 7.0 (44.6)

Record low °C (°F) −18.5 (−1.3) −21.8 (−7.2) −10.5 (13.1) −3.8 (25.2) −2.3 (27.9) 4.3 (39.7) 6.6 (43.9) 6.3 (43.3) 1.8 (35.2) −3.9 (25) −8.2 (17.2) −13.8 (7.2) −21.8 (−7.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 47.8 (1.882) 47.1 (1.854) 72.5 (2.854) 113.3 (4.461) 145.3 (5.72) 104.3 (4.106) 70.5 (2.776) 76.1 (2.996) 83.8 (3.299) 106.1 (4.177) 69.1 (2.72) 45.1 (1.776) 981.0 (38.622)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.4 4.4 5.8 8.6 11.2 8.6 5.8 7.7 6.4 7.0 5.6 4.4 80.9

Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 67 72 75 74 72 73 75 79 80 80 75

Mean monthly sunshine hours 111.6 118.7 158.1 180.0 195.3 219.0 260.4 223.2 168.0 142.6 105.0 108.5 1,990.4

Source: Italian Air Force Meteorological Service[23][24][25]

Administration[edit]

Closer bird-eye view to the city

See also: List of mayors of Turin Turin
Turin
is split up into 10 boroughs, locally called circoscrizioni; these do not necessarily correspond to the historical districts of the city, which are rather called quartieri, rioni, borghi, borgate or zone. The following list numerates the present day boroughs and today's location of the historical districts inside them:

Circoscrizione 1: Centro – Crocetta Circoscrizione 2: Santa Rita – Mirafiori Nord Circoscrizione 3: San Paolo – Cenisia – Pozzo Strada – Cit Turin – Borgata Lesna Circoscrizione 4: San Donato – Campidoglio – Parella Circoscrizione 5: Borgo Vittoria – Madonna di Campagna
Madonna di Campagna
– Lucento – Vallette Circoscrizione 6: Barriera di Milano – Regio Parco – Barca – Bertolla – Falchera – Rebaudengo – Villaretto Circoscrizione 7: Aurora – Vanchiglia – Sassi – Madonna del Pilone Circoscrizione 8: San Salvario – Cavoretto – Borgo Po Circoscrizione 9: Nizza Millefonti – Lingotto
Lingotto
– Filadelfia Circoscrizione 10: Mirafiori Sud

The mayor of Turin
Turin
is directly elected every five years. The current mayor of the city is Chiara Appendino:

Name of the Mayor: Chiara Appendino Date of election: 20 June 2016 Party: Five Star Movement

Turin's City Council is composed of 50 members. Main sights[edit] City centre[edit] See also: Residences of the Royal House of Savoy

Via Roma

Turin's historical architecture is predominantly Baroque
Baroque
and was developed under the Kingdom of Savoy. Nonetheless the main street of the city centre, Via Roma, was built during the Fascist era (from 1931 to 1937) as an example of Italian Rationalism, replacing former buildings already present in this area. Via Roma runs between Piazza
Piazza
Carlo Felice and Piazza
Piazza
Castello. Buildings on the portion between Piazza
Piazza
Carlo Felice and Piazza
Piazza
San Carlo were designed by rationalist architect Marcello Piacentini. These blocks were built into a reticular system, composed by austere buildings in clear rationalist style, such as the impressive Hotel Principi di Piemonte and the former Hotel Nazionale in Piazza
Piazza
CLN. Porches are built in a continuous entablature and marked with double columns, to be consistent with those of Piazza
Piazza
San Carlo. The section of the street between Piazza
Piazza
San Carlo and Piazza
Piazza
Castello was built in eclectic style, with arcades characterised by Serliana-type arches. To this day Via Roma is the street featuring the most fashionable boutiques of the city.

Piazza
Piazza
San Carlo and the Caval 'd Brons (Bronze Horse in Piedmontese language) equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert.

Via Roma crosses one of the main squares of the city: the pedestrianized Piazza
Piazza
San Carlo, built by Carlo di Castellamonte in the 17th century. In the middle of the square stands the equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert, also known as Caval ëd Brons in local dialect ("Bronze Horse"); the monument depicts the Duke sheathing his sword after the Battle of St. Quentin. Piazza
Piazza
San Carlo arcades host the most ancient cafés of the city, such as Caffé Torino and Caffé San Carlo.

Piazza
Piazza
Castello with Palazzo
Palazzo
Reale (Royal Palace) in the background.

On the northern edge of Via Roma stands Piazza
Piazza
Castello, regarded as the heart of the city. The half-pedestrianized square hosts some significant buildings such as Palazzo
Palazzo
Reale (Former Savoy Royal House), the Palazzo
Palazzo
Madama (which previously hosted the Savoy senate and, for few years, the Italian senate after Italian unification), the former Baroque
Baroque
Teatro Regio di Torino
Teatro Regio di Torino
(rebuilt in modern style in the 1960s, after being destroyed by fire) and the Royal Library of Turin which hosts the Leonardo da Vinci self-portrait. Moreover, Piazza Castello hosts a Fascist era building, the Torre Littoria, a sort of skyscraper which was supposed to become the headquarters of the Fascist party, although it never served as such. The building's style is quite different from the Baroque
Baroque
style of Piazza
Piazza
Castello. The square regularly hosts the main open space events of the city, live concerts included.

Porta Nuova main railway station, in front of Piazza
Piazza
Carlo Felice square (before restyling).

As for the southern part of the street, Via Roma ends in Piazza
Piazza
Carlo Felice and in its Giardino Sambuy, a wide fenced garden right in the middle of the square. Across from Piazza
Piazza
Carlo Felice stands the monumental façade of Porta Nuova railway station, the central station of the city built between 1861 and 1868 by the architect Alessandro Mazzucchetti. The passengers building was renovated to host a shopping mall and more efficient passenger service offices. However, it is still an example of monumental architecture, with its stately foyer and some Baroque
Baroque
sights, such as the Sala Reale (the former Royal waiting room).

Piazza
Piazza
Vittorio Veneto
Veneto
square.

In Piazza
Piazza
Castello converge some of the main streets of the city centre. Among them one of the most significant is the arcaded Via Po, built by Amedeo di Castellamonte in 1868 and featuring some interesting buildings, such as the first and original building of the University of Turin
University of Turin
and the historical Caffè Fiorio, which was the favourite café of the 19th-century politicians. Via Po ends in Piazza Vittorio Veneto
Veneto
(simply called Piazza
Piazza
Vittorio locally), the largest Baroque
Baroque
square in Europe and today heart of Turin
Turin
nightlife. Piazza Vittorio features the most fashionable bars and not far from here, along the Po riverfront, the Murazzi quays used to host several bars and nightclubs open till the morning until a few years ago.

Baroque
Baroque
façade of Palazzo
Palazzo
Carignano, the Museum of the Risorgimento.

Parallel to Via Roma, other two popular pedestrian streets, namely Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto, cross the old town from Via Po to Corso Vittorio Emanuele II. Their recent pedestrianisation has improved their original commercial vocation. In particular, Via Lagrange has recently increased the presence of luxury boutiques. This street also hosts the Egyptian Museum of Turin, home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto cross two significant squares of the city, respectively. The former crosses Piazza
Piazza
Carignano, well known mainly for the undulating “concave – convex – concave” Baroque
Baroque
façade of Palazzo
Palazzo
Carignano. This building used to host the Parlamento Subalpino (the “Subalpine Parliament”, Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
which also became the Italian Parliament for a few years, after the Italian unification) and today houses the Museum of the Risorgimento. The square also features the Teatro Carignano, a well-conserved Baroque
Baroque
theatre. Via Carlo Alberto crosses Piazza
Piazza
Carlo Alberto, a big square hosting the rear façade of Palazzo
Palazzo
Carignano, in eclectic style. On the other side stands the monumental Biblioteca Nazionale (National Library).

Mole Antonelliana
Mole Antonelliana
some years ago.

Not far from Via Po stands the symbol of Turin, namely the Mole Antonelliana, so named after the architect who built it, Alessandro Antonelli. Construction began in 1863 as a Jewish synagogue. Nowadays it houses the National Museum of Cinema
National Museum of Cinema
and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world at 167 metres (548 feet). The building is depicted on the Italian 2-cent coin.

Dome of Turin
Turin
Cathedral.

Just behind Piazza
Piazza
Castello stands the Turin
Turin
Cathedral, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, which is the major church of the city. It was built during 1491–1498 and is adjacent to an earlier bell tower (1470). Annexed to the cathedral is the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, the current resting place of the Shroud of Turin. The Chapel was added to the structure in 1668–1694, designed by Guarini. The Basilica of Corpus Domini was built to celebrate an alleged miracle which took place during the sack of the city in 1453, when a soldier was carrying off a monstrance containing the Blessed Sacrament; the monstrance fell to the ground, while the host remained suspended in air. The present church, erected in 1610 to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of Ascanio Vitozzi.

Palatine Towers.

Next to the Turin Cathedral
Turin Cathedral
stand the Palatine Towers, an ancient Roman-medieval structure that served as one of four Roman city gates along the city walls of Turin. This gate allowed access from north to the cardo maximus, the typical second main street of a Roman town. The Palatine Towers
Palatine Towers
are among the best preserved Roman remains in northern Italy. Close to this site, the 51,300-square-metre (552,189-square-foot) Piazza
Piazza
della Repubblica plays host to the biggest open market in Europe, locally known as mercato di Porta Palazzo
Palazzo
(Porta Palazzo
Palazzo
or Porta Pila are the historical and local names of this area). West of the Porte Palatine stands the Quadrilatero Romano (Roman Quadrilateral), the old medieval district recently renewed. The current neighbourhood is characterised by its tiny streets and its several medieval buildings and today it is popular for its aperitivo bars and its small shops run by local artisans. The hub of the Quadrilatero is Piazza
Piazza
Emanuele Filiberto. South of the Quadrilatero Romano stands Via Garibaldi, another popular street of the city. It is a 1 km (0.6 mi) pedestrian street between Piazza
Piazza
Castello and Piazza
Piazza
Statuto which features some of the old shops of the city. Large Piazza
Piazza
Statuto is another example of Baroque
Baroque
square with arcades.

Porta Susa
Porta Susa
railway station.

Another main street of downtown is Via Pietro Micca, which starts in Piazza
Piazza
Castello and ends in the large Piazza
Piazza
Solferino. The street continues in Via Cernaia up to Piazza
Piazza
XXV Dicembre, which features the former Porta Susa
Porta Susa
passengers building, relocated in 2012 a little more southward. The new and larger passengers building is situated between Corso Bolzano
Bolzano
and Corso Inghilterra and is an example of contemporary architecture, being a 300-metre-long (980-foot) and 19-metre-high (62-foot) glass and steel structure. Porta Susa
Porta Susa
is currently the international central station of the city (high speed trains to Paris) and it is becoming the central hub of railway transportation of the city, being the station in which local trains (so-called Ferrovie Metropolitane), national trains and high-speed national and international trains converge. Close to Via Cernaia stands the Cittadella (Citadel), located in the Andrea Guglielminetti garden. What remains of the old medieval and modern fortress of the city, it is a starting point for a tour into the old underground tunnels below the city. San Salvario[edit]

Borgo Medievale.

Castello del Valentino
Castello del Valentino
in Parco del Valentino.

Southeast of the city centre stands San Salvario district, which extends from Corso Vittorio Emanuele II to Corso Bramante and is delimited by the Turin- Genoa
Genoa
railway on the west side and by the Po river on the east side. Home to an increasing immigrants' community, the district is an example of integration among different cultures; it also features an incremented nightlife after the opening of several low-cost bars and restaurants. San Salvario is crossed by two main roads, Via Nizza and Via Madama Cristina, and just as the city centre it is characterized by the grid plan typical of Turin's old neighbourhoods. The hub of the district is Piazza
Piazza
Madama Cristina which hosts a big open market, while several commercial activities flourish around it. The celebrated Parco del Valentino
Parco del Valentino
is situated in the east side of San Salvario and, albeit not in downtown, it represents kind of central park of Turin. Thanks to the vicinity to the city centre, the park is very popular among the local people, during the day but also at night, because of the several bars and nightclubs placed here. From the terraces of Parco del Valentino, many sights of the hills on the other side of the river can be appreciated. In the centre of the park stands the Castello del Valentino, built in the 17th century. This castle has a horseshoe shape, with four rectangular towers, one at each angle, and a wide inner court with a marble pavement. The ceilings of the false upper floors are in transalpino (i.e. French) style. The façade sports the huge coat of arms of the House of Savoy. Another cluster of buildings in the park is the Borgo Medievale (Medieval village), a replica of medieval mountain castles of Piedmont and Aosta
Aosta
Valley, built for the 1884 International Exhibition. Other buildings in Corso Massimo d' Azeglio
Azeglio
include the Torino Esposizioni complex (Turin's exhibition hall built in the 1930s) featuring a monumental entrance with a large full height porch, the circular building which hosts a night club, and the Teatro Nuovo, a theatre mostly focused on ballets exhibitions. Another building is the largest synagogue of the city, located in Piazzetta Primo Levi
Primo Levi
square. Its architecture stands in the main sight of the city, as characterised by four large towers – 27 metres (89 feet) high – topped by four onion-shaped domes. Crocetta[edit]

Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II

Turinese Institute of Technology
Institute of Technology
Politecnico

The Spina Centrale is a new under-construction boulevard built over the undergrounded railway. It is already completed in Crocetta

South of Centro stands the Crocetta district, considered one of the most exclusive districts of the city, because of high rated residential buildings. Heart of the district is the partially pedestrianized area crossed by Corso Trieste, Corso Trento
Trento
and Corso Duca D'Aosta, plenty of some notable residential buildings in eclectic, neo-Gothic and Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style. The area was built between 1903 and 1937 replacing the old parade ground, which was moved in the Southern part of the city. North of this area stands the GAM (Galleria d'Arte Moderna), one of the two Museum of Modern Arts of the Turin Metro
Turin Metro
area (the second and largest one is hosted in Castello di Rivoli, a former Savoy Royal castle in the suburbs). The Museum stands in front a huge monument situated in the centre of the roundabout between Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and Corso Galileo Ferraris: the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, a King of Savoy statue situated on a 39-meters high column. Next to the Museum, another significant residential building hosts the head office of Juventus, one of the two main Turin
Turin
football clubs. West of this area the main building of Polytechnic University of Turin stands along Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi. The 1958 building, a 122,000-square-metre (1,313,197-square-foot) complex, hosts approximately 30,000 students and is considered one of the major Institutes of Technology of the country – mainly due to the vocation of the city for the industrialization, pushed by the automotive sector. This institute recently expanded in the western district of Cenisia with additional modern buildings. Crocetta is crossed by large and modern avenues, such as Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, Corso Galileo Ferraris, and Corso Einaudi. These avenues feature endless rows of trees which are a symbol of Turin's typical urbanity. However, the most popular avenue is Corso De Gasperi, which, albeit smaller than other avenues of the district, hosts one of the most fashionable open markets of the city, the so-called Mercato della Crocetta, in which it is possible to find some discounted branded clothing among the more popular ones. The Western border of Crocetta is instead an example of contemporary architecture. The huge avenue, made up of Corso Mediterraneo and Corso Castelfidardo, is part of Spina Centrale boulevard and was recently built over the old railway (now undergrounded): as a result, the avenue is very large (up to 60 metres (200 feet)) and modern, having been rebuilt with valuable materials, including a characteristic lighting system supported by white high poles. This avenue hosts some examples of contemporary art, such as Mario Merz's Igloo fountain or the Per Kirkeby's Opera per Torino monument in Largo Orbassano. The East side of the district is also known as Borgo San Secondo and was so named after the church of the same name standing in Via San Secondo, a major street in the neighbourhood. This area is located near Porta Nuova railway station and is actually older than the rest of the district, featuring several apartment buildings from the late 19th century. A local open market is held in Piazza
Piazza
San Secondo and along Via Legnano. The market square also hosts the former washhouse and public baths of the neighbourhood, among the oldest examples of their kind in Turin
Turin
(1905). One of the main thoroughfares crossing Borgo San Secondo is Via Sacchi, which serves as an ideal gate to the city centre: its Serlian arcades on the west side of the street (the east side is enclosed by Porta Nuova railway station service buildings) host some significant boutiques and hotels, such as the historic Pfatisch pastry shop and the Turin
Turin
Palace Hotel (totally refurbished and reopened in 2015). South of Via Sacchi, Ospedale Mauriziano is one of the ancient and major hospitals of the city. Going further southwards, it is possible to appreciate an interesting residential cluster of old public housing gravitating around Via Arquata. Cenisia[edit]

General Motors
General Motors
Turinese headquarters

Bordered by Corso Castelfidardo, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, Corso Trapani and Corso Peschiera, this small district is mainly significant for hosting the recent expansion of Turinese Institute of Technology Politecnico. The expansion was possible after under-grounding the railway under Corso Castelfidardo and the subsequent disposal of the old buildings dedicated to the train maintenance present in this area (so called Officine Grandi Riparazioni or OGR). Politecnico expanded its facilities trough two huge overpass buildings over the avenue, linked to new buildings on the west side. This cluster of buildings forms an evocative square with a unique architectural style. The main building on the west side hosts a General Motors
General Motors
research centre, the General Motors
General Motors
Global Propulsion Systems (formerly known as General Motors Powertrain Europe). Politecnico area extends till Via Boggio with further facilities hosted in the former OGR facilities. The Institute plans to further build new facilities in the current parking area. North of Politecnico facilities, the main building of the OGR former cluster, which consists in three 180-meters long joint parallel buildings, became recently a big open space which hosts temporary exhibitions and during the hot seasons, its external spaces became a fashionable site to have a typical Italian aperitivo. North of OGR, a former prison complex called Le Nuove is a significant example of old European prison building. The complex was built between 1857 and 1869 during the reign of Victor Emmanuel II. After being disposed of during the 1990s, the complex was changed into a museum and it is possible to visit its facilities. An example of contemporary art is the heating plant in Corso Ferrucci, which has been covered with aluminium panels. Another building (19th century), now abandoned, is the former Westinghouse factory of train brakes situated in Via Borsellino. The remaining part of the district is mainly formed by residential buildings with not significant architectural value. The district had its development mainly after the World War II, following the industrial development of the town – in particular, the expansion of Lancia
Lancia
automotive factories in the Borgo San Paolo neighbourhood, culminated in the construction of Palazzo
Palazzo
Lancia
Lancia
in 1954, the company's former headquarters. Industrialization led to consequent population growth in the nearby areas, including Cenisia. Main avenues which are crossing the district are Corso Ferrucci and Corso Racconigi. This last one is hosting a huge daily open market, the Mercato di Corso Racconigi. Cit Turin[edit]

Casa della Vittoria

The smallest district of the city is Cit Turin
Turin
("Little Turin" in Piedmontese language). This small triangle surrounded by Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, Corso Francia and Corso Inghilterra hosts some high rated residential buildings and is regarded as a prestigious residential neighbourhood by local people.

Intesa Sanpaolo
Intesa Sanpaolo
banking group headquarters

The district features many buildings in Art Nouveau, Art Deco
Art Deco
and Neo-Gothic
Neo-Gothic
style. Among them, one of the most impressive and well-known is the Casa Della Vittoria (architect Gottardo Gussoni). Another notable example is Casa Fenoglio-Lafleur. Both buildings face Corso Francia. The district is well known for its commercial vocation mainly in its two main streets, Via Duchessa Jolanda and Via Principi d'Acaja, ideally crossing each other among the gardens Giardino Luigi Martini, locally called Piazza
Piazza
Benefica, which hosts a popular open market. The district is also characterised by two massive recent buildings: the Palazzo
Palazzo
di Giustizia, Turin's new courthouse built in the 1990s (in a 350-metre long facility), and the first real skyscraper of Turin, the Torre Intesa Sanpaolo,[26] which house the headquarters of one of the major Italian private banks. San Donato[edit]

Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita

San Donato district is located between Corso Francia, Corso Lecce, Corso Potenza, Via Nole, the Parco Dora and Corso Principe Oddone. It was populated since the medieval era, but becomes bigger during the 19th century, prospering around the canal Canale di San Donato, which does not exist any more, currently replaced by the central street of the district, Via San Donato. Buildings in the district are relatively recent (around 1820), except for the oldest group of small houses located in the area of Brusachœr ( Palazzo
Palazzo
Forneris building) located along Via Pacinotti near the small Piazza
Piazza
Paravia. The conservation of the street and of this old building influences the straightness of Via San Donato, which makes a slight curve to result in parallel with Via Pacinotti before ending in central Piazza
Piazza
Statuto square. Main church of the district is the Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita, which with its 83 metres (272 feet) height of its bell tower, is well known to be the fifth tallest structure in the city of Turin, after the Mole Antonelliana, the Intesa-Sanpaolo skyscraper, the Torre Littoria
Torre Littoria
and the two pennons of the Juventus Stadium. The church is hosting the Istituto Suore Minime di Nostra Signora del Suffragio and it was promoted and designed by Francesco Faà di Bruno. The legend says, that he wanted to build the tallest bell tower of the town and put a clock on the top, to all the poor people to know the time for free. The small building near the church, is what remains of Casa Tartaglino, a small residential building which was also extended and modified by Faa di Bruno. Villino Cibrario in Via Saccarelli is another significant building designed by Barnaba Panizza in 1842. The building was equipped with a large garden which was eliminated to host the street. The neighbourhood has a high concentration of historic buildings in Art Nouveau style designed by architect Pietro Fenoglio (among the others, the prestigious Villino Raby in Corso Francia 8). Other significant buildings are the Villa Boringhieri in Via San Donato, and other Art Nouveau and Neo-Gothic
Neo-Gothic
buildings are situated in Via Piffetti and Via Durandi. Among the modern buildings of the district, the most significant one is of course the Torre BBPR Tower (which took the name from the architecture office who designed it). The building is representing the post-rationalism Italian architecture (same style of the better known Torre Velasca
Torre Velasca
tower in the city of Milan). Tower is facing the central Piazza
Piazza
Statuto square. District is crossed by some significant avenues: on Corso Svizzera, which crosses the district from North To South, faces the Business Centre Piero Della Francesca, where the offices of Tuttosport, one of the three national sports daily newspapers has its head offices. Also on Corso Svizzera, stands one of the oldest hospitals of the city, the Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia, specialised in infectious diseases. Other major avenues are Corso Umbria
Umbria
and Corso Tassoni. Another big avenue, which border the district on its East, is Corso Principe Oddone, which in the past was along the railway to Milan. Currently the railway has been under-grounded: the avenue will be enlarged and have same architecture style of southern Corso Inghilterra in downtown, becoming one of the major avenue of Turin. Northern part of the district was part of the former industrial district of Turin, recently reconverted to a park called Parco Dora. Mainly, in San Donato the portion reconverted was the one occupied by the plant of Michelin
Michelin
(west of Via Livorno) and FIAT
FIAT
ironwork plants (on the East). Differently for other portions of Parco Dora, this part has been totally reconverted to park without letting any evidence of the industrial area except for the cooling tower which stands along Corso Umbria
Umbria
and became a symbol of the park. Works are completed in the western area, where Corso Mortara has been closed to traffic and moved just a bit northern and covered by an artificial tunnel. It is possible to access the southern shore of the Dora river. South of the Park, an interesting architecture of different levels is hosting a new shopping mall called Centro Commerciale Parco Dora. East of Via Livorno, works are still partially in progress, with the Dora river still to be uncovered by a big slab, on which the FIAT
FIAT
plants used to stand). West of Via Livorno, the Environment Park is a research centre for renewable energy. Aurora[edit]

Cortile del Maglio

Tiny streets of Borgo Dora

Aurora is one of the most ancient districts which developed out of the medieval city walls, north of the historical city centre. It stretches from downtown northern boundaries in Corso Regina Margherita (an extended and important thoroughfare of Turin) up to Corso Vigevano and Corso Novara
Novara
in the North Side (namely the old excise boundary till the early 20th century); the western boundary is Corso Principe Oddone (now part of the Spina Centrale boulevard) and the eastern border is the Dora river. The district was named Aurora after the so-called cascina Aurora, an old farmstead lying north of the Dora river, right at the intersection between Corso Giulio Cesare and Corso Emilia. The farmstead has long been demolished and the area has been converted to office buildings, hosting the Turinese textile company Gruppo Finanziario Tessile (GFT) headquarters until the early 21st century. The historical hub of the district is Borgo Dora (The "Dora Borough"), a small neighbourhood next to Porta Palazzo
Palazzo
and enclosed by Corso Regina Margherita, Via Cigna, the Dora river and Corso Giulio Cesare. Once known as Borgo del Pallone (literally "Ball Borough") or Balon in Piedmontese dialect
Piedmontese dialect
(locally [baˈlun]), this neighbourhood is famous for its mercatino del Balon or simply Balon, the Turinese flea market that opens every Saturday in its tiny and twisted streets. Borgo Dora hosts several remarkable places, such as: Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza ("Little House of the Divine Providence"), also known as Cottolengo, a well-known charitable organization which has been operating for almost 200 years in the city; Arsenale della Pace ("Arsenal of Peace"), a former weapons factory that currently hosts the headquarters of SERMIG (Servizio Missionario Giovani), a nonprofit association which assists poor and homeless people; Caserma Cavalli ("Cavalli Barracks"), one of the most representative buildings of the district, a former barracks topped by a clock tower which now hosts Scuola Holden, a storytelling and performing arts school; the evocative Cortile del Maglio ("Mallet Courtyard"), a covered pedestrian area featuring bars and clubs. Across from Cortile del Maglio and Arsenale della Pace stands a wide pedestrian area which features a hot air balloon, a clear allusion to the neighbourhood's old name Balon: recently installed, the balloon is open to public which can now take an interesting view of the city from this new high observation point.

Caserma Cavalli, a former barracks now hosting Storytelling and Performing Arts Scuola Holden School

Disused Porta Milano railway station

Right at the borders of Borgo Dora stands part of Porta Palazzo
Palazzo
open market which hosts the New Exhibition Hall, designed by the Italian architect Massimiliano Fuksas. The building has replaced the Clothes Market, one of the four covered pavilions of Porta Palazzo
Palazzo
market, but unfortunately this glass green-shaded building has been highly criticized because of its lack of usability for commercial activities, albeit an example of contemporary architecture. Another interesting building at the borders of the neighbourhood is Porta Milano (a.k.a. stazione della Ciriè-Lanzo), a former 19th century railway station that marked the terminus of Ciriè-Lanzo railway line until the 1980s. To this day, the station is no longer in use as well as the rails up to Piazza
Piazza
Baldissera. The station building was recently renovated and now hosts some old locomotives, even though it is not open to the public. Unfortunately, the old rails crossing the district are totally disused and neglected, adding decay to the whole area. Borgo Dora, as many other pockets of Aurora, is characterized by the marked multi-ethnicity of its population, being home to a large community of immigrants from emerging countries.

Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice

West of Borgo Dora stands Rione Valdocco ("Valdocco neighbourhood"), enclosed by Via Cigna, Corso Regina Margherita, Corso Principe Oddone and the Dora river. This neighbourhood hosts the significant architecture of Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice ("Maria Ausiliatrice Sanctuary") in the homonymous square and behind the church stands San Pietro in Vincoli old cemetery. Overall, the main thoroughfares of the West side of Aurora are Via Cigna, which crosses the district from North to South, Corso Vercelli, a historical avenue starting north of the Dora river, and Corso Principe Oddone, part of the long Spina Centrale boulevard that will be built over the undergrounded Turin- Milan
Milan
railway. However, the Spina Centrale project is proceeding slowly because of the lack of funds and the boulevard is still occupied by a large worksite along its span. Once completed, Aurora district will be connected to Eastern San Donato, thanks to a better connection among the roads of the two adjacent districts (i.e. Corso Ciriè will continue in Corso Gamba and Strada del Fortino in Corso Rosai). As for the rest of Aurora, the district is crossed by an important thoroughfare named Corso Giulio Cesare, a long boulevard that extends from Porta Palazzo
Palazzo
up to Turin- Trieste
Trieste
motorway entrance in the Northern urban fringe of Turin. Other significant roads are Corso Palermo, Via Bologna
Bologna
and Corso Regio Parco, mostly in the East side of Aurora which is known as Borgo Rossini ("Rossini Borough"). Albeit not a road, the Dora river is also a significant element for the whole district, since it completely crosses it from West to East.

Lavazza, the famous Turinese coffee company, will soon move its headquarters in a new contemporary building in Aurora

Officine Grandi Motori (OGM) is a former FIAT
FIAT
factory producing big Diesel engines

The area north of the river features a mix of old residential buildings and remains of former factories and facilities from the 20th century. An example are the remains of FIAT
FIAT
Officine Grandi Motori (OGM) in Corso Vigevano, an old factory that produced big industrial and automotive Diesel engines, a sort of symbol of the industrial history of Turin. Another disused facility is Astanteria Martini ("Martini Emergency Department") in Via Cigna, a former emergency department from the 1920s which has been lying vacant since long. As for the old residential buildings of the area, this part of Aurora hosts the oldest public housing block of the city, built by Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari (IACP) in 1908 in lieu of an old dilapidated small farm once known as Chiabotto delle Merle. Despite its run down look, the famous Lavazza
Lavazza
coffee company, along with IAAD School of Design, chose this part of the city as the location for their new headquarters, which will be built in a contemporary building dubbed Nuvola ("Cloud") right at the borders of Borgo Rossini. Designed by the architect Gino Zucchi, this project is still a work in progress but excavations in the area revealed the remains of a medieval cemetery and an early Christian basilica; these findings will be preserved and will be shown to the public. Borgo Rossini hosts a number of businesses, for instance the Robe di Kappa flagship store (Kappa is a noted Italian sportswear brand founded in Turin) and the Cineporto ("Cineport") a.k.a. La Casa dei Produttori ("The Filmmakers' House", which hosts the Turin
Turin
Piedmont Film Commission Foundation). Vanchiglia[edit]

Fetta di Polenta, southern side

Fetta Di Polenta, northern side

Vanchiglia is bordered by Corso San Maurizio, Corso Regio Parco and the Po river, crossed also by the Dora Riparia
Dora Riparia
river and by two big avenues, Corso Regina Margherita and Corso Tortona. Borgo Vanchiglia is the historical district: a little triangle next to downtown, situated between Corso San Maurizio, Corso Regina Margherita and the Po river. The district is quite popular nowadays because being quite closer to the heart of Turin
Turin
nightlife Piazza
Piazza
Vittorio Veneto, many bars and restaurants opened recently in this area. However, Vanchiglia also includes the area called Vanchiglietta, north of Borgo Vanchiglia. Notable church in Borgo Vanchiglia is the French neo-Gothic Chiesa di Santa Giulia situated into Piazza
Piazza
Santa Giulia. A notable and unusual building in the area is the so-called "Fetta di Polenta" (literally: "polenta slice"), formerly known as Casa Scaccabarozzi. This building is located at the intersection of Corso San Maurizio and Via Giulia di Barolo, and it is one of the most peculiar examples of Turin
Turin
architecture: a thin trapezoid 27 meters wide on Via Giulia Di Barolo, 5 meters on Corso San Maurizio and just 0.70 meters wide on the topposite end. It was designed in 1840 by Alessandro Antonelli
Alessandro Antonelli
for his wife, Francesca Scaccabarozzi, probably because of a bet. The curious name comes from the shape of the palace, which resembles a "slice of polenta", and also because it is painted with an ocher color. In the surroundings, in Via Vanchiglia 8, (although in downtown and not really in Vanchiglia anymore) there is another trapezoid house, albeit with less exptreme design: similarly, this building is nicknamed "Fetta di Formaggio" (cheese slice), built in 1832 for the rich Marchese Birago di Vische
Vische
by the architect Antonio Talentino. Other notable buildings are the town public baths, eclectic building built in 1905 (Corso Regina Margherita crossing Via Vanchiglia), and theTeatro della Caduta theatre, opened in 2003 in Via Michele Buniva 23, which with its 45 seats is the smallest theater in Turin
Turin
and among the smallest theatres in Europe. In Corso Regina Margherita, another notable building is the former Opera pia Reynero, a charitable organization. The building was built in 1892. Being abandoned for a long time after it closed in 1996, it was then occupied by the Askatasuna Social Center, a non-profit anarchic organization, hosting since then various activities such as concerts, dinners, seminars and homeless solidarity initiatives.

Campus Luigi Einaudi

North of Corso Regina Margherita, district is losing the flavour and architecture typical of Turin
Turin
downtown, cause a significant portion of the district was formerly occupied by factories, nowadays partially abandoned or replaced by modern buildings. A significant example was the area occupied by gas companies between Corso Regina Margherita and the Dora river, which were partially demolished to make place to the new modern Faculty of Law building (Campus "Luigi Einaudi"), designed by the architect Norman Foster. This building was classified by the American television company CNN among the 10 most spectacular university buildings in the world.[27] In the campus courtyard, a large wood statue representig a bull (symbol of Turin) has been erected by Mario Ceroli. The area hosts also a student campus. Next to the campus, a new cycling and pedestrian bridge on the Dora river was opened on 16 April 2010, linking the campus area to Corso Verona. Bridge is entitled to the architect Franco Mellano. Parco Colletta is a big park area touched by the two rivers of the district, which also hosts some sport facilities, mainly football fields and a swimming pool. District is completed by the Cimitero Monumentale cemetery. This huge complex (formerly known as Cimitero Generale) is the largest cemetery in Turin, and among the first in Italy
Italy
for the number of buried people (over 400,000). It is located close to the Colletta park. The ancient part of the cemetery rises from the main entrance of Corso Novara
Novara
with his octagonal shape. It contains numerous historical tombs and 12 km of arcades, enriched by artistic sculptures (that's why is called "monumental cemetery"). Over the years there have been subsequent extensions of the central historical body in the direction of the Colletta park. In the cemetery there is a crematory temple built in 1882, the second largest in Italy
Italy
after that of Milan
Milan
one. Main churches[edit]

Turin Cathedral
Turin Cathedral
featuring the Chapel of the Holy Shroud.

Basilica of Superga.

See also: List of places of worship in Turin The Santuario della Consolata, a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the 10th-century Monastery of St. Andrew, and is a work by Guarini. It was sumptuously restored in 1903. Outside the city are: the Basilica of Our Lady, Help of Christians built by St. John Bosco, the Gran Madre built in 1818 on occasion of the return of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia
Sardinia
and Santa Maria del Monte (1583) on Monte dei Cappuccini. In the hills overlooking the city, the Basilica of Superga
Superga
provides a view of Turin
Turin
against a backdrop of the snow-capped Alps. The basilica holds the tombs of many of the dukes of Savoy, as well as many of the kings of Sardinia. Superga
Superga
can be reached by means of the Superga
Superga
Rack Railway from Sassi suburb. The Basilica of Superga
Superga
was built by Amadeus II of Savoy as an ex voto for the liberation of Turin
Turin
(1706), and served as a royal mausoleum since 1772.[28] Villas, parks and gardens[edit]

The medieval village in Valentino Park.

The most popular park in the city is Parco del Valentino. In 1961, during the celebrations of Italia61 ( Italian unification
Italian unification
centenary), an important international exhibition (FLOR61: Flowers of the world in Turin) took place in the park with 800 exhibitors from 19 countries. For the occasion the plan for the new lighting of the park, along with its fountains and paths, was assigned to Guido Chiarelli, the head engineer at the city hall. Other large parks are Parco della Pellerina, Parco Colletta, Parco Rignon, Parco Colonnetti and the University botanical gardens. Around the city, there are several other parks, such as La Mandria Regional Park and the Parco della Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi, once hunting grounds of the Savoy, and those situated on the hill of Turin. Many parks are smaller, located in the various districts: there is also a total of 240 playgrounds in these parks. In the early 1960s, mayor Amedeo Peyron had the first garden in Italy
Italy
with games for children inaugurated. According to a Legambiente report from 2007, Turin
Turin
is the first Italian city as far as structures and policies on childcare are concerned.[29] One of the most famous parks featuring a children's playground is Parco della Tesoriera, which is also home to Andrea della Corte Municipal Music Library; this facility is housed in a villa built in 1715 and was once the Royal Treasurer's residence. The park is located in Parella
Parella
suburb (Turin's West Side) and it plays host to various concerts in summer. Rosa Vercellana, commonly known as Rosina and, in Piedmontese as La Bela Rosin ("the beautiful Rosin"), was the mistress and later wife of King Victor Emmanuel II. She was made Countess of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda, but never Queen of Italy. As the Savoy family refused to allow her to be buried next to her husband in the Pantheon, her children had a mausoleum built for her in a similar form and on a smaller scale in Turin, next to the road to the Castello di Mirafiori. The circular copper-domed neoclassical monument, surmounted by a Latin cross and surrounded by a large park, was designed by Angelo Dimezzi and completed in 1888.[30][31] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1901 329,691 —    

1911 415,667 +26.1%

1921 499,823 +20.2%

1931 590,753 +18.2%

1936 629,115 +6.5%

1951 719,300 +14.3%

1961 1,025,822 +42.6%

1971 1,167,968 +13.9%

1981 1,117,154 −4.4%

1991 962,507 −13.8%

2001 865,263 −10.1%

2011 872,367 +0.8%

2015 897,265 +2.9%

Source: ISTAT 2001

In 2009, the city proper had a population of about 910,000, which is a significant increase on the 2001 census figure. This result is due to a growing immigration from Southern Italy
Italy
and abroad. Approximately 13.5 per cent (122.946) of the population is composed of foreigners, the largest numbers coming from Romania
Romania
(51,017), Morocco
Morocco
(22,511), Albania
Albania
(9,165), China
China
(5,483), and Moldova
Moldova
(3,417).[32] Like many Northern Italian cities, there is a large proportion of pensioners in comparison to youth. Around 18 per cent of the population is under 20 years of age, while 22 per cent is over 65.[33] The population of the Turin
Turin
urban area totals 1.7 million inhabitants, ranking fourth in Italy, while the Turin metropolitan area
Turin metropolitan area
has a population of 2.2 million inhabitants. The median age is 43.7.[4]

Largest groups of foreign residents[34]

Nationality Population (2017)

 Romania 52,988

 Morocco 17,253

 Peru 7,569

 China 7,543

 Albania 5,410

 Nigeria 4,938

 Egypt 4,762

 Moldova 3,958

 Philippines 3,745

 Brazil 1,697

 Senegal 1,669

 Bangladesh 1,446

 Ecuador 1,290

 Tunisia 1,239

other countries each <1000

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Turin

Fiat
Fiat
Lingotto
Lingotto
in 1928.

Turin
Turin
is a major automotive and aerospace centre, home of Fiat (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino; Turin
Turin
Italian Automobiles Factory), part of Fiat
Fiat
Chrysler Automobiles group, the sixth largest automotive company in the world. In 2008 the city generated a GDP of $68 billion, ranking as the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power,[11] and 16th in Europe, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers.[35] The city has been ranked in 2010 by Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Globalization and World Cities Research Network
as a Gamma level city. Other companies operating in Turin
Turin
are Maserati, Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Iveco, Pininfarina, Bertone, Sparco, Italdesign Giugiaro, General Motors, New Holland, Comau, Magneti Marelli, Graziano Oerlikon, Ghia, Fioravanti (automotive), Rai (national broadcasting company), Banca Intermobiliare, Intesa Sanpaolo, Reale Mutua (finance), Invicta, Kappa, Superga
Superga
(fashion), Ferrero, Lavazza, Martini & Rossi (food & beverage). The city is also well known for its aerospace industry Alenia Aeronautica, Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space
and Avio. The International Space Station modules Harmony, Columbus, Tranquility, as well as the Cupola and all MPLMs were produced in Turin. The future European launcher projects beyond Ariane 5
Ariane 5
will also be managed from Turin
Turin
by the new NGL company, a subsidiary of EADS
EADS
(70%) and Aircraft Division of Leonardo (30%). Culture[edit] Tourism[edit]

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy Torino

Stupinigi: One of the Savoy royal houses in Turin

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Location Province of Turin, Metropolitan City of Turin, Duchy of Savoy, Q28769238, Pô, Italy
Italy

Coordinates 45°04′N 7°42′E / 45.07°N 7.7°E / 45.07; 7.7

Area 130.17 km2 (1.4011×109 sq ft)

Includes

Q36617857 Q36618125 Q36618297 Q36618481 Q36618680 Q36618723 Q36618792 Q36618827 Q36618857 Q36618875

Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iv, v

Reference 823

Inscription 1997 (21st Session)

Website www.comune.torino.it

Location of Turin

[edit on Wikidata]

Turin, as the former capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
and the Kingdom of Italy, is home of the Savoy Residences. In addition to the 17th-century Royal Palace, built for Madama Reale Christine Marie of France
France
(the official residence of the Savoys until 1865) there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns. Turin
Turin
is home to Palazzo
Palazzo
Chiablese, the Royal Armoury, the Royal Library, Palazzo
Palazzo
Madama, Palazzo
Palazzo
Carignano, Villa della Regina, and the Valentino Castle. The complex of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
House of Savoy
in Turin
Turin
and in the nearby cities of Rivoli, Moncalieri, Venaria Reale, Agliè, Racconigi, Stupinigi, Pollenzo and Govone
Govone
was declared a World Heritage Sites by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1997. In recent years, Turin
Turin
has become an increasingly popular tourist destination, ranking 203rd in the world and 10th in Italy
Italy
in 2008, with about 240,000 international arrivals.[9]

The inside of the Egyptian Museum, the second largest in the world after the one in Cairo.

The Egyptian Museum of Turin
Turin
specialises in archaeology and anthropology, in particular the Art of Ancient Egypt. It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. In 2006 it received more than 500,000 visitors.[36] The Museum of Oriental Art houses one of the most important Asian art
Asian art
collections in Italy.[37][38] Other museums include the Puppet Museum, the Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile, the Museum of Human Anatomy Luigi Rolando, and the Museo Nazionale della Montagna (National Museum of the Mountains). The city is home to the well-known Shroud of Turin: a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist
John the Baptist
in the city centre. The origins of the shroud and its image are still the subject of intense debate among scientists, theologians, historians and researchers. It is popularly believed to be a depiction of Jesus Christ, however this matter is still controversial, as there seems to be a sufficient amount of historical and scientific evidence supporting the idea that it is, or is not, the Holy Face of Jesus. Nonetheless, it is a symbol of religious devotion and is one of the city's main symbols and tourist attractions. After it had been little more than a town for a long time, in 1559 the Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy made Turin
Turin
the capital of his domains. The Duke had ambition to transform the city into a major artistic and cultural capital, and in the following centuries numerous artists were to work at the Savoy court, especially architects and planners like Carlo di Castellamonte and his son Amedeo, Guarino Guarini and, in the 18th century, Filippo Juvarra
Filippo Juvarra
and Benedetto Alfieri. As for the painting and the visual arts, Turin
Turin
became a point of reference, especially in the 20th century. In the 1920s, the painter Felice Casorati inspired a number of students called The group of six of Turin
Turin
and these included Carlo Levi, Henry Paolucci, Gigi Chessa, Francis Menzio, Nicola Galante and Jessie Boswell. Artists born in Turin
Turin
include the sculptor Umberto Mastroianni
Umberto Mastroianni
and the architect Carlo Mollino. Between the 1960s and the 1970s, the international centre of Turin
Turin
(Arte Povera), the presence in the city of artists like Alighiero Boetti, Mario Merz, Giuseppe Penone, Piero Gilardi and Michelangelo Pistoletto. In those years there was a strong artistic influence of designer Armando Testa. Artists currently operating in the city include Ugo Nespolo
Ugo Nespolo
and Carol Rama. The Opera Houses[edit] One of these was Teatro Regio di Torino
Teatro Regio di Torino
where Puccini premiered his La Bohème in 1896. It burned down in 1936 and was rebuilt after WW II. Literature[edit]

National Library

A literary centre for many centuries, Turin
Turin
began to attract writers only after the establishment of the court of the Dukes of Savoy. One of the most famous writers of the 17th century was Giambattista Marino, which in 1608 moved to the court of Charles Emmanuel I. Marino suffered an assassination attempt by a rival, Gaspare Murtola, and was later imprisoned for a year because of gossip that he had said and written against the duke. Perhaps, because of this, in 1615 Marino left Turin
Turin
and moved to France. The main literary figures during the Baroque
Baroque
age in Turin
Turin
were Emanuele Tesauro
Emanuele Tesauro
and Alessandro Tassoni. In the next century Torino hosted the poet Vittorio Alfieri
Vittorio Alfieri
from Asti for a while. The situation was very different in the 19th century, especially since the city became a point of reference for Italian unification
Italian unification
and, subsequently, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Indeed, in those years Tommaseo, Settembrini and John Meadows resided in the city. A major literary and cultural woman of that time was Olimpia Savio. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Turin
Turin
was home to writers such as Guido Gozzano, Edmondo De Amicis, Emilio Salgari
Emilio Salgari
and Dino Segre, the latter known by the pseudonym of Pitigrilli.

Teatro Regio

Turin
Turin
had a very important role in Italian literature after World War II. For the publishing house founded by Giulio Einaudi worked figures such as Cesare Pavese, Italo Calvino, Vitaliano Brancati, Primo Levi, Natalia Ginzburg, Fernanda Pivano, Beppe Fenoglio, Carlo Fruttero
Carlo Fruttero
and Franco Lucentini. In more recent years, writers active in the city are Giovanni Arpino, Nico Orengo, Giuseppe Culicchia, Margherita Oggero, Laura Mancinelli, Alessandra Montrucchio, Alessandro Perissinotto, Guido Quartz, Piero Soria and Alessandro Baricco. Baricco was also among the founders of the Scuola Holden, dedicated to writing techniques teaching. In the local Piedmontese language
Piedmontese language
has a literary tradition, with names such as Nicoletto da Torino, Ignas Isler, author of epic poems, and Eduard Calv. Media[edit] Main article: List of radio stations in Turin After Alexandria, Madrid, New Delhi, Antwerp
Antwerp
and Montreal, Turin
Turin
was chosen by UNESCO
UNESCO
as World Book Capital for the year 2006. The International Book Fair is one of the most important fairs of its kind in Europe. Turin
Turin
is home to one of Italy's principal national newspapers, La Stampa, and the sports daily newspaper Tuttosport. The city is also served by other publications such as the Turin
Turin
editions of La Repubblica, il Giornale, Leggo, City, Metro and E Polis. RAI
RAI
has had a production centre in Turin
Turin
since 1954.

Turin
Turin
Book Expo

The Juventus
Juventus
Stadium in Turin

Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Turin The city has a rich sporting heritage as the home to two historically significant football teams: Juventus F.C.
Juventus F.C.
(founded in 1897) and Torino F.C. (founded in 1906). Juventus
Juventus
has the larger fan base, especially all over Italy
Italy
and worldwide, while Torino enjoys a greater support in the city itself. The two clubs contest the oldest derby in Italy, the Derby della Mole
Derby della Mole
or the Turin
Turin
derby.[39] Juventus
Juventus
is Italy's most successful football club and one of the most laureated in the world.[40] It ranks joint eighth in the list of the world's clubs with the most official international titles (fourth between European clubs).[41] and was the first in association football history — remaining the only one in the world (as of 2017[update]) — to have won all possible official continental competitions and the world title.[42] Juventus' owned ground, the Juventus
Juventus
Stadium, was inaugurated in 2011. The Juventus
Juventus
Stadium hosted the 2014 UEFA Europa League Final. This was the first time the city hosted a seasonal UEFA club competition's single-match final. Torino F.C.
Torino F.C.
was founded by the union of one of the oldest football teams in Turin, Football Club Torinese
Football Club Torinese
(founded in 1894), with breakaways from Juventus
Juventus
and was the most successful team, called "Grande Torino", in the Serie A
Serie A
during the 1940s. In 1949, in the Superga
Superga
air disaster, a plane carrying almost the whole team crashed into the Basilica of Superga
Superga
in the Turin
Turin
hills. Torino currently plays its home games at the Stadio Olimpico "Grande Torino", named after the team of the 1940s, which was the host stadiums for the 1934 FIFA World Cup and the venue of the XX Winter Olympics; moreover the team recently rebuilt the historic Stadio Filadelfia, used for games of the youth teams and trainings of the first squad, and seat of the team museum. The city hosted the final stages of the EuroBasket 1979. The most important basketball club team is the Auxilium Torino, founded in 2009, playing in Serie A. Turin
Turin
hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics
2006 Winter Olympics
in February 2006. Turin
Turin
is the largest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympics, and was the largest metropolitan area to host them at the time.[43][44][45] The City was awarded with the title of European Capital of Sport 2015.[46] The candidature sees the City strongly committed to increasing sports activities.[47][48][49] Cinema[edit]

The Mole Antonelliana

Turin
Turin
is the Italian city where film chromatography was first established. As such, it forms the birthplace of Italian cinema. Because of its historic, geographical and cultural proximity to France, Italian filmmakers were naturally influenced by French cinema and the Lumière brothers. The first Italian cinema
Italian cinema
screening occurred in Turin
Turin
in March 1896. In November 1896, Italian filmmakers performed the first cinema screening of a film before a fee-paying audience.[50] By the start of the 20th century (especially after 1907), a number of the first Italian films were aired in Turin. Examples include Giovanni Pastrone Cabiria, in 1914, one of the first blockbusters in history. The Turin-based company Ambrosio Film, established in 1906 by Arturo Ambrosio, was one of the leading forces in Italian cinema
Italian cinema
and boosted the importance of the city as a filmmaking destination. The company, noted in particular for its historical epics, produced a large number of films until it was dissolved in 1924. During the 1920s and 30s, Turin
Turin
hosted a number of film productions and major film studios (film houses), such as the Itala film, Aquila and Fert Studios. Today their heritage is located in the modern Lumiq Studios[51] and Virtual Reality Multi Media Spa [52][53] Turin's prominence in Italian film continued until 1937, the year Cinecittà was inaugurated in Rome. After World War II, the cinematic scene in Turin
Turin
continued to thrive. 1956 saw the opening of the National Museum of Cinema, first housed in the Palazzo
Palazzo
Chiablese and then, from 2000, in the imposing headquarters of the Mole Antonelliana. In 1982 the film critic Gianni Rondolino created Festival Internazionale Cinema Giovani,[54] which later became the Torino Film Festival. Today Turin
Turin
is one of the main cinematographic and television centres in Italy, thanks to the role of the Turin
Turin
Film Commission that reports the production of many feature films, soap operas and commercials. Turin
Turin
streets were the locations where Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
played War and Peace, Michael Caine
Michael Caine
drove a Mini Cooper in The Italian Job, Claudio Bisio becomes the president of the Italian Republic, Carlo Verdone
Carlo Verdone
set his version of Cinderella, Marco Tullio Giordana shot Piazza
Piazza
Fontana: The Italian Conspiracy, Woody Allen
Woody Allen
shot Hannah and Her Sisters, Cate Blanchett played Heaven, Giovanna Mezzogiorno
Giovanna Mezzogiorno
Vincere, Marcello Mastroianni and Jacqueline Bisset
Jacqueline Bisset
The Sunday Woman, and Harvey Keitel The Stone Merchant. Turin
Turin
also became the capital of the tsar for The Demons of St. Petersberg. Cuisine[edit]

The iconic Gianduiotto

Bicerin
Bicerin
served in its trademark rounded glass

Turin
Turin
chocolate firms, aside from many kinds of chocolate, produce a typical chocolate called Gianduiotto, named after Gianduja, a local Commedia dell'arte
Commedia dell'arte
mask. Moreover, the city is also known for the so-called bicerin, a traditional hot drink made of espresso, drinking chocolate and whole milk served layered in a small rounded glass. Every year Turin
Turin
organizes CioccolaTÒ, a two-week chocolate festival run with the main Piedmontese chocolate producers, such as Caffarel, Streglio, Venchi and others, as well as some big international companies, such as Lindt & Sprüngli. As for snack food, the now popular tramezzini were first served in a historic café of downtown Turin, namely Caffè Mulassano, where they were devised in 1925 as an alternative to English tea sandwiches.[55][56] In recent years, another trademark drink of the city is MoleCola, an Italian Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
that entered production in 2012 and quickly spread both in Italy
Italy
and outside its native country.[57] Local cuisine also features a particular type of pizza, so-called pizza al padellino or pizza al tegamino, which is basically a small-sized, thick-crust and deep-dish pizza typically served in several Turin
Turin
pizza places.[58][59][60] Since the mid-1980s, Piedmont
Piedmont
has also benefited from the start of the Slow Food
Slow Food
movement and Terra Madre, events that have highlighted the rich agricultural and vinicultural value of the Po valley
Po valley
and northern Italy. Education[edit]

Main page: Education in Turin

Turin
Turin
is home to one of Italy's oldest universities, the University of Turin, including its affiliated Collegio Carlo Alberto, which ranks among the best universities in the country. Another established university in the city is the Polytechnic University of Turin, ranking among Top 50 universities in the world and #1 in Italy
Italy
in the fields of engineering, technology and computer science ("Academic Ranking of World Universities" published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University). Turin also hosts the United Nations System Staff College, the European Training Foundation, and a campus of the ESCP Europe
ESCP Europe
business school, ranked among the 10 best business schools in Europe. Moreover, the city hosts three small English language post-secondary institutions: St. John International University, International University College of Turin, and the Turin
Turin
School of Development, as well as Buddies Elementary School. Transport[edit] See also: Gruppo Torinese Trasporti
Gruppo Torinese Trasporti
and ToBike

Porta Susa
Porta Susa
railway station

The city currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the 2006 Winter Olympics, parts of it had long been planned. Some of the work sites deal with general roadworks to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will radically change the shape of the city. One is the Spina Centrale ("Central Spine") project which includes the doubling of a major railway crossing the city, the Turin- Milan
Milan
railway locally known as Passante Ferroviario di Torino (" Turin
Turin
Railway Bypass"). The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard running from North to South of Turin, in a central position along the city. Porta Susa, on this section, will become Turin's main station to substitute the terminus of Porta Nuova with a through station. Other important stations are Stura, Rebaudengo, Lingotto
Lingotto
and Madonna di Campagna
Madonna di Campagna
railway stations, though not all of them belong to the layout of the Spina Centrale.

Turin
Turin
VAL metro station

The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system, known as Metrotorino. This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the city, but its first phase was finished in time for the 2006 Olympic Games, inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after. The first leg of the subway system linked the nearby town of Collegno with Porta Susa
Porta Susa
in Turin's city centre. On 4 October 2007 the line was extended to Porta Nuova and then, in March 2011, to Lingotto. A new extension of the so-called Linea 1 ("Line 1") is expected in the near future, reaching both Rivoli (up to Cascine Vica hamlet) in the Western belt of Turin
Turin
and Piazza
Piazza
Bengasi in the Southeast side of the city. Furthermore, an alleged Linea 2 is in the pipeline and it is supposed to cross Turin
Turin
from North to South. The main street in the city centre, Via Roma, runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when Via Roma itself was totally refurbished and took on its present-day aspect). The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but it is now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was ready in the 1970s, with government funding for it and for similar projects in Milan
Milan
and Rome. Whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin's local government led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary. The city has an international airport known as Caselle International Airport Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
(TRN), located in Caselle Torinese, about 13 km (8 mi) from the centre of Turin
Turin
and connected to the city by a railway service (from Dora Station) and a bus service (from Porta Nuova and Porta Susa
Porta Susa
railway stations). As of 2010[update] a bicycle sharing system, the ToBike, is operational. The metropolitan area is served by Turin
Turin
metropolitan railway service. Turin
Turin
Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Turin, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 65 min. 14.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 19% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5.9 km, while 9% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[61] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Turin International relations[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Turin
Turin
is twinned with:[62]

The Americas

Campo Grande, Brazil[62] Córdoba, Argentina[62] Detroit, United States[62] Rosario, Argentina[62][67] Quetzaltenango, Guatemala[62] Salt Lake City, United States[62][68][69]

Asia

Bethlehem, Palestine[70] Gaza, Palestine[62] Haifa, Israel[62] Nagoya, Japan[62] Shenyang, China[62]

Europe

Chambéry, France[62] Cologne, Germany[62] Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg[62] Glasgow, UK [62][63] Liège, Belgium[62] Lille, France[62][64] Rotterdam, Netherlands[62] Saint Petersburg, Russia[65] Tirana, Albania.[62] Volgograd, Russian Federation.[66]

Collaboration accords include:

Bacău, Romania[62] Barcelona, Spain[62] Lyon, France[62] Cannes, France[62] Gwangju, South Korea[62]

Harbin, China[62] Shenzhen, China[62][71][72][73] Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada[62] Zlín, Czech Republic[62] Bogotá, Colombia[62]

Districts

The 6th district (arrondissement ) of Turin
Turin
is twinned with:

Bagneux, France[74]

See also[edit]

Outline of Turin

References[edit]

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(Scotland)". City of Torino website. 2011. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2012.  ^ "Lile Facts & Figures". Mairie-Lille.fr. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2007.  ^ "Torino-San Pietroburgo, c'è l'intesa sull'asse strategico". LaStampa.it. 15 November 2012.  ^ "Friendly relationship". volgadmin.ru. Archived from the original on 2 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.  ^ "Town Twinning Agreements". Municipalidad de Rosario – Buenos Aires 711. Retrieved 14 October 2014.  ^ Sister Cities International (SCI). Sister Cities International. ^ "Our Sister Cities". Saltlakesistercities.com. Retrieved 6 February 2013.  ^ " Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Palestinian Territories – Agreement (2015) (International Affairs)". www.comune.torino.it. Retrieved 1 October 2015.  ^ 友好城市 (Friendly cities) Archived 19 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine., 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 22 March 2008. (Translation by Google Translate.) Archived 19 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List) Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., 20 January 2011. (Translation by Google Translate.) Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges) Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine., 13 September 2011. (Translation by Google Translate.) Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 22 August 2013. [dead link]

Turin
Turin
Museums  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Turin External links[edit] Media related to Turin
Turin
at Wikimedia Commons

Turin
Turin
City Hall Official website, tourist informations Weather Turin How to reach Turin? Turin
Turin
Pictures Turin
Turin
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Links to related articles

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Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Turin

Agliè Airasca Ala di Stura Albiano d'Ivrea Alice Superiore Almese Alpette Alpignano Andezeno Andrate Angrogna Arignano Avigliana Azeglio Bairo Balangero Baldissero Canavese Baldissero Torinese Balme Banchette Barbania Bardonecchia Barone Canavese Beinasco Bibiana Bobbio Pellice Bollengo Borgaro Torinese Borgiallo Borgofranco d'Ivrea Borgomasino Borgone Susa Bosconero Brandizzo Bricherasio Brosso Brozolo Bruino Brusasco Bruzolo Buriasco Burolo Busano Bussoleno Buttigliera Alta Cafasse Caluso Cambiano Campiglione-Fenile Candia Canavese Candiolo Canischio Cantalupa Cantoira Caprie Caravino Carema Carignano Carmagnola Casalborgone Cascinette d'Ivrea Caselette Caselle Torinese Castagneto Po Castagnole Piemonte Castellamonte Castelnuovo Nigra Castiglione Torinese Cavagnolo Cavour Cercenasco Ceres Ceresole Reale Cesana Torinese Chialamberto Chianocco Chiaverano Chieri Chiesanuova Chiomonte Chiusa di San Michele Chivasso Ciconio Cintano Cinzano Cirié Claviere Coassolo Torinese Coazze Collegno Colleretto Castelnuovo Colleretto Giacosa Condove Corio Cossano Canavese Cuceglio Cumiana Cuorgnè Druento Exilles Favria Feletto Fenestrelle Fiano Fiorano Canavese Foglizzo Forno Canavese Frassinetto Front Frossasco Garzigliana Gassino Torinese Germagnano Giaglione Giaveno Givoletto Gravere Groscavallo Grosso Grugliasco Ingria Inverso Pinasca Isolabella Issiglio Ivrea La Cassa La Loggia Lanzo Torinese Lauriano Leinì Lemie Lessolo Levone Locana Lombardore Lombriasco Loranzè Lugnacco Luserna San Giovanni Lusernetta Lusigliè Macello Maglione Mappano Marentino Massello Mathi Mattie Mazzè Meana di Susa Mercenasco Meugliano Mezzenile Mombello di Torino Mompantero Monastero di Lanzo Moncalieri Moncenisio Montaldo Torinese Montalenghe Montalto Dora Montanaro Monteu da Po Moriondo Torinese Nichelino Noasca Nole Nomaglio None Novalesa Oglianico Orbassano Orio Canavese Osasco Osasio Oulx Ozegna Palazzo
Palazzo
Canavese Pancalieri Parella Pavarolo Pavone Canavese Pecco Pecetto Torinese Perosa Argentina Perosa Canavese Perrero Pertusio Pessinetto Pianezza Pinasca Pinerolo Pino Torinese Piobesi Torinese Piossasco Piscina Piverone Poirino Pomaretto Pont-Canavese Porte Pragelato Prali Pralormo Pramollo Prarostino Prascorsano Pratiglione Quagliuzzo Quassolo Quincinetto Reano Ribordone Riva presso Chieri Rivalba Rivalta di Torino Rivara Rivarolo Canavese Rivarossa Rivoli Robassomero Rocca Canavese Roletto Romano Canavese Ronco Canavese Rondissone Rorà Rosta Roure Rubiana Rueglio Salassa Salbertrand Salerano Canavese Salza di Pinerolo Samone San Benigno Canavese San Carlo Canavese San Colombano Belmonte San Didero San Francesco al Campo San Germano Chisone San Gillio San Giorgio Canavese San Giorio di Susa San Giusto Canavese San Martino Canavese San Maurizio Canavese San Mauro Torinese San Pietro Val Lemina San Ponso San Raffaele Cimena San Sebastiano da Po San Secondo di Pinerolo Sangano Sant'Ambrogio di Torino Sant'Antonino di Susa Santena Sauze d'Oulx Sauze di Cesana Scalenghe Scarmagno Sciolze Sestriere Settimo Rottaro Settimo Torinese Settimo Vittone Sparone Strambinello Strambino Susa Tavagnasco Turin Torrazza Piemonte Torre Canavese Torre Pellice Trana Trausella Traversella Traves Trofarello Usseaux Usseglio Vaie Val della Torre Valgioie Vallo Torinese Valperga Valprato Soana Varisella Vauda Canavese Venaria Reale Venaus Verolengo Verrua Savoia Vestignè Vialfrè Vico Canavese Vidracco Vigone Villafranca Piemonte Villanova Canavese Villar Dora Villar Focchiardo Villar Pellice Villar Perosa Villarbasse Villareggia Villastellone Vinovo Virle Piemonte Vische Vistrorio Viù Volpiano Volvera

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Regional capitals of Italy

   

L'Aquila, Abruzzo Aosta, Aosta
Aosta
Valley Bari, Apulia Potenza, Basilicata

Catanzaro, Calabria Naples, Campania Bologna, Emilia-Romagna Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Rome, Lazio Genoa, Liguria Milan, Lombardy Ancona, Marche

Campobasso, Molise Turin, Piedmont Cagliari, Sardinia Palermo, Sicily

Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Florence, Tuscany Perugia, Umbria Venice, Veneto

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Cities in Italy
Italy
by population

1,000,000+

Rome Milan

500,000+

Naples Turin Palermo Genoa

200,000+

Bari Bologna Catania Florence Messina Padua Trieste Venice Verona

100,000+

Ancona Andria Arezzo Bergamo Bolzano Brescia Cagliari Ferrara Foggia Forlì Giugliano Latina Livorno Modena Monza Novara Parma Perugia Pescara Piacenza Prato Ravenna Reggio Calabria Reggio Emilia Rimini Salerno Sassari Syracuse Taranto Terni Trento Udine Vicenza

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Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
host cities

1924: Chamonix 1928: St. Moritz 1932: Lake Placid 1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: Cancelled due to World War II 1944: Cancelled due to World War II 1948: St. Moritz 1952: Oslo 1956: Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: Squaw Valley 1964: Innsbruck 1968: Grenoble 1972: Sapporo 1976: Innsbruck 1980: Lake Placid 1984: Sarajevo 1988: Calgary 1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City 2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: Pyeongchang 2022: Beijing 2026: TBD 2030: TBD

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Winter Paralympic Games
Winter Paralympic Games
host cities

1976: Örnsköldsvik 1980: Geilo 1984: Innsbruck 1988: Innsbruck

1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City

2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: PyeongChang

2022: Beijing

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European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

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European Youth Capitals

2009 Rotterdam 2010 Turin 2011 Antwerp 2012 Braga 2013 Maribor 2014 Thessaloniki 2015 Cluj-Napoca 2016 Ganja 2017 Varna 2018 Cascais 2019 Novi Sad 2020 Amiens

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World Book Capitals

2001: Madrid 2002: Alexandria 2003: New Delhi 2004: Antwerp 2005: Montreal 2006: Turin 2007: Bogotá 2008: Amsterdam 2009: Beirut 2010: Ljubljana 2011: Buenos Aires 2012: Yerevan 2013: Bangkok 2014: Port Harcourt 2015: Incheon 2016: Wrocław 2017: Conakry 2018: Athens 2019: Sharjah

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Tourism in Turin

Archaeological sites

Palatine Towers

Basilica and Cathedral

Turin
Turin
Cathedral

Shroud of Turin

Basilica of Corpus Domini Basilica of Our Lady Basilica of Superga Santuario della Consolata

Churches

Chapel of the Holy Shroud San Lorenzo Gran Madre di Dio Madonna del Pilone Monte dei Cappuccini San Dalmazzo Santa Teresa

Other

Castello del Valentino Mole Antonelliana Palazzo
Palazzo
Carignano Palazzo
Palazzo
Chiablese Palazzo
Palazzo
Madama University Library Villa della Regina Royal Palace with Armory and Royal Library

Theatres

Teatro Carignano Teatro Regio

Museums

Egyptian Museum Museum of Human Anatomy Luigi Rolando Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile Museum of the Risorgimento Oriental Art Museum National Museum of Cinema Sabauda Gallery Natural History Museum Ancient Art Museum

Gardens and parks

Parco del Valentino Botanical Garden

Events and traditions

Italian Environmental Film Festival Torino Film Festival Turin International
Turin International
Book Fair Terra Madre
Terra Madre
Salone del Gusto

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 35144782953960297898 ISNI: 0000 0001 2170 3379 GND: 40612

.