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TURIN (/tjᵿˈrɪn/ _tewr-IN_ ; Italian : _Torino_, pronounced (_ listen ); Piedmontese : Turin_, pronounced ) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy , capital of the Metropolitan City of Turin , of the Piedmont region and it was the first capital city of Italy. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River , in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch and by the Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 886.837 (31-12-2016) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.

In 1997 a part of the historical center of Torino was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy .

The city has a rich culture and history, and is known for its numerous art galleries , restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses , piazzas , parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance , Baroque , Rococo , Neo-classical , and Art Nouveau architecture.

Many of Turin's public squares , castles, gardens and elegant _palazzi _ such as Palazzo Madama , were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. This was after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy (later Kingdom of Sardinia ) was moved to Turin from Chambery (now in France) as part of the urban expansion.

The city used to be a major European political center. Turin was Italy's first capital city in 1861 and home to the House of Savoy , Italy's royal family. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy , then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy . Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the _Risorgimento _, such as Cavour .

The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin , founded in the 15th century, and the Turin Polytechnic . In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana . Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008.

Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II , Turin became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa . Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power. As of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city . Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry.

Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin , the football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C. , the headquarters of automobile manufacturers FIAT , Lancia and Alfa Romeo , and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Ancient origins

* 2.1 Roman times * 2.2 Middle Ages * 2.3 Early modern * 2.4 Late modern and contemporary

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Administration

* 5 Main sights

* 5.1 City centre * 5.2 San Salvario * 5.3 Crocetta * 5.4 Cenisia * 5.5 Cit Turin * 5.6 San Donato * 5.7 Aurora * 5.8 Main churches * 5.9 Villas, parks and gardens

* 6 Demographics * 7 Economy

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Tourism * 8.2 The Opera Houses * 8.3 Literature * 8.4 Media * 8.5 Sports * 8.6 Cinema * 8.7 Cuisine

* 9 Education

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Turin Public Transportation Statistics

* 11 Notable people * 12 International relations * 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Turin The Roman Palatine Towers . Historical affiliations Roman Republic 58–27 BC

Roman Empire 27 BC–285 AD Western Roman Empire 285–476 Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493 Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553 Eastern Roman Empire 553-569 Lombard Kingdom 569–773 Carolingian Empire 773–888 March of Ivrea 888–941 March of Turin 941–1046 County of Savoy 1046–1416 Duchy of Savoy 1416–1792 First French Republic 1792–1804 First French Empire 1804–1814 Kingdom of Sardinia 1814–1861 Kingdom of Italy 1861–1946 Italian Republic 1946–present

ANCIENT ORIGINS

The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River , in the center of modern Piedmont . Siege of Turin .

In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres . The Taurini chief town (_Taurasia_) was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of _Castra Taurinorum_ and afterwards _Julia Augusta Taurinorum_ (modern Turin). Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps , which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.

ROMAN TIMES

In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans created a military camp (_Castra Taurinorum_), later dedicated to Augustus (_Augusta Taurinorum_). The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the _Quadrilatero Romano_ (Roman Quadrilateral). Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the _Porta Decumani_, later incorporated into the _Castello_ or _ Palazzo Madama_. The _Porta Palatina_, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the _Manica Nuova_. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.

MIDDLE AGES

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire , the town was conquered by the Heruli , the Ostrogoths , the Byzantines , the Lombards , then the Franks of Charlemagne (773). The _Contea di Torino _ (countship) was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano 's son Otto , the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin (1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat , styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period.

EARLY MODERN

Turin in the 17th century.

Emmanuel Philibert , also known under the nickname of _Iron Head_ (Testa 'd Fer), made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale (named Piazza San Carlo today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the _ Palazzo Reale_ ( Royal Palace of Turin ) was also built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid.

In 1706, during the Battle of Turin , the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquired Sicily , soon traded for Sardinia , and part of the former Duchy of Milan , and was elevated to king; thus Turin became the capital of a European kingdom. The architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city; Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.

LATE MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY

A view of Turin in the late 19th century. In the background, the Mole Antonelliana under construction.

Turin, like the rest of Piedmont , was annexed by the French Empire in 1802. The city thus became the seat of the prefecture of Pô department until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia was restored with Turin as its capital. In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia led the struggle towards the unification of Italy . In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed united Kingdom of Italy until 1865, when the capital was moved to Florence , and then to Rome after the 1870 conquest of the Papal States . The 1871 opening of the Fréjus Tunnel made Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Mole Antonelliana , the Egyptian Museum , the Gran Madre di Dio church and _ Piazza Vittorio Veneto_ were built in this period. The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialization, especially in the automotive sector: in 1899 Fiat was established in the city, followed by Lancia in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the same event in 1911 . By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.

After World War I , harsh conditions brought a wave of strikes and workers' protests. In 1920 the Lingotto Fiat factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably Antonio Gramsci . On the other hand, Benito Mussolini largely subsidized the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army. Turin was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II , being heavily damaged in its industrial areas by the air raids. The Allied's campaign in Italy started off from the South and slowly moved northwards in the following two years, leaving the northern regions occupied by Germans and collaborationist forces for about a couple of years.

Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of 1945 . By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans , that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945. Days later, troops from the US Army's 1st Armored and 92nd Infantry Divisions came to substitute the Brazilians. _ Documenti inediti e sparsi sulla storia di Torino_ (1931)

In the postwar years, Turin was rapidly rebuilt. The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the Italian economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundred of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy. The number of immigrants was so big that Turin was said to be "the third southern Italian city after Naples and Palermo ". The population soon reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of _the Automobile Capital of Italy_ and _the Detroit of Italy_ ( Turin has been "twinned" with Detroit since 1998). In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years. The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 to slightly over 900,000 by the end of the century. In 2006, Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games .

GEOGRAPHY

Turin today

Turin is located in northwest Italy . It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural continuation of the hills of Monferrato . Four major rivers pass through the city: the Po and three of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia (once known as _Duria Minor_ by the Romans, from the Celtic noun _duria_ meaning "water"), the Stura di Lanzo and the Sangone .

CLIMATE

Turin is located on the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification _Cfa_) in contrast to the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the coast of Italy.

Winters are moderately cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less frequent but heavier (thunderstorms are frequent). During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains but rarely on the city because of its location at the end of the Susa Valley .

Its position on the east side of the Alps makes the weather drier than on the west side because of the föhn wind effect.

The highest temperature ever recorded was 37.1 °C (98.8 °F), while the lowest was −21.8 °C (−7.2 °F).

CLIMATE DATA FOR TORINO, GIARDINI REALI, 1971–2000, EXTREMES 1946–PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 25.1 (77.2) 24.8 (76.6) 27.4 (81.3) 31.0 (87.8) 32.3 (90.1) 35.6 (96.1) 36.8 (98.2) 37.1 (98.8) 32.2 (90) 30.0 (86) 22.8 (73) 21.4 (70.5) 37.1 (98.8)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 9.1 (48.4) 13.4 (56.1) 16.6 (61.9) 20.7 (69.3) 24.8 (76.6) 27.9 (82.2) 27.1 (80.8) 23.0 (73.4) 17.3 (63.1) 11.1 (52) 7.6 (45.7) 17.1 (62.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 2.1 (35.8) 4.3 (39.7) 8.1 (46.6) 11.1 (52) 15.5 (59.9) 19.4 (66.9) 22.4 (72.3) 21.8 (71.2) 17.8 (64) 12.4 (54.3) 6.5 (43.7) 3.1 (37.6) 12.0 (53.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −2.5 (27.5) −0.7 (30.7) 2.7 (36.9) 5.7 (42.3) 10.4 (50.7) 14.0 (57.2) 16.9 (62.4) 16.5 (61.7) 12.7 (54.9) 7.4 (45.3) 1.9 (35.4) −1.6 (29.1) 7.0 (44.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −18.5 (−1.3) −21.8 (−7.2) −10.5 (13.1) −3.8 (25.2) −2.3 (27.9) 4.3 (39.7) 6.6 (43.9) 6.3 (43.3) 1.8 (35.2) −3.9 (25) −8.2 (17.2) −13.8 (7.2) −21.8 (−7.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 47.8 (1.882) 47.1 (1.854) 72.5 (2.854) 113.3 (4.461) 145.3 (5.72) 104.3 (4.106) 70.5 (2.776) 76.1 (2.996) 83.8 (3.299) 106.1 (4.177) 69.1 (2.72) 45.1 (1.776) 981.0 (38.622)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 5.4 4.4 5.8 8.6 11.2 8.6 5.8 7.7 6.4 7.0 5.6 4.4 80.9

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 75 75 67 72 75 74 72 73 75 79 80 80 75

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 111.6 118.7 158.1 180.0 195.3 219.0 260.4 223.2 168.0 142.6 105.0 108.5 1,990.4

Source: Italian Air Force Meteorological Service

ADMINISTRATION

Closer bird-eye view to the city See also: List of mayors of Turin

Turin is split up into 10 boroughs , locally called _circoscrizioni _; these do not necessarily correspond to the historical districts of the city, which are rather called _quartieri _, _rioni _, _borghi_, _borgate_ or _zone_.

The following list numerates the present day boroughs and today's location of the historical districts inside them:

* Circoscrizione 1: Centro – Crocetta * Circoscrizione 2: Santa Rita – Mirafiori Nord * Circoscrizione 3: San Paolo – Cenisia – Pozzo Strada – Cit Turin – Borgata Lesna * Circoscrizione 4: San Donato – Campidoglio – Parella * Circoscrizione 5: Borgo Vittoria – Madonna di Campagna – Lucento – Vallette * Circoscrizione 6: Barriera di Milano – Regio Parco – Barca – Bertolla – Falchera – Rebaudengo – Villaretto * Circoscrizione 7: Aurora – Vanchiglia – Sassi – Madonna del Pilone * Circoscrizione 8: San Salvario – Cavoretto – Borgo Po * Circoscrizione 9: Nizza Millefonti – Lingotto – Filadelfia * Circoscrizione 10: Mirafiori Sud

The mayor of Turin is directly elected every five years. The current mayor of the city is Chiara Appendino :

* Name of the Mayor: Chiara Appendino * Date of election: 20 June 2016 * Party: Five Star Movement

Turin's City Council is composed of 50 members.

MAIN SIGHTS

CITY CENTRE

See also: Residences of the Royal House of Savoy _ Via Roma_

Turin's historical architecture is predominantly Baroque and was developed under the Kingdom of Savoy . Nonetheless the main street of the city centre, _Via Roma_, was built during the Fascist era (from 1931 to 1937) as an example of Italian Rationalism , replacing former buildings already present in this area.

Via Roma runs between _ Piazza Carlo Felice_ and _ Piazza Castello_ squares. Buildings on the portion between Piazza Carlo Felice and _ Piazza San Carlo_ were designed by rationalist architect Marcello Piacentini . These blocks were built into a reticular system, composed by austere buildings in clear rationalist style, such as the impressive _Hotel Principi di Piemonte_ and the former _Hotel Nazionale_ in _ Piazza CLN_. Porches are built in a continuous entablature and marked with double columns, to be consistent with those of Piazza San Carlo. The section of the street between Piazza San Carlo and Piazza Castello was built in eclectic style, with arcades characterised by Serliana -type arches. To this day Via Roma is the street featuring the most fashionable boutiques of the city. _ Piazza San Carlo_ and the _Caval 'd Brons_ (Bronze Horse in Piedmontese language) equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert .

Via Roma crosses one of the main squares of the city: the pedestrianized _ Piazza San Carlo _, built by Carlo di Castellamonte in the 17th century. In the middle of the square stands the equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert , also known as _Caval ëd Brons_ in local dialect ("Bronze Horse"); the monument depicts the Duke sheathing his sword after the Battle of St. Quentin . Piazza San Carlo arcades host the most ancient cafés of the city, such as _Caffé Torino_ and _Caffé San Carlo_. _ Piazza Castello_ with Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) in the background.

On the northern edge of Via Roma stands _ Piazza Castello_, regarded as the heart of the city. The half-pedestrianized square hosts some significant buildings such as _ Palazzo Reale_ (Former Savoy Royal House), the _ Palazzo Madama_ (which previously hosted the Savoy senate and, for few years, the Italian senate after Italian unification), the former Baroque Teatro Regio di Torino (rebuilt in modern style in the 1960s, after being destroyed by fire) and the _Biblioteca Reale_ (Royal Library) which hosts the Leonardo da Vinci self-portrait . Moreover, Piazza Castello hosts a Fascist era building, the _Torre Littoria_, a sort of skyscraper which was supposed to become the headquarters of the Fascist party, although it never served as such. The building's style is quite different from the Baroque style of Piazza Castello. The square regularly hosts the main open space events of the city, live concerts included. _ Porta Nuova_ main railway station, in front of _ Piazza Carlo Felice_ square (before restyling).

As for the southern part of the street, Via Roma ends in _Piazza Carlo Felice_ and in its _Giardino Sambuy_, a wide fenced garden right in the middle of the square. Across from Piazza Carlo Felice stands the monumental façade of Porta Nuova railway station , the central station of the city built between 1861 and 1868 by the architect Alessandro Mazzucchetti. The passengers building was renovated to host a shopping mall and more efficient passenger service offices. However, it is still an example of monumental architecture, with its stately foyer and some Baroque sights, such as the _Sala Reale_ (the former Royal waiting room). _ Piazza Vittorio Veneto_ square.

In _ Piazza Castello_ converge some of the main streets of the city centre. Among them one of the most significant is the arcaded _Via Po_, built by Amedeo di Castellamonte in 1868 and featuring some interesting buildings, such as the first and original building of the University of Turin and the historical _Caffè Fiorio_, which was the favourite café of the 19th-century politicians. Via Po ends in _ Piazza Vittorio Veneto_ (simply called _ Piazza Vittorio_ locally), the largest Baroque square in Europe and today heart of Turin nightlife. Piazza Vittorio features the most fashionable bars and not far from here, along the Po riverfront, the _Murazzi_ quays used to host several bars and nightclubs open till the morning until a few years ago. Baroque façade of Palazzo Carignano , the Museum of the Risorgimento .

Parallel to Via Roma, other two popular pedestrian streets, namely _Via Lagrange_ and _Via Carlo Alberto_, cross the old town from Via Po to _Corso Vittorio Emanuele II_. Their recent pedestrianisation has improved their original commercial vocation. In particular, Via Lagrange has recently increased the presence of luxury boutiques. This street also hosts the Egyptian Museum of Turin , home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt.

Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto cross two significant squares of the city, respectively. The former crosses _ Piazza Carignano_, well known mainly for the undulating “concave – convex – concave” Baroque façade of Palazzo Carignano . This building used to host the _Parlamento Subalpino_ (the “Subalpine Parliament”, Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia which also became the Italian Parliament for a few years, after the Italian unification) and today houses the Museum of the Risorgimento . The square also features the Teatro Carignano , a well-conserved Baroque theatre. Via Carlo Alberto crosses _Piazza Carlo Alberto_, a big square hosting the rear façade of Palazzo Carignano, in eclectic style. On the other side stands the monumental _Biblioteca Nazionale_ (National Library). Mole Antonelliana some years ago.

Not far from Via Po stands the symbol of Turin, namely the Mole Antonelliana , so named after the architect who built it, Alessandro Antonelli . Construction began in 1863 as a Jewish synagogue . Nowadays it houses the National Museum of Cinema and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world at 167 metres (548 feet). The building is depicted on the Italian 2-cent coin. Dome of Turin Cathedral .

Just behind _ Piazza Castello_ stands the Turin Cathedral , dedicated to Saint John the Baptist , which is the major church of the city. It was built during 1491–1498 and is adjacent to an earlier bell tower (1470). Annexed to the cathedral is the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, the current resting place of the Shroud of Turin . The Chapel was added to the structure in 1668–1694, designed by Guarini . The Basilica of Corpus Domini was built to celebrate an alleged miracle which took place during the sack of the city in 1453, when a soldier was carrying off a monstrance containing the Blessed Sacrament ; the monstrance fell to the ground, while the host remained suspended in air. The present church, erected in 1610 to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of Ascanio Vitozzi . Palatine Towers .

Next to the Turin Cathedral stand the Palatine Towers , an ancient Roman -medieval structure that served as one of four Roman city gates along the city walls of Turin. This gate allowed access from north to the _cardo maximus_, the typical second main street of a Roman town. The Palatine Towers are among the best preserved Roman remains in northern Italy. Close to this site, the 51,300-square-metre (552,189-square-foot) _ Piazza della Repubblica_ plays host to the biggest open market in Europe, locally known as _mercato di Porta Palazzo_ (_Porta Palazzo_ or _Porta Pila_ are the historical and local names of this area).

West of the Porte Palatine stands the _Quadrilatero Romano_ (Roman Quadrilateral), the old medieval district recently renewed. The current neighbourhood is characterised by its tiny streets and its several medieval buildings and today it is popular for its _aperitivo _ bars and its small shops run by local artisans. The hub of the Quadrilatero is _ Piazza Emanuele Filiberto_.

South of the Quadrilatero Romano stands _Via Garibaldi_, another popular street of the city. It is a 1 km (0.6 mi) pedestrian street between Piazza Castello and _ Piazza Statuto_ which features some of the old shops of the city. Large _ Piazza Statuto_ is another example of Baroque square with arcades. _ Porta Susa_ railway station .

Another main street of downtown is _Via Pietro Micca_, which starts in Piazza Castello and ends in the large _ Piazza Solferino_. The street continues in _Via Cernaia_ up to _ Piazza XXV Dicembre_, which features the former Porta Susa passengers building, relocated in 2012 a little more southward. The new and larger passengers building is situated between _Corso Bolzano_ and _Corso Inghilterra_ and is an example of contemporary architecture, being a 300-metre-long (980-foot) and 19-metre-high (62-foot) glass and steel structure. Porta Susa is currently the international central station of the city (high speed trains to Paris) and it is becoming the central hub of railway transportation of the city, being the station in which local trains (so-called _Ferrovie Metropolitane_), national trains and high-speed national and international trains converge.

Close to Via Cernaia stands the _Cittadella_ (Citadel), located in the _Andrea Guglielminetti garden_. What remains of the old medieval and modern fortress of the city, it is a starting point for a tour into the old underground tunnels below the city.

SAN SALVARIO

_ Borgo Medievale_. Castello del Valentino in Parco del Valentino .

Southeast of the city centre stands _San Salvario_ district, which extends from _Corso Vittorio Emanuele II_ to _Corso Bramante_ and is delimited by the Turin- Genoa railway on the west side and by the Po river on the east side. Home to an increasing immigrants' community, the district is an example of integration among different cultures; it also features an incremented nightlife after the opening of several low-cost bars and restaurants.

San Salvario is crossed by two main roads, _Via Nizza_ and _Via Madama Cristina_, and just as the city centre it is characterized by the grid plan typical of Turin's old neighbourhoods. The hub of the district is _ Piazza Madama Cristina_ which hosts a big open market, while several commercial activities flourish around it.

The celebrated Parco del Valentino is situated in the east side of San Salvario and, albeit not in downtown, it represents kind of central park of Turin. Thanks to the vicinity to the city centre, the park is very popular among the local people, during the day but also at night, because of the several bars and nightclubs placed here. From the terraces of Parco del Valentino, many sights of the hills on the other side of the river can be appreciated.

In the centre of the park stands the Castello del Valentino , built in the 17th century. This castle has a horseshoe shape, with four round towers at each angle, and a wide inner court with a marble pavement. The ceilings of the false upper floors are in _transalpino_ (i.e. French) style. The façade sports the huge coat of arms of the House of Savoy.

Another cluster of buildings in the park is the _Borgo Medievale_ (Medieval village), a replica of medieval mountain castles of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, built for the 1884 International Exhibition .

Other buildings in _Corso Massimo d'Azeglio_ include the Torino Esposizioni complex (Turin's exhibition hall built in the 1930s) featuring a monumental entrance with a large full height porch, the circular building which hosts a night club, and the _Teatro Nuovo_, a theatre mostly focused on ballets exhibitions. Another building is the largest synagogue of the city, located in _Piazzetta Primo Levi_ square. Its architecture stands in the main sight of the city, as characterised by four large towers – 27 metres (89 feet) high – topped by four onion-shaped domes.

CROCETTA

_ Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II_ _ Turinese Institute of Technology Politecnico_ _ The Spina Centrale_ is a new under-construction boulevard built over the undergrounded railway. It is already completed in _Crocetta_

South of _Centro_ stands the _Crocetta_ district, considered one of the most exclusive districts of the city, because of high rated residential buildings. Heart of the district is the partially pedestrianized area crossed by _Corso Trieste_, _Corso Trento_ and _Corso Duca D'Aosta_, plenty of some notable residential buildings in eclectic, neo-Gothic and Art Nouveau style. The area was built between 1903 and 1937 replacing the old parade ground , which was moved in the Southern part of the city.

North of this area stands the _GAM (Galleria d'Arte Moderna)_, one of the two Museum of Modern Arts of the Turin Metro area (the second and largest one is hosted in _Castello di Rivoli_, a former Savoy Royal castle in the suburbs). The Museum stands in front a huge monument situated in the centre of the roundabout between _Corso Vittorio Emanuele II_ and _Corso Galileo Ferraris_: the _Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II_, a King of Savoy statue situated on a 39-meters high column. Next to the Museum, another significant residential building hosts the head office of Juventus , one of the two main Turin football clubs.

West of this area the main building of Polytechnic University of Turin stands along _Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi_. The 1958 building, a 122,000-square-metre (1,313,197-square-foot) complex, hosts approximately 30,000 students and is considered one of the major Institutes of Technology of the country – mainly due to the vocation of the city for the industrialization, pushed by the automotive sector. This institute recently expanded in the western district of _Cenisia_ with additional modern buildings.

Crocetta is crossed by large and modern avenues, such as _Corso Duca degli Abruzzi_, _Corso Galileo Ferraris_, and _Corso Einaudi_. These avenues feature endless rows of trees which are a symbol of Turin's typical urbanity. However, the most popular avenue is _Corso De Gasperi_, which, albeit smaller than other avenues of the district, hosts one of the most fashionable open markets of the city, the so-called _Mercato della Crocetta_, in which it is possible to find some discounted branded clothing among the more popular ones.

The Western border of Crocetta is instead an example of contemporary architecture. The huge avenue, made up of _Corso Mediterraneo_ and _Corso Castelfidardo_, is part of _Spina Centrale_ boulevard and was recently built over the old railway (now undergrounded): as a result, the avenue is very large (up to 60 metres (200 feet)) and modern, having been rebuilt with valuable materials, including a characteristic lighting system supported by white high poles. This avenue hosts some examples of contemporary art, such as Mario Merz 's _Igloo_ fountain or the Per Kirkeby 's _Opera per Torino_ monument in _Largo Orbassano_.

The East side of the district is also known as _Borgo San Secondo_ and was so named after the church of the same name standing in _Via San Secondo_, a major street in the neighbourhood. This area is located near _Porta Nuova_ railway station and is actually older than the rest of the district, featuring several apartment buildings from the late 19th century. A local open market is held in _ Piazza San Secondo_ and along _Via Legnano_. The market square also hosts the former washhouse and public baths of the neighbourhood, among the oldest examples of their kind in Turin (1905).

One of the main thoroughfares crossing Borgo San Secondo is _Via Sacchi_, which serves as an ideal gate to the city centre: its Serlian arcades on the west side of the street (the east side is enclosed by _Porta Nuova_ railway station service buildings) host some significant boutiques and hotels, such as the historic _Pfatisch_ pastry shop and the _ Turin Palace Hotel_ (totally refurbished and reopened in 2015). South of _Via Sacchi_, _Ospedale Mauriziano_ is one of the ancient and major hospitals of the city. Going further southwards, it is possible to appreciate an interesting residential cluster of old public housing gravitating around _Via Arquata_.

CENISIA

General Motors Turinese headquarters

Bordered by _Corso Castelfidardo_, _Corso Vittorio Emanuele II_, _Corso Trapani_ and _Corso Peschiera_, this small district is mainly significant for hosting the recent expansion of Turinese Institute of Technology _Politecnico _. The expansion was possible after under-grounding the railway under _Corso Castelfidardo_ and the subsequent disposal of the old buildings dedicated to the train maintenance present in this area (so called _Officine Grandi Riparazioni_ or _OGR_). _Politecnico_ expanded its facilities trough two huge overpass buildings over the avenue, linked to new buildings on the west side. This cluster of buildings forms an evocative square with a unique architectural style. The main building on the west side hosts a General Motors research centre, the _ General Motors Global Propulsion Systems_ (formerly known as _ General Motors Powertrain Europe_). _Politecnico_ area extends till _Via Boggio_ with further facilities hosted in the former _OGR_ facilities. The Institute plans to further build new facilities in the current parking area.

North of _Politecnico_ facilities, the main building of the _OGR_ former cluster, which consists in three 180-meters long joint parallel buildings, became recently a big open space which hosts temporary exhibitions and during the hot seasons, its external spaces became a fashionable site to have a typical Italian _aperitivo _.

North of _OGR_, a former prison complex called _Le Nuove_ is a significant example of old European prison building. The complex was built between 1857 and 1869 during the reign of Victor Emmanuel II. After being disposed of during the 1990s, the complex was changed into a museum and it is possible to visit its facilities.

An example of contemporary art is the heating plant in _Corso Ferrucci_, which has been covered with aluminium panels. Another building (19th century), now abandoned, is the former Westinghouse factory of train brakes situated in _Via Borsellino_.

The remaining part of the district is mainly formed by residential buildings with not significant architectural value. The district had its development mainly after the World War II, following the industrial development of the town – in particular, the expansion of Lancia automotive factories in the _Borgo San Paolo_ neighbourhood, culminated in the construction of Palazzo Lancia in 1954, the company's former headquarters. Industrialization led to consequent population growth in the nearby areas, including _Cenisia_. Main avenues which are crossing the district are _Corso Ferrucci_ and _Corso Racconigi_. This last one is hosting a huge daily open market, the _Mercato di Corso Racconigi_.

CIT TURIN

_ Casa della Vittoria_

The smaller district of the city is _Cit Turin_ ("Little Turin" in Piedmontese language ). This small triangle surrounded by _Corso Vittorio Emanuele II_, _Corso Francia_ and _Corso Inghilterra_ hosts some high rated residential buildings and is regarded as a prestigious residential neighbourhood by local people. Intesa Sanpaolo banking group headquarters

The district features many buildings in Art Nouveau , Art Deco and Neo-Gothic style. Among them, one of the most impressive and well-known is the _Casa Della Vittoria_ (architect _Gottardo Gussoni_). Another notable example is _Casa Fenoglio_. Both buildings face Corso Francia.

The district is well known for its commercial vocation mainly in its two main streets, _Via Duchessa Jolanda_ and _Via Principi d'Acaja_, ideally crossing each other among the gardens _Giardino Luigi Martini_, locally called _ Piazza Benefica_, which hosts a popular open market.

The district is also characterised by two massive recent buildings: the _ Palazzo di Giustizia_, Turin's new courthouse built in the 1990s (in a 350-metre long facility), and the first real skyscraper of Turin, the _Torre Intesa Sanpaolo _, which house the headquarters of one of the major Italian private banks.

SAN DONATO

_ Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita_

_San Donato_ district is located between _Corso Francia_, _Corso Lecce_, _Corso Potenza_, _Via Nole_, the _Parco Dora_ and _Corso Principe Oddone_. It was populated since the medieval era, but becomes bigger during the 19th century, prospering around the canal _Canale di San Donato_, which does not exist any more, currently replaced by the central street of the district, _Via San Donato_. Buildings in the district are relatively recent (around 1820), except for the oldest group of small houses located in the area of _Brusachœr_ (_Palazzo Forneris_ building) located along _Via Pacinotti_ near the small _ Piazza Paravia_. The conservation of the street and of this old building influences the straightness of _Via San Donato_, which makes a slight curve to result in parallel with _Via Pacinotti_ before ending in central _ Piazza Statuto_ square.

Main church of the district is the _Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita_, which with its 83 metres (272 feet) height of its bell tower, is well known to be the fifth tallest structure in the city of Turin, after the Mole Antonelliana , the Intesa-Sanpaolo skyscraper , the _Torre Littoria_ and the two pennons of the Juventus Stadium . The church is hosting the _Istituto Suore Minime di Nostra Signora del Suffragio_ and it was promoted and designed by Francesco Faà di Bruno . The legend says, that he wanted to build the tallest bell tower of the town and put a clock on the top, to all the poor people to know the time for free. The small building near the church, is what remains of _Casa Tartaglino_, a small residential building which was also extended and modified by Faa di Bruno.

_Villino Cibrario_ in _Via Saccarelli_ is another significant building designed by Barnaba Panizza in 1842. The building was equipped with a large garden which was eliminated to host the street. The neighbourhood has a high concentration of historic buildings in Art Nouveau style designed by architect Pietro Fenoglio (among the others, the prestigious _Villino Raby_ in Corso Francia 8). Other significant buildings are the _Villa Boringhieri_ in Via San Donato, and other Art Nouveau and Neo-Gothic buildings are situated in _Via Piffetti_ and _Via Durandi._

Among the modern buildings of the district, the most significant one is of course the _Torre BBPR_ Tower (which took the name from the architecture office who designed it). The building is representing the _post-rationalism Italian architecture_ (same style of the better known Torre Velasca tower in the city of Milan). Tower is facing the central _ Piazza Statuto_ square. District is crossed by some significant avenues: on _Corso Svizzera_, which crosses the district from North To South, faces the Business Centre _Piero Della Francesca_, where the offices of _Tuttosport,_ one of the three national sports daily newspapers has its head offices. Also on _Corso Svizzer_a, stands one of the oldest hospitals of the city, the _Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia_, specialised in infectious diseases. Other major avenues are _Corso Umbria_ and _Corso Tassoni_.

Another big avenue, which border the district on its East, is _Corso Principe Oddone_, which in the past was along the railway to Milan. Currently the railway has been under-grounded: the avenue will be enlarged and have same architecture style of southern _Corso Inghilterra_ in downtown, becoming one of the major avenue of Turin. Northern part of the district was part of the former industrial district of Turin, recently reconverted to a park called _Parco Dora_. Mainly, in _San Donato_ the portion reconverted was the one occupied by the plant of Michelin (west of _Via Livorno_) and FIAT ironwork plants (on the East). Differently for other portions of _Parco Dora_, this part has been totally reconverted to park without letting any evidence of the industrial area except for the cooling tower which stands along _Corso Umbria_ and became a symbol of the park. Works are completed in the western area, where _Corso Mortara_ has been closed to traffic and moved just a bit northern and covered by an artificial tunnel. It is possible to access the southern shore of the _Dora_ river. South of the Park, an interesting architecture of different levels sis hosting a new shopping mall called _Centro Commerciale Parco Dora_. East of _Via Livorno_, works are still partially in progress, with the Dora river still to be uncovered by a big slab, on which the FIAT plants where used to stand). West of _Via Livorno_, the _Environment Park_ is a research centre for renewable energy.

AURORA

_ Cortile del Maglio_ _ Tiny streets of Borgo Dora_

_Aurora_ is one of the most ancient districts which developed out of the medieval city walls , north of the historical city centre. It stretches from downtown northern boundaries in _Corso Regina Margherita_ (an extended and important thoroughfare of Turin) up to _Corso Vigevano_ and _Corso Novara_ in the North Side (namely the old excise boundary till the early 20th century); the western boundary is _Corso Principe Oddone_ (now part of the _Spina Centrale_ boulevard) and the eastern border is the Dora river.

The district was named Aurora after the so-called _cascina Aurora_, an old farmstead lying north of the Dora river, right at the intersection between _Corso Giulio Cesare_ and _Corso Emilia_. The farmstead has long been demolished and the area has been converted to office buildings, hosting the Turinese textile company _Gruppo Finanziario Tessile_ (_GFT_) headquarters until the early 21st century.

The historical hub of the district is _Borgo Dora_ (The "Dora Borough"), a small neighbourhood next to _Porta Palazzo_ and enclosed by _Corso Regina Margherita_, _Via Cigna_, the Dora river and _Corso Giulio Cesare_. Once known as _Borgo del Pallone_ (literally "Ball Borough") or _Balon_ in Piedmontese dialect (locally ), this neighbourhood is famous for its _mercatino del Balon_ or simply _Balon_, the Turinese flea market that opens every Saturday in its tiny and twisted streets. Borgo Dora hosts several remarkable places, such as: _Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza_ ("Little House of the Divine Providence"), also known as _Cottolengo_, a well-known charitable organization which has been operating for almost 200 years in the city; _Arsenale della Pace_ ("Arsenal of Peace"), a former weapons factory that currently hosts the headquarters of _SERMIG_ (_Servizio Missionario Giovani_), a nonprofit association which assists poor and homeless people; _Caserma Cavalli_ ("Cavalli Barracks"), one of the most representative buildings of the district, a former barracks topped by a clock tower which now hosts _Scuola Holden_, a storytelling and performing arts school; the evocative _Cortile del Maglio_ ("Mallet Courtyard"), a covered pedestrian area featuring bars and clubs. Across from Cortile del Maglio and Arsenale della Pace stands a wide pedestrian area which features a hot air balloon , a clear allusion to the neighbourhood's old name _Balon_: recently installed, the balloon is open to public which can now take an interesting view of the city from this new high observation point. _ Caserma Cavalli_, a former barracks now hosting Storytelling and Performing Arts _Scuola Holden_ School _ Disused Porta Milano_ railway station

Right at the borders of Borgo Dora stands part of _Porta Palazzo_ open market which hosts the New Exhibition Hall , designed by the Italian architect Massimiliano Fuksas . The building has replaced the _Clothes Market_, one of the four covered pavilions of Porta Palazzo market, but unfortunately this glass green-shaded building has been highly criticized because of its lack of usability for commercial activities, albeit an example of contemporary architecture.

Another interesting building at the borders of the neighbourhood is _Porta Milano_ (a.k.a. _stazione della Ciriè-Lanzo_), a former 19th century railway station that marked the terminus of Ciriè-Lanzo railway line until the 1980s. To this day, the station is no longer in use as well as the rails up to _ Piazza Baldissera_. The station building was recently renovated and now hosts some old locomotives, even though it is not open to the public. Unfortunately, the old rails crossing the district are totally disused and neglected, adding decay to the whole area.

Borgo Dora, as many other pockets of Aurora, is characterized by the marked multi-ethnicity of its population, being home to a large community of immigrants from emerging countries. _ Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice_

West of Borgo Dora stands _ Rione Valdocco_ ("Valdocco neighbourhood"), enclosed by _Via Cigna_, _Corso Regina Margherita_, _Corso Principe Oddone_ and the Dora river. This neighbourhood hosts the significant architecture of _Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice_ ("Maria Ausiliatrice Sanctuary") in the homonymous square and behind the church stands _San Pietro in Vincoli_ old cemetery.

Overall, the main thoroughfares of the West side of Aurora are _Via Cigna_, which crosses the district from North to South, _Corso Vercelli_, a historical avenue starting north of the Dora river, and _Corso Principe Oddone_, part of the long _Spina Centrale_ boulevard that will be built over the undergrounded Turin- Milan railway . However, the Spina Centrale project is proceeding slowly because of the lack of funds and the boulevard is still occupied by a large worksite along its span. Once completed, Aurora district will be connected to Eastern _San Donato_, thanks to a better connection among the roads of the two adjacent districts (i.e. _Corso Ciriè_ will continue in _Corso Gamba_ and _Strada del Fortino_ in _Corso Rosai_).

As for the rest of Aurora, the district is crossed by an important thoroughfare named _Corso Giulio Cesare_, a long boulevard that extends from Porta Palazzo up to Turin- Trieste motorway entrance in the Northern urban fringe of Turin. Other significant roads are _Corso Palermo_, _Via Bologna_ and _Corso Regio Parco_, mostly in the East side of Aurora which is known as _Borgo Rossini_ ("Rossini Borough"). Albeit not a road, the Dora river is also a significant element for the whole district, since it completely crosses it from West to East. _ Lavazza , the famous Turinese coffee company, will soon move its headquarters in a new contemporary building in Aurora_ _ Officine Grandi Motori (OGM)_ is a former FIAT factory producing big Diesel engines

The area north of the river features a mix of old residential buildings and remains of former factories and facilities from the 20th century. An example are the remains of FIAT _Officine Grandi Motori_ (_OGM_) in Corso Vigevano, an old factory that produced big industrial and automotive Diesel engines, a sort of symbol of the industrial history of Turin. Another disused facility is _Astanteria Martini_ ("Martini Emergency Department") in Via Cigna, a former emergency department from the 1920s which has been lying vacant since long.

As for the old residential buildings of the area, this part of Aurora hosts the oldest public housing block of the city, built by _Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari_ (_IACP_) in 1908 in lieu of an old dilapidated small farm once known as _Chiabotto delle Merle_.

Despite its run down look, the famous Lavazza coffee company, along with _IAAD_ School of Design, chose this part of the city as the location for their new headquarters, which will be built in a contemporary building dubbed _Nuvola_ ("Cloud") right at the borders of _Borgo Rossini_. Designed by the architect Gino Zucchi, this project is still a work in progress but excavations in the area revealed the remains of a medieval cemetery and an early Christian basilica; these findings will be preserved and will be shown to the public.

_Borgo Rossini_ hosts a number of businesses, for instance the _Robe di Kappa _ flagship store (Kappa is a noted Italian sportswear brand founded in Turin) and the _Cineporto_ ("Cineport") a.k.a. _La Casa dei Produttori_ ("The Filmmakers' House", which hosts the _ Turin Piedmont Film Commission Foundation_).

MAIN CHURCHES

Turin Cathedral featuring the Chapel of the Holy Shroud . Basilica of Superga .

The Santuario della Consolata , a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the 10th-century Monastery of St. Andrew, and is a work by Guarini. It was sumptuously restored in 1903. Outside the city are: the Basilica of Our Lady, Help of Christians built by St. John Bosco , the Gran Madre built in 1818 on occasion of the return of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Santa Maria del Monte (1583) on Monte dei Cappuccini.

In the hills overlooking the city, the Basilica of Superga provides a view of Turin against a backdrop of the snow-capped Alps. The basilica holds the tombs of many of the dukes of Savoy, as well as many of the kings of Sardinia. Superga can be reached by means of the Superga Rack Railway from Sassi suburb. The Basilica of Superga was built by Amadeus II of Savoy as an ex voto for the liberation of Turin (1706), and served as a royal mausoleum since 1772.

VILLAS, PARKS AND GARDENS

The medieval village in Valentino Park .

The most popular park in the city is Parco del Valentino . In 1961, during the celebrations of _Italia61_ ( Italian unification centenary), an important international exhibition (_FLOR61: Flowers of the world in Turin_) took place in the park with 800 exhibitors from 19 countries. For the occasion the plan for the new lighting of the park, along with its fountains and paths, was assigned to Guido Chiarelli, the head engineer at the city hall.

Other large parks are _Parco della Pellerina_, _Parco Colletta_, _Parco Rignon_, _Parco Colonnetti_ and the University botanical gardens . Around the city, there are several other parks, such as La Mandria Regional Park and the Parco della Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi , once hunting grounds of the Savoy, and those situated on the hill of Turin. Many parks are smaller, located in the various districts: there is also a total of 240 playgrounds in these parks. In the early 1960s, mayor Amedeo Peyron had the first garden in Italy with games for children inaugurated. According to a Legambiente report from 2007, Turin is the first Italian city as far as structures and policies on childcare are concerned. One of the most famous parks featuring a children's playground is _Parco della Tesoriera_, which is also home to _Andrea della Corte Municipal Music Library_; this facility is housed in a villa built in 1715 and was once the Royal Treasurer's residence. The park is located in Parella suburb (Turin's West Side) and it plays host to various concerts in summer.

Rosa Vercellana , commonly known as _Rosina_ and, in Piedmontese as _La Bela Rosin_ ("the beautiful Rosin"), was the mistress and later wife of King Victor Emmanuel II . She was made Countess of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda, but never Queen of Italy. As the Savoy family refused to allow her to be buried next to her husband in the Pantheon , her children had a mausoleum built for her in a similar form and on a smaller scale in Turin, next to the road to the Castello di Mirafiori. The circular copper-domed neoclassical monument, surmounted by a Latin cross and surrounded by a large park, was designed by Angelo Dimezzi and completed in 1888.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1901 329,691 —

1911 415,667 +26.1%

1921 499,823 +20.2%

1931 590,753 +18.2%

1936 629,115 +6.5%

1951 719,300 +14.3%

1961 1,025,822 +42.6%

1971 1,167,968 +13.9%

1981 1,117,154 −4.4%

1991 962,507 −13.8%

2001 865,263 −10.1%

2011 872,367 +0.8%

2015 897,265 +2.9%

Source: ISTAT 2001

In 2009, the city proper had a population of about 910,000, which is a significant increase on the 2001 census figure. This result is due to a growing immigration from Southern Italy and abroad. Approximately 13.5 per cent (122.946) of the population is composed of foreigners, the largest numbers coming from Romania (51,017), Morocco (22,511), Albania (9,165), China (5,483), and Moldova (3,417). Like many Northern Italian cities, there is a large proportion of pensioners in comparison to youth. Around 18 per cent of the population is under 20 years of age, while 22 per cent is over 65. The population of the Turin urban area totals 1.7 million inhabitants, ranking fourth in Italy, while the Turin metropolitan area has a population of 2.2 million inhabitants. The median age is 43.7.

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2015)

Romania 102,572

Morocco 26,943

Albania 11,447

Peru 10,989

China 10,408

Moldova 7,914

Nigeria 5,114

Egypt 4,722

Philippines 4,282

Brazil 2,678

Senegal 1,919

Ecuador 1,874

Tunisia 1,677

Ukraine 1,674

France 1,558

Bangladesh 1,430

Poland 1,302

Spain 1,189

Bosnia 1,082

Russia 982

India 979

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Turin Fiat Lingotto in 1928.

Turin is a major automotive and aerospace centre, home of Fiat (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino; Turin Italian Automobiles Factory), part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles group, the sixth largest automotive company in the world. In 2008 the city generated a GDP of $68 billion, ranking as the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power, and 16th in Europe, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers . The city has been ranked in 2010 by Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a Gamma level city .

Other companies operating in Turin are Maserati , Lancia , Alfa Romeo , Iveco , Pininfarina , Bertone , Sparco , Italdesign Giugiaro , General Motors , New Holland , Comau , Magneti Marelli , Graziano Oerlikon , Ghia , Fioravanti (automotive), Rai (national broadcasting company), Banca Intermobiliare , Intesa Sanpaolo , Reale Mutua (finance), Invicta , Kappa (fashion), Ferrero , Lavazza , Martini & Rossi (food line-height:1.4em;"> Stupinigi : One of the Savoy royal houses in Turin

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE

LOCATION Province of Turin , Metropolitan City of Turin , Duchy of Savoy , Q28769238, Pô , Italy

COORDINATES 45°04′N 7°42′E / 45.07°N 7.7°E / 45.07; 7.7

AREA 130,170,000 m2 (1.4011×109 sq ft)

CRITERIA i, ii, iv, v

REFERENCE 823

INSCRIPTION 1997 (21st Session )

WEBSITE www.comune.torino.it

Location of Turin

Turin, as the former capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Italy , is home of the Savoy Residences . In addition to the 17th-century Royal Palace , built for Madama Reale Christine Marie of France (the official residence of the Savoys until 1865) there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns. Turin is home to Palazzo Chiablese, the Royal Armoury, the Royal Library, Palazzo Madama , Palazzo Carignano , Villa della Regina , and the Valentino Castle . The complex of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and in the nearby cities of Rivoli , Moncalieri , Venaria Reale , Agliè , Racconigi , Stupinigi , Pollenzo and Govone was declared a World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1997. In recent years, Turin has become an increasingly popular tourist destination, ranking 203rd in the world and 10th in Italy in 2008, with about 240,000 international arrivals. The inside of the Egyptian Museum , the second largest in the world after the one in Cairo.

The Egyptian Museum of Turin specialises in archaeology and anthropology, in particular the Art of Ancient Egypt . It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. In 2006 it received more than 500,000 visitors. The Museum of Oriental Art houses one of the most important Asian art collections in Italy.

Other museums include the Puppet Museum, the Museo Nazionale dell\'Automobile , the Museum of Human Anatomy Luigi Rolando , and the Museo Nazionale della Montagna (National Museum of the Mountains).

The city is home to the well-known Shroud of Turin : a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in the city centre. The origins of the shroud and its image are still the subject of intense debate among scientists, theologians, historians and researchers. It is popularly believed to be a depiction of Jesus Christ , however this matter is still controversial, as there seems to be a sufficient amount of historical and scientific evidence supporting the idea that it is, or is not, the Holy Face of Jesus . Nonetheless, it is a symbol of religious devotion and is one of the city's main symbols and tourist attractions.

After it had been little more than a town for a long time, in 1559 the Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy made Turin the capital of his domains. The Duke had ambition to transform the city into a major artistic and cultural capital, and in the following centuries numerous artists were to work at the Savoy court, especially architects and planners like Carlo di Castellamonte and his son Amedeo , Guarino Guarini and, in the 18th century, Filippo Juvarra and Benedetto Alfieri .

As for the painting and the visual arts, Turin became a point of reference, especially in the 20th century. In the 1920s, the painter Felice Casorati inspired a number of students called The group of six of Turin and these included Carlo Levi , Henry Paolucci , Gigi Chessa , Francis Menzio , Nicola Galante and Jessie Boswell . Artists born in Turin include the sculptor Umberto Mastroianni and the architect Carlo Mollino . Between the 1960s and the 1970s, the international centre of Turin ( Arte Povera ), the presence in the city of artists like Alighiero Boetti , Mario Merz , Giuseppe Penone , Piero Gilardi and Michelangelo Pistoletto . In those years there was a strong artistic influence of designer Armando Testa . Artists currently operating in the city include Ugo Nespolo and Carol Rama .

THE OPERA HOUSES

One of these was Teatro Regio di Torino where Puccini premiered his La Boheme in 1896. It burned down in 1936 and was rebuilt after WW II.

LITERATURE

National Library

A literary centre for many centuries, Turin began to attract writers only after the establishment of the court of the Duchy of Savoy. One of the most famous writers of the 17th century was Giambattista Marino , which in 1608 moved to the court of Charles Emmanuel I . Marino suffered an assassination attempt by a rival, Gaspare Murtola , and was later imprisoned for a year because of gossip that he had said and written against the duke. Perhaps, because of this, in 1615 Marino left Turin and moved to France.

The main literary figures during the Baroque age in Turin were Emanuele Tesauro and Alessandro Tassoni . In the next century Torino hosted the poet Vittorio Alfieri from Asti for a while. The situation was very different in the 19th century, especially since the city became a point of reference for Italian unification and, subsequently, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Indeed, in those years Tommaseo, Settembrini and John Meadows resided in the city. A major literary and cultural woman of that time was Olimpia Savio . In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Turin was home to writers such as Guido Gozzano , Edmondo De Amicis , Emilio Salgari and Dino Segre, the latter known by the pseudonym of Pitigrilli . Teatro Regio

Turin had a very important role in Italian literature after World War II. For the publishing house founded by Giulio Einaudi worked figures such as Cesare Pavese , Italo Calvino , Vitaliano Brancati , Primo Levi , Natalia Ginzburg , Fernanda Pivano , Beppe Fenoglio , Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini . In more recent years, writers active in the city are Giovanni Arpino , Nico Orengo , Giuseppe Culicchia , Margherita Oggero , Laura Mancinelli , Alessandra Montrucchio , Alessandro Perissinotto , Guido Quartz , Piero Soria and Alessandro Baricco . Baricco was also among the founders of the Scuola Holden , dedicated to writing techniques teaching.

In the local Piedmontese language has a literary tradition, with names such as Nicoletto da Torino , Ignas Isler , author of epic poems, and Eduard Calv .

MEDIA

Main article: List of radio stations in Turin

After Alexandria , Madrid , New Delhi , Antwerp and Montreal , Turin was chosen by UNESCO as World Book Capital for the year 2006. The International Book Fair is one of the most important fairs of its kind in Europe. Turin is home to one of Italy's principal national newspapers, _ La Stampa _, and the sports daily newspaper _Tuttosport _. The city is also served by other publications such as the Turin editions of _ La Repubblica _, _il Giornale _, _ Leggo _, _City _, _Metro _ and _E Polis _. RAI has had a production centre in Turin since 1954. Turin Book Expo The Juventus Stadium in Turin

SPORTS

Main article: Sports in Turin

The city has a rich sporting heritage as the home to two historically significant football teams: Juventus F.C. (founded in 1897) and Torino F.C. (founded in 1906). Juventus has the larger fan base, especially in southern Italy and worldwide, while Torino enjoys a greater support in the city itself. The two clubs contest the oldest derby in Italy, the _ Derby della Mole _ or the Turin derby.

Juventus is Italy\'s most successful football club and one of the most laureated in the world. It ranks joint eighth in the list of the world's clubs with the most official international titles (fourth between European clubs). and was the first in association football history — remaining the only one in the world (as of 2017 ) — to have won all possible official continental competitions and the world title. Juventus' owned ground, the Juventus Stadium , was inaugurated in 2011. The Juventus Stadium hosted the 2014 UEFA Europa League Final . This was the first time the city hosted a seasonal UEFA club competition's single-match final.

Torino F.C. was founded by the union of one the oldest football team in Turin, Football Club Torinese (founded in 1894), with breakaways from Juventus and was the most successful team, called "Grande Torino", in the Serie A during the 1940s. In 1949, in the Superga air disaster , a plane carrying almost the whole team crashed into the Basilica of Superga in the Turin hills. Torino currently uses the Stadio Olimpico "Grande Torino" , named after the team of the 1940s, which was the host stadiums for the 1934 FIFA World Cup and the venue of the XX Winter Olympics , moreover the team recently rebuilt the historic Stadio Filadelfia for games of the youth teams and trainings of the first squad, hosting the team museum.

The city hosted the final stages of the EuroBasket 1979 . The most important basketball club team is the Auxilium Torino , founded in 2009, playing in Serie A .

Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics in February 2006. Turin is the largest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympics, and was the largest metropolitan area to host them at the time.

The City was awarded with the title of European Capital of Sport 2015. The candidature sees the City strongly committed to increasing sports activities.

CINEMA

_ The Mole Antonelliana _

Turin is the Italian city where film chromatography was first established. As such, it forms the birthplace of Italian cinema . Because of its historic, geographical and cultural proximity to France, Italian filmmakers were naturally influenced by French cinema and the Lumière brothers . The first Italian cinema screening occurred in Turin in March 1896. In November 1896, Italian filmmakers performed the first cinema screening of a film before a fee-paying audience.

By the start of the 20th century (especially after 1907), a number of the first Italian films were aired in Turin. Examples include Giovanni Pastrone _ Cabiria _, in 1914, one of the first blockbusters in history.

The Turin-based company Ambrosio Film , established in 1906 by Arturo Ambrosio , was one of the leading forces in Italian cinema and boosted the importance of the city as a filmmaking destination. The company, noted in particular for its historical epics, produced a large number of films until it was dissolved in 1924.

During the 1920s and 30s, Turin hosted a number of film productions and major film studios (_film houses_), such as the Itala film , Aquila and Fert Studios . Today their heritage is located in the modern Lumiq Studios and Virtual Reality Multi Media Spa Turin's prominence in Italian film continued until 1937, the year Cinecittà was inaugurated in Rome.

After World War II, the cinematic scene in Turin continued to thrive. 1956 saw the opening of the National Museum of Cinema , first housed in the Palazzo Chiablese and then, from 2000, in the imposing headquarters of the Mole Antonelliana . In 1982 the film critic Gianni Rondolino created Festival Internazionale Cinema Giovani, which later became the Torino Film Festival .

Today Turin is one of the main cinematographic and television centres in Italy, thanks to the role of the Turin Film Commission that reports the production of many feature films, soap operas and commercials.

Turin streets were the locations where Audrey Hepburn played _War and Peace _, Michael Caine drove a Mini Cooper in _ The Italian Job _, Claudio Bisio becomes the president of the Italian Republic, Carlo Verdone set his version of _Cinderella _, Marco Tullio Giordana shot _ Piazza Fontana: The Italian Conspiracy _, Woody Allen shot _Hannah and Her Sisters _, Cate Blanchett played _Heaven _, Giovanna Mezzogiorno _ Vincere _, Marcello Mastroianni and Jacqueline Bisset _The Sunday Woman _, and Harvey Keitel _ The Stone Merchant _. Turin also became the capital of the tsar for _The Demons of St. Petersberg _.

CUISINE

_ The iconic Gianduiotto _ _ Bicerin _ served in its trademark rounded glass

Turin chocolate firms, aside from many kinds of chocolate, produce a typical chocolate called _ Gianduiotto _, named after Gianduja , a local Commedia dell\'arte mask. Moreover, the city is also known for the so-called _bicerin _, a traditional hot drink made of espresso , drinking chocolate and whole milk served layered in a small rounded glass. Every year Turin organizes _CioccolaTÒ_, a two-week chocolate festival run with the main Piedmontese chocolate producers, such as Caffarel , Streglio, Venchi and others, as well as some big international companies, such as Lindt "> Porta Susa railway station

The city currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the 2006 Winter Olympics , parts of it had long been planned. Some of the work sites deal with general roadworks to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will radically change the shape of the city.

One is the _Spina Centrale_ ("Central Spine") project which includes the doubling of a major railway crossing the city, the Turin-Milan railway locally known as _Passante Ferroviario di Torino_ ("Turin Railway Bypass"). The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard running from North to South of Turin, in a central position along the city. Porta Susa , on this section, will become Turin's main station to substitute the terminus of Porta Nuova with a through station. Other important stations are Stura , Rebaudengo , Lingotto and Madonna di Campagna railway stations, though not all of them belong to the layout of the Spina Centrale. Turin VAL metro station

The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system, known as Metrotorino . This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the city, but its first phase was finished in time for the 2006 Olympic Games , inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after. The first leg of the subway system linked the nearby town of Collegno with Porta Susa in Turin's city centre. On 4 October 2007 the line was extended to Porta Nuova and then, in March 2011, to Lingotto. A new extension of the so-called _Linea 1_ ("Line 1") is expected in the near future, reaching both Rivoli (up to Cascine Vica hamlet) in the Western belt of Turin and _ Piazza Bengasi_ in the Southeast side of the city. Furthermore, an alleged _Linea 2_ is in the pipeline and it is supposed to cross Turin from North to South.

The main street in the city centre, _Via Roma_, runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when _Via Roma_ itself was totally refurbished and took on its present-day aspect). The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but it is now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was ready in the 1970s, with government funding for it and for similar projects in Milan and Rome. Whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin's local government led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary.

The city has an international airport known as Caselle International Airport Sandro Pertini (TRN), located in Caselle Torinese , about 13 km (8 mi) from the centre of Turin and connected to the city by a railway service (from Dora Station) and a bus service (from Porta Nuova and Porta Susa railway stations).

As of 2010 a bicycle sharing system , the ToBike , is operational.

The metropolitan area is served by Turin metropolitan railway service .

TURIN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION STATISTICS

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Turin, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 65 min. 14.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 19% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5.9 km, while 9% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from Turin

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2015)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

Turin is twinned with:

* The Americas

* Campo Grande , Brazil * Córdoba , Argentina * Detroit , United States * Rosario , Argentina * Quetzaltenango , Guatemala * Salt Lake City , United States

* Asia

* Bethlehem , Palestine * Gaza , Palestine * Haifa , Israel * Nagoya , Japan * Shenyang , China

* Europe

* Chambéry , France * Cologne , Germany * Esch-sur-Alzette , Luxembourg * Glasgow , UK * Liège , Belgium * Lille , France * Rotterdam , Netherlands * Saint Petersburg , Russia * Tirana , Albania . * Volgograd , Russian Federation .

Collaboration accords include:

* Bacău , Romania * Barcelona , Spain * Lyon , France * Cannes , France * Gwangju , South Korea

* Harbin , China * Shenzhen , China * Vancouver , British Columbia, Canada * Zlín , Czech Republic * Bogotá , Colombia

Districts

The 6th district (arrondissement ) of Turin is twinned with:

* Bagneux , France

REFERENCES

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* ^ In addition, Juventus F.C. were the first club in association football history to have won all possible confederation competitions (e.g. the international tournaments organised by UEFA ) and remain the only in the world to achieve this, cf. "Legend: UEFA club competitions". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 21 August 2006. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 26 February 2013. "1985: Juventus end European drought". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 8 December 1985. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013. * ^ "Torino – Turin Italy City Profile". Retrieved 18 April 2007. * ^ Neus, Elizabeth (19 January 2006). "Olympics by the numbers". _USA Today_. Retrieved 18 April 2007. * ^ The 2002 Salt Lake City games also claims this title because at the time of the Olympics its Combined Statistical Area population was 1,516,227 and some events were held in the Provo metropolitan area of 400,209 (tables from the Census Archived 17 May 2009 at WebCite ). . Retrieved 6 March 2009. Archived 16 May 2009. * ^ http://www.torino2015.it website of Torino Capitale Europea dello Sport 2015 * ^ Candidature link to the file of Candidature for European Capital of Sport 2015 * ^ "N". * ^ http://www.we-sport.com Portal's homepage * ^ ""Le proiezioni cinematografiche a Torino" – di Pierluigi Capra". Cinemaniaci.it. Retrieved 12 April 2011. * ^ "Lumiq.com". _lumiq.com_. * ^ "Vrmmp – Notizie e guide online". * ^ "Torino nel Novecento, Torino". Comune.torino.it. Retrieved 12 April 2011. * ^ "TFF". Torinofilmfest.org. 25 September 1982. Retrieved 16 August 2011. * ^ "Il tramezzino è nato da Mulassano". _La Stampa_ (in Italian). 8 May 2008. * ^ Moliterni, Rocco (11 April 2013). "Qui è nato il tramezzino e si sente". _La Stampa_ (in Italian). * ^ "La Storia – Molecola" . _Bevimolecola.it_ (in Italian). Retrieved 8 February 2016. * ^ "Torino: la riscoperta della pizza al padellino". Agrodolce. Retrieved 8 December 2015. * ^ "Pizza al padellino (o tegamino): che cos\'è?". Gelapajo.it. Retrieved 8 December 2015. * ^ "Beniamino, il profeta della pizza gourmet". Torino – Repubblica.it. Retrieved 8 December 2015. * ^ " Turin Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ _Y_ _Z_ _AA_ _AB_ _AC_ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements". _International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico_. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013. * ^ "Twin cities, Glasgow (Scotland)". _City of Torino website_. 2011. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2012. * ^ "Lile Facts & Figures". _Mairie-Lille.fr_. Retrieved 17 December 2007. * ^ "Torino-San Pietroburgo, c’è l’intesa sull’asse strategico". _LaStampa.it_. 15 November 2012. * ^ "Friendly relationship". volgadmin.ru. Archived from the original on 2 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. * ^ "Town Twinning Agreements". Municipalidad de Rosario – Buenos Aires 711. Retrieved 14 October 2014. * ^ Sister Cities International (SCI). _Sister Cities International_. * ^ "Our Sister Cities". Saltlakesistercities.com. Retrieved 6 February 2013. * ^ " Bethlehem Palestinian Territories – Agreement (2015) (International Affairs)". _www.comune.torino.it_. Retrieved 1 October 2015. * ^ 友好城市 (Friendly cities), 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 22 March 2008. (Translation by Google Translate .) Archived 19 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List), 20 January 2011. (Translation by Google Translate .) Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges), 13 September 2011. (Translation by Google Translate .) Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". _Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères)_ (in French). Retrieved 22 August 2013.

* _ Turin Museums_ * _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed ". Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

_See also: Bibliography of the history of Turin _

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Media related to Turin at Wikimedia Commons

* Turin City Hall_ Official website, tourist informations * Weather Turin * How to reach Turin? * Turin Pictures * _ Turin travel guide from Wikivoyage

* v * t * e

Tourism in Turin

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

* Palatine Towers

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