Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural or
ethnocultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century,
among the ruling elites of
Mongol Empire successor states such as the
Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde. These elites adopted Turkic
languages and adopted Islam, while retaining Mongol political and
legal institutions. Many later Central Asian states drew heavily on
this tradition, including the Timurid Empire, the Kazakh Khanate, the
Khanate of Kazan, the Nogai Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, and the
A much earlier
Turco-Mongol tradition existed in prehistory as well,
as evidenced by the extensive lexical borrowings from Proto-Turkic
into the ancestor of Proto-Mongolic from around at least the first
millennium BCE. Turkic and Mongolic languages share extensive borrowed
similarities in their personal pronouns (e.g. the *b-, *s-, *i-
paradigm for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person, respectively), among other
lexical similarities of the type, which seem to date to before this
era and already existed before the breakup of Turkic around 500
BCE. Turkic and Mongolic peoples shared a common religion,
Tengrism, which dates at least from this ancient period.
A still more ancient period of prolonged language contact between
Turkic and Mongolic is indicated by further and more fundamental
phonotactic, grammatical, and typological similarities (e.g.
synchronic vowel harmony, lack of grammatical gender, extensive
agglutination, highly similar phonotactic rules and phonology). In
the past, such similarities were attributed to a genetic relationship
and led to the widespread acceptance of an Altaic language family.
More recently, due to the lack of a definitive demonstration of
genetic relationship, these similarities have been divided into at
these three known periods of language contact. The similarities have
led to the proposal of a Northeast Asian sprachbund instead, which
also includes the Tungusic, Korean, and Japonic language families,
although Turkic and Mongolic display the most extensive similarities.
Mongol invasions and conquests
List of Turkic dynasties and countries
List of Mongol states
Division of the Mongol Empire
Beatrice Forbes Manz (1989). The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 6–9.
^ a b Janhunen, Juha (2013). "Personal pronouns in Core Altaic". In
Martine Irma Robbeets; Hubert Cuyckens. Shared Grammaticalization:
Special Focus on the Transeurasian Languages. p. 221.
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