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Tuoba, also known as the Taugast or Tabgach (Tabgaç), was a clan of the Xianbei
Xianbei
in ancient China.[1] The Tuoba
Tuoba
founded the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
(386–535) around the Yellow River delta and became increasingly sinicized. As a result, from 496, the name "Tuoba" disappeared by an edict of Emperor Xiaowen, who adopted the Chinese language
Chinese language
surname of Yuan (元) instead. A surviving branch of the Tuoba
Tuoba
established the state of Tuyuhun
Tuyuhun
before submitting as a vassal of the Tang dynasty; they later established the Western Xia, whose rulers adopted the Chinese surname Li (李). The ruling families of the Western Wei
Western Wei
and Northern Zhou
Northern Zhou
dynasties that followed the fall of Northern Wei
Northern Wei
were also of Tuoba
Tuoba
ethnicity.

Contents

1 Language 2 History

2.1 Marriage policies 2.2 Chieftains of Tuoba
Tuoba
Clan 219-377 (as Princes of Dai 315-377)

3 See also 4 References

4.1 Citations 4.2 Bibliography

Language[edit] Main article: Tuoba
Tuoba
language Alexander Vovin (2007) identifies the Tabγač language as a Mongolic language.[2] However, Chen (2005)[3] argues that Tuoba
Tuoba
(Tabγač) was a Turkic language. History[edit]

Tuoba
Tuoba
people and their neighbours, c. III CE

Rouran Khaganate, Tuyuhun
Tuyuhun
Kingdom, Tuoba Wei
Tuoba Wei
330-555 CE

Remnants of Tuoba
Tuoba
in Alxa League

Remnants of Tuoba
Tuoba
in Alxa League

The distribution of the Xianbei
Xianbei
people ranged from present day Northeast China
Northeast China
to Mongolia, and the Tuoba
Tuoba
were one of the largest clans among the western Xianbei, ranging from present day Shanxi province and westward and northwestward. They established the state of Dai from 310-376 CE[4] and ruled as the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
from 386-536. The Tuoba
Tuoba
states of Dai and Northern Wei
Northern Wei
also claimed to possess the quality of earth in the Chinese Wu Xing
Wu Xing
theory. All the chieftains of the Tuoba
Tuoba
were revered as emperors in the Book of Wei and the History of the Northern Dynasties. Some scholars suggest that the Tuoba
Tuoba
were proto-Mongols (and spoke a proto-Mongolic language) or belonged to their own branch of Ural-Altaic language family,[5][6] although some also suggest that instead of being related to the Mongols, they were perhaps related to the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
(and spoke a proto-Turkic language).[7][8][9][10] In the opinion of Peter Boodberg, much of the Tuoba
Tuoba
vocabulary was "essentially Turkish with a certain admixture of Mongolian elements".[11] On the other hand, Edwin Pulleyblank "concluded that it was Mongolian."[5] Chen Sanping observes that the Tuoba language "had both" elements.[12] On the other hand, Liu Xueyao stated that Tuobas may have had their own language which should not be assumed to be identical with any other known languages.[13] The Rourans
Rourans
considered that Tuoba
Tuoba
and Rourans
Rourans
descended from common ancestors. [14] Also a historian of the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
noted that Rourans
Rourans
descended from Xianbei.[citation needed] Marriage policies[edit] The Northern Wei
Northern Wei
started to arrange for Han Chinese elites to marry daughters of the Xianbei
Xianbei
Tuoba
Tuoba
royal family in the 480s.[15] Some Han Chinese exiled royalty fled from southern China and defected to the Xianbei. Several daughters of the Xianbei
Xianbei
Tuoba
Tuoba
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
Northern Wei
were married to Han Chinese elites, the Han Chinese Liu Song royal Liu Hui 刘辉, married Princess Lanling 蘭陵公主 of the Northern Wei,[16][17] Princess Huayang 華陽公主 to Sima Fei 司馬朏, a descendant of Jin dynasty (265–420)
Jin dynasty (265–420)
royalty, Princess Jinan 濟南公主 to Lu Daoqian 盧道虔, Princess Nanyang 南阳长公主 to Xiao Baoyin 萧宝夤, a member of Southern Qi royalty.[18] Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei's sister the Shouyang Princess was wedded to The Liang dynasty
Liang dynasty
ruler Emperor Wu of Liang's son Xiao Zong 蕭綜.[19] When the Eastern Jin dynasty ended Northern Wei
Northern Wei
received the Han Chinese Jin prince Sima Chuzhi 司馬楚之 as a refugee. A Northern Wei Princess married Sima Chuzhi, giving birth to Sima Jinlong 司馬金龍. Northern Liang
Northern Liang
Xiongnu
Xiongnu
King Juqu Mujian's daughter married Sima Jinlong.[20] Chieftains of Tuoba
Tuoba
Clan 219-377 (as Princes of Dai 315-377)[edit] See also: Tuoba
Tuoba
clan of Dai state family tree

Posthumous name Full name Period of reign Other

神元 Shényuán 拓拔力微 Tuòbá Lìwéi 219-277 Temple name: 始祖 Shízǔ

章 Zhāng 拓拔悉鹿 Tuòbá Xīlù 277-286

平 Píng 拓拔綽 Tuòbá Chuò 286-293

思 Sī 拓拔弗 Tuòbá Fú 293-294

昭 Zhāo 拓拔祿官 Tuòbá Lùguān 294-307

桓 Huán 拓拔猗㐌 Tuòbá Yītuō 295-305

穆 Mù 拓拔猗盧 Tuòbá Yīlú 295-316

None 拓拔普根 Tuòbá Pǔgēn 316

None 拓拔 Tuòbá[21] 316

平文 Píngwén 拓跋鬱律 Tuòbá Yùlǜ 316-321

惠 Huì 拓拔賀傉 Tuòbá Hèrǔ 321-325

煬 Yáng 拓拔紇那 Tuòbá Hénǎ 325-329 and 335-337

烈 Liè 拓拔翳槐 Tuòbá Yìhuaí 329-335 and 337-338

昭成 Zhaōchéng 拓拔什翼健 Tuòbá Shíyìjiàn 338-377 Regnal name: 建國 Jiànguó

See also[edit]

Chinese sovereign History of China Jin dynasty (265–420) Khitan people Ethnic groups in Chinese history

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 60–65. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ Vovin, Alexander. 2007. ‘Once again on the Tabγač language.’ Mongolian Studies XXIX: 191-206. ^ Chen, Sanping 2005. Turkic or Proto-Mongolian? A Note on the Tuoba Language. Central Asiatic Journal 49.2: 161-73. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ a b Holcombe 2001, p. 132. ^ Holcombe 2011, p. 65. ^ Kang-i Sun Chang,Stephen Owen (2010). The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 272.  ^ Evelyn S. Rawski (2015). Early Modern China and Northeast Asia. p. 123.  ^ Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. p. 170.  ^ Charles O. Hucker (1975). China's Imperial Past: An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture. Stanford University Press. p. 136-137.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Charles Holcombe (2001). The Genesis of East Asia: 221 B.C. - A.D. 907. p. 132.  ^ Holcombe 2001, p. 248 ^ Liu Xueyao p. 83-86 ^ Hyacinth (Bichurin), Collection of information on peoples lived in Central Asia in ancient times, 1950. p.209 ^ Rubie Sharon Watson (1991). Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society. University of California Press. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-0-520-07124-7.  ^ Lee (2014). ^ Papers on Far Eastern History. Australian National University, Department of Far Eastern History. 1983. p. 86.  ^ China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2004. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-58839-126-1.  ^ Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature (vol.3 & 4): A Reference Guide, Part Three & Four. BRILL. 22 September 2014. pp. 1566–. ISBN 978-90-04-27185-2.  ^ China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2004. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-1-58839-126-1.  ^ No known given name survives.

Bibliography[edit]

Bazin, L. "Research of T'o-pa language (5th century AD)", T'oung Pao, 39/4-5, 1950 ["Recherches sur les parlers T'o-pa (5e siècle après J.C.)"] (In French) Subject: Toba Tatar language Boodberg, P.A. "The Language of the T'o-pa Wei", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 1, 1936 Clauson, G. "Turk, Mongol, Tungus", Asia Major, New Series, Vol. 8, Pt 1, 1960, pp. 117–118 Grousset, R. "The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia", Rutgers University Press, 1970, p. 57, 63-66, 557 Note 137, ISBN 0-8135-0627-1 [1] Lee Jen-der (2014), "Crime and Punishment: The Case of Liu Hui in the Wei Shu", Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 156–165, ISBN 978-0-231-15987-6 . Pelliot, P.A. "L'Origine de T'ou-kiue; nom chinoise des Turks", T'oung Pao, 1915, p. 689 Pelliot, P.A. "L'Origine de T'ou-kiue; nom chinoise des Turks", Journal Asiatic, 1925, No 1, p. 254-255 Pelliot, P.A. "L'Origine de T'ou-kiue; nom chinoise des Turks", T'oung Pao, 1925–1926, pp. 79–93; Zuev, Y.A. "Ethnic History Of Usuns", Works of Academy of Sciences Kazakh SSR, History, Archeology And Ethnography Institute, Alma-Ata, Vol. VIII, 1960, (In Russian)

v t e

Emperors of Northern Wei, Eastern Wei
Eastern Wei
and Western Wei
Western Wei
(includes chieftains of the Tuoba
Tuoba
clan and rulers of the state of Dai)

Chieftains of the Tuoba
Tuoba
clan

Unified rule

Tuoba
Tuoba
Mao Tuoba
Tuoba
Huo Tuoba
Tuoba
Guan Tuoba
Tuoba
Lou Tuoba
Tuoba
Yue Tuoba
Tuoba
Tuiyin Tuoba
Tuoba
Li Tuoba
Tuoba
Qi Tuoba
Tuoba
Si Tuoba
Tuoba
Ji Tuoba
Tuoba
Gai Tuoba
Tuoba
Kuai Tuoba
Tuoba
Lin Tuoba
Tuoba
Jifen Tuoba
Tuoba
Liwei Tuoba
Tuoba
Shamohan Tuoba
Tuoba
Xilu Tuoba
Tuoba
Chuo Tuoba
Tuoba
Fu

Divided rule

Eastern area

Tuoba
Tuoba
Luguan

Central area

Tuoba
Tuoba
Yituo Tuoba
Tuoba
Pugen

Western area

Tuoba
Tuoba
Yilu

Re-unified rule

Tuoba
Tuoba
Yilu

Rulers of Dai

Tuoba
Tuoba
Yilu Tuoba
Tuoba
Pugen Son of Tuoba
Tuoba
Pugen Tuoba
Tuoba
Yulü Tuoba
Tuoba
Heru Tuoba
Tuoba
Hena Tuoba
Tuoba
Yihuai Tuoba
Tuoba
Hena (re-succession) Tuoba Yihuai (restoration) Tuoba
Tuoba
Shiyijian Emperor Daowu

Emperors of Northern Wei

Posthumously honoured

Honoured

Tuoba
Tuoba
Shi Tuoba
Tuoba
Huang Yuan Shao Yuan Yu Yuan Huai

Honoured then posthumous and temple name retracted

Yuan Xie

Ruling

Emperor Daowu Emperor Mingyuan Emperor Taiwu Prince Yin of Nan'an Emperor Wencheng Emperor Xianwen Emperor Xiaowen Emperor Xuanwu Emperor Xiaoming

Daughter

Youzhu Emperor Xiaozhuang Prince of Changguang Emperor Jiemin Emperor Houfei Emperor Xiaowu

Self-proclaimed

Yuan Yu Yuan Faseng Yuan Hao Yuan Yue

Emperors of Eastern Wei

Emperor Xiaojing

Emperors of Western Wei

Posthumously honoured

Yuan Yu

Ruling

Emperor Wen Emperor Fei Emperor Gong

v t e

Sixteen Kingdoms

History

Uprising of the Five Barbarians Disaster of Yongjia Shi Le's unification of North China Wei–Jie war Wei- Xianbei
Xianbei
war Fu Jian's unification of North China Huan Wen's expeditions Battle of Fei River Liu Yu's expeditions

The 16 Kingdoms

Cheng Han Former Zhao Later Zhao Former Liang Later Liang Western Liang Northern Liang Southern Liang Former Qin Later Qin Western Qin Former Yan Later Yan Northern Yan Southern Yan Xia

Other states

Ran Wei Northern Wei Western Shu Western Yan Duan Yuwen Chouchi Zhai Wei Dai Huan Chu Duan Qi

Involved

Jin Dynasty Jie Xiongnu Qiang Xianbei Di

Key personalities

Liu Yuan Shi Le Sima Yue Ran Min Huan Wen Fu Jian Xie Xuan Liu Yu

Histories of the Era

Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Ki

.