TULLUS HOSTILIUS (r. 673–642 BC) was the legendary third king of Rome . He succeeded Numa Pompilius and was succeeded by Ancus Marcius . Unlike his predecessor, Tullus was known as a warlike king.
The principal feature of Tullus' reign was his defeat of Alba Longa . After Alba Longa was beaten (by the victory of three Roman champions over three Albans), Alba Longa became Rome's vassal state. However, after the Alban dictator Mettius Fufetius subsequently betrayed Rome, Tullus ordered Alba Longa to be destroyed and forced the migration of the Alban citizenry to Rome, where they were integrated and became Roman citizens.
According to Livy , Tullus paid little heed to religious observances during his reign, thinking them unworthy of a king's attention. However, at the close of his reign, Rome was affected by a series of prophecies including a shower of stones on the Alban Mount (in response to which a public religious festival of nine days was held – a _novendialis_), a loud voice was heard on the summit of the mount complaining that the Albans had failed to show devotion to their former gods, and a pestilence struck in Rome. King Tullus became ill and was filled with superstition. He reviewed the commentaries of Numa Pompilius and attempted to carry out sacrifices recommended by Numa to Jupiter Elicius . However, Tullus did not undertake the ceremony correctly, and both he and his house were struck by lightning and reduced to ashes as a result of the anger of Jupiter.
* 1 Myth and history * 2 In fiction * 3 See also * 4 References
MYTH AND HISTORY
As with those of all the early kings of Rome, the events ascribed to
the reign of
Hostilius was probably a historical figure, however, in the strict
sense that a man bearing the name
The second historical event is the construction of the original
Senate House, the
Curia Hostilia , whose remains on the northwestern
edge of the Forum have been dated to around 600 BC, and which was
universally held by the tradition to have been built by – and thus
named in honor of – Tullus. Although a date of 600 BC would put it
well outside of the dates traditionally ascribed to Tullus Hostilius'
reign, this is hardly a problem; the absurdly long reigns of the Roman
kings have never been taken seriously by scholars (with an average
length of 34 years per king, the traditional chronology would be
without historical parallel - even the remarkably stable and healthy
English monarchy has an average reign of only 21 years). A more
plausible chronology offered by
Tim Cornell and supported by recent
archaeological research contracts the regal period from 240 to around
120 years and places the historical accomplishments of the kings
between 625 BC (when the first signs of real urbanisation and
unification of Rome show up in the archaeological record) and 500 BC.
This would bring the construction of the
Curia Hostilia well within
the time of a possible reign by
Incidents from legends surrounding
* ^ Livy , _Ab urbe condita _, 1:22 "He was not only unlike the last king, but he was a man of more warlike spirit even than Romulus, &c." * ^ Livy , _Ab urbe condita _, 1:22 * ^ Livy , _Ab urbe condita _, 1:22-30 * ^ Livy , _Ab urbe condita _, 1:27, 30 * ^ Livy , _Ab urbe condita _, 1:31 * ^ Cornell, T.J. _The Beginnings of Rome_. pp. 120–121.
* v * t * e
Kings of Rome
Romulus (753–717 BC)
Numa Pompilius (717–673 BC)
* v * t * e
Ancient Roman religion and mythology
* Aeneid _
* _ Metamorphoses _ * _Fasti _
* _ The Golden Ass _
CONCEPTS AND PRACTICES
Glossary of ancient Roman religion
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 47562311 * GND : 119009684