A tug (tugboat or towboat) is a type of vessel that maneuvers other vessels by pushing or pulling them either by direct contact or by means of a tow line. Tugs typically move vessels that either are restricted in their ability to maneuver on their own, such as ships in a crowded harbor or a narrow canal, or those that cannot move by themselves, such as barges, disabled ships, log rafts, or oil platforms. Tugboats are powerful for their size and strongly built, and some are ocean-going. Some tugboats serve as icebreakers or salvage boats. Early tugboats had steam engines, but today most have diesel engines. Many tugboats have firefighting monitors, allowing them to assist in firefighting, especially in harbors.
1.1 Deep-sea 1.2 Harbour 1.3 River
2 Propulsion 3 In popular culture
3.1 Film and television 3.2 Literature
4 Races 5 Ballet 6 Starting a drag 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links
Swedish harbour tug Svitzer Freja in tug-operation (3,600 kW / 453 gross register tons (GRT))
Dutch river tugboat "Mascotte II"
German harbour-tug and DDR quick-freighter Karl Marx at Rostock harbour
Deep-sea Seagoing tugs (deep-sea tugs or ocean tugboats) fall into four basic categories:
The standard seagoing tug with model bow that tows its "payload" on a hawser. The "notch tug" which can be secured in a notch at the stern of a specially designed barge, effectively making the combination a ship. This configuration is dangerous to use with a barge which is "in ballast" (no cargo) or in a head- or following sea. Therefore, "notch tugs" are usually built with a towing winch. With this configuration, the barge being pushed might approach the size of a small ship, with interaction of the water flow allowing a higher speed with a minimal increase in power required or fuel consumption. The "integral unit", or "integrated tug and barge" (ITB), comprises specially designed vessels that lock together in such a rigid and strong method as to be certified as such by authorities (classification societies) such as the American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Indian Register of Shipping, Det Norske Veritas or several others. These units stay combined under virtually any sea conditions and the tugs usually have poor sea-keeping designs for navigation without their barges attached. Vessels in this category are legally considered to be ships rather than tugboats and barges must be staffed accordingly. These vessels must show navigation lights compliant with those required of ships rather than those required of tugboats and vessels under tow. "Articulated tug and barge" (ATB) units also utilize mechanical means to connect to their barges. The tug slips into a notch in the stern and is attached by a hinged connection. ATBs generally utilize Intercon and Bludworth connecting systems. ATBs are generally staffed as a large tugboat, with between seven and nine crew members. The typical American ATB operating on the east coast customarily displays navigational lights of a towing vessel pushing ahead, as described in the 1972 ColRegs.
San Francisco harbor tractor tug "Delta Deanna"
Compared to seagoing tugboats, harbour tugboats are generally smaller and their width-to-length ratio is often higher, due to the need for a lower draught. In smaller harbours these are often also termed lunch bucket boats, because they are only manned when needed and only at a minimum (captain and deckhand), thus the crew will bring their own lunch with them. The number of tugboats in a harbour varies with the harbour infrastructure and the types of tugboats. Things to take into consideration includes ships with/without bow thrusters and forces like wind, current and waves and types of ship (e.g. in some countries there is a requirement for certain numbers and sizes of tugboats for port operations with gas tankers). River
Tug boat pushing a log raft near
River tugs are also referred to as towboats or pushboats. Their hull
designs would make open ocean operation dangerous. River tugs usually
do not have any significant hawser or winch. Their hulls feature a
flat front or bow to line up with the rectangular stern of the barge,
often with large pushing knees.
Diagram of components
Tugboats are highly maneuverable, and various propulsion systems have
been developed to increase maneuverability and increase safety. The
earliest tugs were fitted with paddle wheels, but these were soon
replaced by propeller-driven tugs. Kort nozzles have been added to
increase thrust per kW/hp. This was followed by the nozzle-rudder,
which omitted the need for a conventional rudder. The cycloidal
propeller was developed prior to
World War II
Theodore Tugboat, the titular hero of a children's show, was popular enough that a fullsize replica was constructed.
To date, there have been four children's shows revolving around anthropomorphic tugboats.
In the late 1980s, 13 episodes were made of TUGS, a series depicting
the life of tugboats in the 1920s.
An American adaptation followed: Salty's Lighthouse.
In the 1975's Soviet short animation musical film В порту/ In
the sea port a tugboat sang a song: "Through a harbour area"
One of the creators of that series went on to make Theodore Tugboat.
Animated preschool series
Toot the Tiny Tugboat
"Tugger" is a tugboat in the animated series South Park. He appears in
the episode "The New Terrance and Phillip Movie Trailer" as a sidekick
The children's book Scuffy the Tugboat, written by Gertrude Crampton
and illustrated by
Tibor Gergely and first published in 1946 as part
Little Golden Books
The novel Hollands Glorie, written prior to World War II, was made
into a Dutch miniseries in 1978 and concerned the dangers faced by the
crews of Dutch salvage tugs.
The novella Stella, concerning the dangers faced by the captains of
rescue tugs in the
South African Naval tugs perform a "ballet" when welcoming a new member of the fleet.
Since 1980, an annual tugboat ballet has been held in
The head tractor gets a heaving line from the container ship
The bow line with messenger is taken from the container ship
The stern line is passed from the rear tractor
A crew member of the container ship takes the stern line and fastens it
The stern tow line is fixed to the container ship Manila Express, the drag is started
Admiralty tug American Waterways Operators Azipod Charlotte Dundas E3 Tug Project Fish tug Maritime pilot New York tugboats PS Comet Switcher, rail analog Towboat Type V ship
^ "How Pygmy Tugboats Dock a Giant Liner." Popular Science Monthly,
March 1930, p. 22-23.
^ Thorndike, Virginia L. (2004). On Tugboats: Stories of Work and Life
Aboard. Down East Books. pp. 14–16.
^ Thoresen, Carl A. (2003). Port Designer's Handbook: Recommendations
and guidelines. Thomas Telford Books. p. 116.
^ Poulsen, B. Lund; et al. (1971). Teknisk Leksikon [The Technological
Encyclopaedia] (in Danish). 2. København: A/S Forlaget for
Faglitteratur København/Oslo. pp. 163–190. ISBN 87 573
^ Bilinski, Marcie B.: "The Workhorse of the Waterways" Massachusetts
Office of Coastal Zone Management, Coastlines 2007
^ "Rotor Tug "RT Zoe"". Marineline.com. 13 September 2006. Retrieved
19 August 2013.
^ "Western Marine to build tugboat, vessel for Ctg port". The
Independent. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
^ novatugnews. "Novatug.nl news". Novatug. Retrieved 2008-01-18.
^ novatugprod. "Novatug.nl product information". Novatug. Retrieved
^ "Hollands glorie". IMDb. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
Mel Gussow (September 24, 2002). "Jan de Hartog, 88, Author of His
Own Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
^ "The Key". IMDb. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
^ "Hartog, Jan De [1914 - 2002]". New York State Library. Retrieved
^ "Port of Seattle". Portseattle.org. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
^ "In search of the toughest tug," by Laurel Graeber, New York Times,
August 29, 2008.
^ "tugrace.com". tugrace.com. 2013-06-22. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
^ The Great
Jane's Ocean Technology 1979-80 / Jane's Yearbooks, 1979 - ISBN 0-531-03902-1. On Tugboats: Stories of Work and Life Aboard / Virginia Thorndike - Down East Books, 2004. Under Tow: A Canadian History of Tugs and Towing / Donal Baird - Vanwell Publishing, 277 p., 2003 - ISBN 1-55125-076-4 Pacific Tugboats: / Gordon Newell - Superior Publishing Company 1957, Seattle Washington. Primer of Towing / George H. Reid - Cornell Maritime Press, 1992.
Lehman, Charles F. (2009). A riverman’s lexicon : in Lehman’s terms. Florissant, Mo.: J.R. Simpson & Associates. ISBN 978-0-9841503-0-4. Nautical terminology specific to towboating on inland waterways.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tugboat.
At the Port of Felixstowe
Beacon Finland Ltd JAK®-ATB Coupling System
Compagnie Maritime Chambon
"Docking The World's Great Liners" Popular Mechanics, May 1930,
article on docking large ships in the first half of the 20th century
Intercon ATB Couplers
v t e
Modern merchant ships
Barge Bulk carrier Car float Chain boat Coaster Collier Container ship Heavy-lift ship Hopper barge Lake freighter Lighter aboard ship Livestock carrier Reefer ship RORO ship Submarine Cargo Vessel Train ferry
Chemical tanker FPSO unit Gas carrier LNG carrier Oil tanker
Cable ferry Cargo liner Cruise ship Cruiseferry Ferry Narrowboat Ocean liner RORO ship Train ferry
Diving support vessel Fireboat Platform supply vessel Pusher Tender Tugboat
Floating restaurant Cable layer Crane vessel Dredger Drillship Fishing vessel Icebreaker Merchant submarine Narco-submarine Pipe-laying ship Research vessel Riverboat Semi-submersible Snagboat
LCCN: sh85138492 GND: 4196043-9 NDL: 00563185 KulturNav: 25b88aff-d6d9-49d0