Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and
Wales and includes the
Elizabethan period during the reign of
Elizabeth I until 1603. The
Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of
House of Tudor
House of Tudor in England whose first monarch was Henry VII
(1457–1509). In terms of the entire span, the historian John Guy
(1988) argues that "England was economically healthier, more
expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a
1 Population and economy
2 English Reformation
3 Tudor government
3.1 Henry VII: 1485–1509
3.2 Henry VIII: 1509–1547
3.2.1 Father of the Royal Navy
3.2.2 Cardinal Wolsey
3.2.3 Thomas Cromwell
3.2.4 Dissolution of the Monasteries: 1536–1540
3.2.5 Role of Winchester
3.2.6 Impact of war
3.3 Edward VI: 1547–1553
3.4 Mary I: 1553–1558
3.5 Elizabeth I: 1558–1603
3.5.1 Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots
3.5.2 Troubled later years: 1585–1603
4 Popular uprisings
5 Local government
6 Social history and daily life
8 See also
10 Further reading
10.1 Reference books
10.2 Political history
10.3 Religious, social, economic and cultural history
10.5 Primary sources
11 External links
Population and economy
Black Death and the agricultural depression of the late
15th century, population began to increase. It was less than 2 million
in 1450, and about 4 million in 1600. The growing population
stimulated economic growth, accelerated the commercialisation of
agriculture, increased the production and export of wool, encouraged
trade, and promoted the growth of London. The other cities were quite
The high wages and abundance of available land seen in the late 15th
century and early 16th century were replaced with low wages and a land
shortage. Various inflationary pressures, perhaps due to an influx of
New World gold and a rising population, set the stage for social
upheaval with the gap between the rich and poor widening. This was a
period of significant change for the majority of the rural population,
with manorial lords beginning the process of enclosure of village
lands that previously had been open to everyone.
Main article: English Reformation
The Reformation transformed English religion during the Tudor period.
The four sovereigns, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I
had entirely different approaches, with Henry replacing the pope as
the head of the
Church of England
Church of England but maintaining Catholic doctrines,
Edward imposing a very strict Protestantism, Mary attempting to
reinstate Catholicism, and Elizabeth arriving at a compromising
position that defined the not-quite-Protestant Church of England. It
began with the insistent demands of Henry VIII for an annulment of his
Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII refused to grant.
Historians agreed that the great theme of Tudor history was the
Reformation, the transformation of England from Catholicism to
Protestantism. The main events, constitutional changes, and players at
the national level have long been known, and the major controversies
about them largely resolved. Historians until the late 20th century
assumed that they knew what the causes were: on the one hand, a
widespread dissatisfaction or even disgust with the evils,
corruptions, failures, and contradictions of the established religion,
setting up an undertone of anti-clericalism that indicated a rightness
for reform. A second, less powerful influence was the intellectual
impact of certain English reformers, such as the long-term impact of
John Wycliffe (1328–1384) and his “Lollardy” reform movement,
together with a stream of Reformation treatises and pamphlets from
Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other reformers on the continent. The
Geoffrey Elton in 1960 is representative of the
orthodox interpretation. He argues that:
The existing situation proved untenable because the laity feared,
resented, and despised much about the Church, its officers, its courts
and its wealth. . . . A poverty-stricken and ignorant lower clergy,
wealthy bishops and abbots, a wide ramification of jurisdiction, a
mixture of high claims and low deeds did not make for respect or love
among the laity.
Social historians after 1960 began in-depth investigations of English
religion at the local level, and discovered the orthodox
interpretation was quite mistaken. The
Lollardy movement had largely
expired, and the pamphleteering of continental reformers hardly
reached beyond a few scholars at the University of Cambridge—King
Henry VIII had vigorously and publicly denounced Luther's heresies.
More important, the Catholic Church was in a strong condition in 1500.
England was devoutly Catholic, it was loyal to the pope, local
parishes attracted strong local financial support, religious services
were quite popular both at Sunday Mass and at family devotions.
Complaints about the monasteries and the bishops were uncommon. The
kings got along well with the popes and by the time Luther appeared on
the scene, England was among the strongest supporters of orthodox
Catholicism, and seemed a most unlikely place for a religious
Henry VII: 1485–1509
Henry VII, founder of the House of Tudor, became
King of England
King of England by
Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the
culmination of the Wars of the Roses. Henry engaged in a number of
administrative, economic and diplomatic initiatives. He paid very
close attention to detail and, instead of spending lavishly,
concentrated on raising new revenues. His new taxes were unpopular,
and when Henry VIII succeeded him, he executed Henry VII's two most
hated tax collectors.
Henry VIII: 1509–1547
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII of England and Anglo-Scottish Wars
Henry VIII, flamboyant, energetic, militaristic and headstrong,
remains one of the most visible kings of England, primarily because of
his six marriages, all designed to produce a male heir, and his heavy
retribution in executing many top officials and aristocrats. In
foreign-policy, he focused on fighting France—with minimal
success—and had to deal with Scotland, Spain, and the Holy Roman
Empire, often with military mobilisation or actual highly expensive
warfare that led to high taxes. The chief military success came over
Scotland. The main policy development was Henry's taking full
control of the Church of England. This followed from his break from
Rome, which was caused by the refusal of the Pope to annul his
original marriage. Henry thereby introduced a very mild variation of
the Protestant Reformation. There were two main aspects. First Henry
rejected the Pope as the head of the Church in England, insisting that
national sovereignty required the Absolute supremacy of the king.
Henry worked closely with Parliament in passing a series of laws that
implemented the break. Englishmen could no longer appeal to Rome. All
the decisions were to be made in England, ultimately by the King
himself, and in practice by top aides such as Cardinal Wolsey and
Thomas Cromwell. Parliament proved highly supportive, with little
dissent. The decisive moves came with the Act of Supremacy in 1534
that made the king the protector and only supreme head of the church
and clergy of England. After Henry imposed a heavy fine on the
bishops, they nearly all complied. The laws of treason were greatly
strengthened so that verbal dissent alone was treasonous. There were
some short-lived popular rebellions that were quickly suppressed. The
league level in terms of the aristocracy and the Church was
supportive. The highly visible main refusals came from Bishop Fisher
and Chancellor Thomas More; they were both executed. Among the senior
aristocrats, trouble came from the Pole family, which supported
Reginald Pole who was in exile in Europe. Henry destroyed the rest of
the family, executing its leaders, and seizing all its property. The
second stage involved the seizure of the monasteries. The monasteries
operating religious and charitable institutions were closed, the monks
and nuns were pensioned off, and the valuable lands were sold to
friends of the King, thereby producing a large, wealthy, gentry class
that supported Henry. In terms of theology and ritual there was little
change, as Henry wanted to keep most elements of Catholicism and
detested the "heresies" of
Martin Luther and the other reformers.
Father of the Royal Navy
Biographer J.J. Scarisbrick says that Henry deserved his traditional
title of 'Father of the English navy.' It became his personal
weapon, his plaything, his passion. He inherited seven small warships
from his father, and added two dozen more by 1514. In addition to
those build in England, he bought up Italian and Hanseatic warships.
By March 1513, he proudly watched his fleet sail down the Thames under
command of Sir Edmund Howard. It was the most powerful naval force to
date in English history: 24 ships led by the 1600 ton "Henry
Imperial"; the fleet carried 5000 combat marines and 3000 sailors. It
forced the outnumbered French fleet back to its ports, took control of
the English Channel, and blockaded Brest. Henry was the first king to
organise the navy as a permanent force, with a permanent
administrative and logistical structure, funded by tax revenue. His
personal attention was concentrated on land, where he founded the
royal dockyards, planted trees for shipbuilding, enacted laws for in
land navigation, guarded the coastline with fortifications, set up a
school for navigation and designated the roles of officers and
sailors. He closely supervised the construction of all his warships
and their guns, knowing their designs, speed, tonnage, armaments and
battle tactics. He encouraged his naval architects, who perfected the
Italian technique of mounting guns in the waist of the ship, thus
lowering the centre of gravity and making it a better platform. He
supervised the smallest details and enjoyed nothing more than
presiding over the launching of a new ship. He drained his
treasury on military and naval affairs, diverting the revenues from
new taxes and the sales of monastery lands.
Elton argues that Henry indeed build up the organisation and
infrastructure of the Navy, but it was not a useful weapon for his
style of warfare. It lacked a useful strategy. It did serve for
defence against invasion, and for enhancing England's international
Professor Sara Nair James says that in 1515–1529 Cardinal Thomas
Wolsey, "would be the most powerful man in England except, possibly,
for the king." Historian John Guy explains Wolsey's methods:
Only in the broadest respects was he [the king] taking independent
decisions....It was Wolsey who almost invariably calculated the
available options and ranked them for royal consideration; who
established the parameters of each successive debate; who controlled
the flow of official information; who selected the king's secretaries,
middle-ranked officials, and JPs; and who promulgated decisions
himself had largely shaped, if not strictly taken.
Operating with the firm support of the king, and with special powers
over the church given by the Pope, Wolsey dominated civic affairs,
administration, the law, the church, and foreign-policy. He was
amazingly energetic and far-reaching. In terms of achievements, he
built a great fortune for himself, and was a major benefactor of arts,
humanities and education. He projected numerous reforms, but in the
end English government had not changed much. For all the promise,
there was very little achievement of note. From the king's
perspective, his greatest failure was an inability to get a divorce
when Henry VIII needed a new wife to give him a son who would be the
undisputed heir to the throne. Historians agree that Wolsey was a
disappointment. In the end, he conspired with Henry's enemies, and
died of natural causes before he could be beheaded.
Geoffrey Elton argued that Thomas Cromwell, who was Henry
VIII's chief minister from 1532 to 1540, not only removed control of
Church of England
Church of England from the hands of the Pope, but transformed
England with an unprecedented modern, bureaucratic government.
Cromwell (1485–1540) replaced medieval
government-as-household-management. Cromwell introduced reforms into
the administration that delineated the King's household from the state
and created a modern administration. He injected Tudor power into the
darker corners of the realm and radically altered the role of the
Parliament of England. This transition happened in the 1530s, Elton
argued, and must be regarded as part of a planned revolution. Elton's
point was that before Cromwell the realm could be viewed as the King's
private estate writ large, where most administration was done by the
King's household servants rather than separate state offices. By
masterminding these reforms, Cromwell laid the foundations of
England's future stability and success. Cromwell's luck ran out when
he picked the wrong bride for the King; he was beheaded for treason,
More recently historians have emphasised that the king and others
played powerful roles as well .
Dissolution of the Monasteries: 1536–1540
Main article: Dissolution of the Monasteries
The king had an annual income of about £100,000, but he needed much
more in order to suppress rebellions and finance his foreign
adventures. In 1533, for example, military expenditures on the
northern border cost £25,000, while the 1534 rebellion in Ireland
cost £38,000. Suppressing the
Pilgrimage of Grace
Pilgrimage of Grace cost £50,000, and
the king's new palaces were expensive. Meanwhile, customs revenue was
slipping. The Church had an annual revenue of about £300,000; a new
tax of 10% was imposed which brought in about £30,000. To get even
larger sums it was proposed to seize the lands owned by monasteries,
some of which the monks farmed and most of which was leased to local
gentry. Taking ownership meant the rents went to the king. Selling the
land to the gentry at a bargain price brought in £1 million in
one-time revenue and gave the gentry a stake in the
administration. The clerical payments from First Fruits and
Tenths, which previously went to the pope, now went to the king.
Altogether, between 1536 and Henry's death, his government collected
£1.3 million; this huge influx of money caused Cromwell to change the
Crown's financial system to manage the money. He created a new
department of state and a new official to collect the proceeds of the
dissolution and the First Fruits and Tenths. The Court of
Augmentations and number of departments meant a growing number of
officials, which made the management of revenue a major activity.
Cromwell's new system was highly efficient with far less corruption or
secret payoffs or bribery than before. Its drawback was the
multiplication of departments whose sole unifying agent was Cromwell;
his fall caused confusion and uncertainty; the solution was even
greater reliance on bureaucratic institutions and the new Privy
Role of Winchester
In dramatic contrast to his father, Henry VIII spent heavily, in terms
of military operations in Britain and in France, and in building a
great network of palaces. How to pay for it remained a serious issue.
The growing number of departments meant many new salaried bureaucrats.
There were further financial and administrative difficulties in
1540–58, aggravated by war, debasement, corruption and inefficiency,
which were mainly caused by Somerset. After Cromwell's fall, William
Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester, the Lord Treasurer, produced
further reforms to simplify the arrangements, reforms which united
most of the crown's finance under the exchequer. The courts of general
surveyors and augmentations were fused into a new Court of
Augmentations, and this was later absorbed into the exchequer along
with the First Fruits and Tenths.
Impact of war
At the end of his reign, Henry VII's peace time income was about
£113,000, Of which customs on imports amounted to about £40,000.
There was little debt, and he left his son a large treasury. Henry
VIII spent heavily on luxuries, such as tapestries and palaces, but
his peacetime budget was generally satisfactory. The heavy strain came
from warfare, including building defences, building a Navy,
Suppressing insurrections, warring with Scotland, and engaging in very
expensive continental warfare. Henry's Continental wars won him little
glory or diplomatic influence, and no territory. Nevertheless, warfare
1511 to 1514 with three large expeditions and two smaller ones cost
£912,000. The Boulogne campaign of 1544 cost £1,342,000 and the wars
against Scotland £954,000; the naval wars cost £149,000 and large
sums were spent to build and maintain inland and coastal
fortifications. The total cost of war and defence between 1539–1547
was well over £2,000,000, Although the accounting procedures were too
primitive to give an accurate total. Adding it all up, approximately
35% came from taxes, 32% from selling land and monastery holdings, and
30% from debasing the coinage. The cost of war in the short reign of
Edward VI was another £1,387,000.
After 1540, the Privy Coffers were responsible for 'secret affairs',
in particular for the financing of war. The
Royal Mint was used to
generate revenue by debasing the coinage; the government's profit in
1547–51 was £1.2 million. However, under the direction of regent
Northumberland, Edward's wars were brought to an end. The mint no
longer generated extra revenue after debasement was stopped in
Edward VI: 1547–1553
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset and John
Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland
Although Henry was only in his mid-50s, his health deteriorated
rapidly in 1546. At the time the conservative faction, led by Bishop
Stephen Gardiner and
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk that was
opposed to religious reformation seemed to be in power, and was poised
to take control of the regency of the nine-year-old boy who was heir
to the throne. However, when the king died, the pro-reformation
factions suddenly seized control of the new king, and of the Regency
Council, under the leadership of Edward Seymour. Bishop Gardiner was
discredited, and the Duke of Norfolk was imprisoned for all of the new
The short reign of Edward VI marked the triumph of Protestantism in
England. Somerset, the elder brother of the late Queen Jane Seymour
(married to Henry VIII) and uncle to King Edward VI had a successful
military career. When the boy king was crowned, Somerset became Lord
Protector of the realm and in effect ruled England from 1547 to 1549.
Seymour led expensive, inconclusive wars with Scotland. His religious
policies angered Catholics.
Purgatory was rejected so there was no
more need for prayers to saints, relics, and statues, nor for masses
for the dead. Some 2400 permanent endowments called chantries had been
established that supported thousands of priests who celebrated masses
for the dead, or operated schools or hospitals in order to earn grace
for the soul in purgatory. The endowments were seized by Cromwell in
1547. Historians have contrasted the efficiency of Somerset's
takeover of power in 1547 with the subsequent ineptitude of his rule.
By autumn 1549, his costly wars had lost momentum, the crown faced
financial ruin, and riots and rebellions had broken out around the
country. He was overthrown by his former ally John Dudley, 1st Duke of
Until recent decades, Somerset's reputation with historians was high,
in view of his many proclamations that appeared to back the common
people against a rapacious landowning class. In the early 20th century
this line was taken by the influential A. F. Pollard, to be echoed by
Edward VI's leading biographer W. K. Jordan. A more critical approach
was initiated by M. L. Bush and Dale Hoak in the mid-1970s. Since
then, Somerset has often been portrayed as an arrogant ruler, devoid
of the political and administrative skills necessary for governing the
Dudley by contrast moved quickly after taking over an almost bankrupt
administration in 1549. Working with his top aide William Cecil,
Dudley ended the costly wars with France and Scotland and tackled
finances in ways that led to some economic recovery. To prevent
further uprisings he introduced countrywide policing, appointed Lords
Lieutenants who were in close contact with London, and set up what
amounted to a standing national army. Working closely with Thomas
Cramner, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dudley pursued an aggressively
Protestant religious policy. They promoted radical reformers to high
Church positions, with the Catholic bishops under attack. The use of
Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer became law in 1549; prayers were to be in
English not Latin. The Mass was no longer to be celebrated, and
preaching became the centerpiece of church services.
Purgatory, Protestantism declared, was a Catholic superstition that
falsified the Scriptures. Prayers for the dead were useless because no
one was actually in Purgatory. It followed that prayers to saints,
veneration of relics, and adoration of statues were all useless
superstitions that had to end. For centuries devout Englishman had
created endowments called chantries designed as good works that
generated grace to help them get out of purgatory after they died.
Many chantries were altars or chapels inside churches, or endowments
that supported thousands of priests who said Masses for the dead. In
addition there were many schools and hospitals established as good
works. In 1547 a new law closed down 2,374 chantries and seized their
assets. Although the Act required the money to go to "charitable"
ends and the "public good," most of it appears to have gone to friends
of the Court. Historian A.G. Dickens has concluded:
To Catholic opinion, the problem set by these legal confiscations ...
[was] the disappearance of a large clerical society from their midst,
the silencing of masses, the rupture of both visible and spiritual
ties, which over so many centuries have linked rude provincial man
with a great world of the Faith....The Edwardian dissolution exerted
its profounder effects in the field of religion. In large part it
proved destructive, for while it helped to debar a revival of Catholic
devotion it clearly contain elements which injured the reputation of
The new Protestant orthodoxy for the
Church of England
Church of England was expressed
in the Forty-Two Articles of Faith in 1553. But when the king suddenly
died, Dudley's last-minute efforts to make his daughter-in-law Lady
Jane Grey the new sovereign failed. Queen Mary took over and had him
Mary I: 1553–1558
Main article: Mary I of England
Mary was the daughter of Henry VIII by Catherine of Aragon; she
closely identified with her Catholic, Spanish heritage. She was next
in line for the throne. However, in 1553 as Edward VI lay dying, he
and the Duke of Northumberland plotted to make his niece Lady Jane
Grey as the new Queen. Northumberland wanted to keep control of the
government, and promote Protestantism. Edward signed a devise to alter
the succession, but that was not legal, for only Parliament could
amend its own acts. Edward's Privy Council kept his death secret for
three days to install Lady Jane, but Northumberland had neglected to
take control of Princess Mary. She fled and organised a band of
supporters, who proclaimed her Queen across the country. The Privy
Council abandoned Northumberland, and proclaimed Mary to be the
sovereign after nine days of the pretended Jane Grey. Queen Mary
imprisoned Lady Jane and executed Northumberland.
Mary is remembered for her vigorous efforts to restore Roman
Catholicism after Edward's short-lived crusade to minimise Catholicism
in England. Protestant historians have long denigrated her reign,
emphasising that in just five years she burned several hundred
Protestants at the stake in the Marian persecutions. However, a
historiographical revisionism since the 1980s has to some degree
improved her reputation among scholars. Christopher Haigh's
bold reappraisal of the religious history of Mary's reign painted the
revival of religious festivities and a general satisfaction, if not
enthusiasm, at the return of the old Catholic practices. Her
re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger
half-sister and successor Elizabeth I.
Protestant writers at the time took a highly negative view, blasting
her as "Bloody Mary".
John Knox attacked her in his First Blast of the
Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1558), and she was
prominently vilified in
Actes and Monuments
Actes and Monuments (1563), by John Foxe.
Foxe's book taught Protestants for centuries that Mary was a
bloodthirsty tyrant. In the mid-20th century, H. F. M. Prescott
attempted to redress the tradition that Mary was intolerant and
authoritarian by writing more objectively, and scholarship since then
has tended to view the older, simpler, partisan assessments of Mary
with greater scepticism.
Haigh concluded that the "last years of Mary's reign were not a
gruesome preparation for Protestant victory, but a continuing
consolidation of Catholic strength." Catholic historians, such as
John Lingard, argued Mary's policies failed not because they were
wrong but because she had too short a reign to establish them. In
other countries, the Catholic Counter-Reformation was spearheaded by
Jesuit missionaries; Mary's chief religious advisor, Cardinal Pole,
refused to allow the Jesuits in England. Spain was widely seen as
the enemy, and her marriage to King
Phillip II of Spain
Phillip II of Spain was deeply
unpopular, even though he had practically no role in English
government and they had no children. The military loss of Calais to
France was a bitter humiliation to English pride. Failed harvests
increased public discontent. Although Mary's rule was ultimately
ineffectual and unpopular, her innovations regarding fiscal reform,
naval expansion, and colonial exploration were later lauded as
Elizabeth I: 1558–1603
Main article: Elizabethan era
Historians often depict Elizabeth's reign as the golden age in English
history in terms of political, social and cultural development, and in
comparison with Continental Europe. Calling her "Gloriana" and
using the symbol of
Britannia starting in 1572, marked the Elizabethan
age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical
ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated and
feared Spanish. Elizabeth's reign marks the decisive turning point
in English religious history, as a predominantly Catholic nation at
the beginning of her reign was predominantly Protestant by the end.
Although Elizabeth executed 250 Catholic priests, she also executed
some extreme Puritans, and on the whole she sought a moderately
conservative position that mixed Royal control of the church (with no
people role), combined with predominantly Catholic ritual, and a
predominantly Calvinists theology.
Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots and Anglo-Scottish Wars
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots (lived 1542–87) was a devout Catholic and next
in line for the throne of England after Elizabeth. Her status became a
major domestic and international issue for England. After the
death of King James IV at the
Battle of Flodden
Battle of Flodden in 1513. The upshot
was years of struggle for control of the throne, nominally held by the
James V (lived 1512–42, reigned 1513–42), until he
came of age in 1528.
Mary of Guise
Mary of Guise (lived 1515–60) was a French woman close to the French
throne. She ruled as the regent for her teenaged daughter Queen Mary,
1554–60. The regent and her daughter were both strong proponents of
Catholicism and attempted to suppress the rapidly Growth of
Protestantism in Scotland.
Mary of Guise
Mary of Guise was a strong opponent of
Protestantism, and worked to maintain a close alliance between
Scotland and France, called the Auld Alliance. In 1559 the Regent
became alarmed that widespread Scottish hostility against French rule
was strengthening the partisan cause, so she banned unauthorised
preaching. But the fiery preacher
John Knox sent Scotland aflame with
his preaching, leading the coalition of powerful Scottish nobles,
calling themselves the
Lords of the Congregation raised the rebellion
to overthrow the Catholic Church and seize its lands. The Lords
appealed to Elizabeth for English help, but she played a very cautious
hand. The 1559 treaty with France called for peace and she was
unwilling to violate it, especially since England had no allies at the
time. Supporting rebels against the lawful ruler violated Elizabeth's
deeply held claims to the legitimacy of all royalty. On the other
hand, a French victory in Scotland would establish a Catholic state on
the northern border supported by a powerful French enemy. Elizabeth
first sent money, then sent artillery, then sent a fleet that
destroyed the French fleet in Scotland. Finally she sent 8,000 troops
north. The death of
Mary of Guise
Mary of Guise allowed England, France and Scotland
to come to terms in the
Treaty of Edinburgh
Treaty of Edinburgh in 1560, which had a
far-reaching impact. France permanently withdrew all its forces from
Scotland. It ensured the success of the Reformation in Scotland; it
began a century of peace with France; it ended any threat of a
Scottish invasion; and it paved the way for a union of the two
kingdoms in 1603 when the Scottish king James VI inherited the English
throne as James I and launched the Stuart era.
When the treaty was signed, Mary was in Paris as the wife of the
French King Francis II. When he died in 1561, she returned to Scotland
as Queen of Scotland. However, when Elizabeth refused to recognise her
as the heir to the English throne, Mary rejected the Treaty of
Edinburgh. She made an unfortunate marriage to Lord Darnley who
mistreated her and murdered her Italian favourite David Rizzio.
Darnley in turn was murdered by the Earl of Bothwell. He was acquitted
of murder; she quickly married Bothwell. Most people at the time
thought she was deeply involved in adultery or murder; historians have
argued at length and are undecided. However rebellion broke out and
the Protestant nobles defeated the Queen's forces in 1567. She was
forced to abdicate in favour of her infant son James VI; she fled to
England, where Elizabeth confined her and house arrest for 19 years.
Mary engaged in numerous complex plots to assassinate Elizabeth and
become queen herself. Finally Elizabeth caught her plotting the
Babington Plot and had her executed in 1587.
Troubled later years: 1585–1603
Elizabeth's final two decades saw mounting problems that were left for
the Stuarts to solve after 1603. John Cramsie, in reviewing the recent
scholarship in 2003, argues:
the period 1585–1603 is now recognised by scholars as distinctly
more troubled than the first half of Elizabeth's long reign. Costly
wars against Spain and the Irish, involvement in the Netherlands,
socio-economic distress, and an authoritarian turn by the regime all
cast a pall over Gloriana's final years, underpinning a weariness with
the queen's rule and open criticism of her government and its
Elizabeth remained a strong leader, but almost all of her earlier
advisers had died or retired. Robert Cecil (1563–1612) took over the
role of leading advisor long held by his father Lord Burghley. Robert
Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (1567–1601) was her most prominent
general, a role previously held by his stepfather Robert Dudley, who
was the love of Elizabeth's life; and the adventurer/historian Sir
Walter Raleigh (1552–1618) was a new face on the scene. The three
new men formed a triangle of interlocking and opposing forces that was
hard to break into. The first vacancy came in 1601, when Devereux was
executed for attempting to take the Queen prisoner and seize
power. After Elizabeth died the new king kept on Cecil as his
chief advisor, and beheaded Raleigh.
See also: List of Tudor Rebellions
Numerous popular uprisings occurred; all suppressed by royal
authorities. The largest were:
The largest and most serious was the Pilgrimage of Grace. It disrupted
the North of England in 1536 protesting the religious reforms of Henry
Dissolution of the Monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries and the policies of the
King's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, as well as other specific
political, social and economic grievances.
Prayer Book Rebellion
Prayer Book Rebellion or "Western Rising" was a popular revolt in
Devon and Cornwall in 1549. The Royal Court introduced the Book of
Common Prayer, which was based on Protestant theology and the
exclusive use of English. The change was widely unpopular –
particularly in areas of still firmly Catholic religious loyalty, and
in Cornwall where standard English was not popular.
Kett's Rebellion began in 1549 in Norfolk; it started as a
demonstration against enclosures of common land. The instigator,
Robert Kett, was executed for treason.
Wyatt's rebellion in 1554 against Queen Mary I's determination to
marry Philip of Spain and named after Thomas Wyatt, one of its
Rising of the North or "Northern Rebellion" of 1569–70 was a
failed attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of
Scots. It originated from bitter political factionalism in the royal
Privy Concil. The extension of Tudor authority in northern England
cause discontent among the aristocracy and gentry, as the new
Protestant bishop tried to recover former church lands and alienated
their new owners. Local Catholic elements were a large fraction of the
population and resented the destruction of the rituals and practices.
When the Royal army approached, the leadership disbanded their forces
and fled to Scotland. A few leaders were executed, but many of the
gentry saved their lives by handing over their lands to Queen
The main officials of the local government operated at the county
level (also called "shire") were the sheriff and the Lord
Lieutenant. the power of the sheriff had declined since medieval
days, but he was still very prestigious. He was appointed for a
one-year term, with no renewals, by the King's Privy Council. He was
paid many small fees, but they probably did not meet the sheriff's
expenses in terms of hospitality and hiring his under-sheriffs and
bailiffs. The sheriff held court every month to deal with civil and
criminal cases. He supervised elections, ran the jail and meted out
punishments. His subordinates provided staffing for the county's
justices of the peace.
Lord Lieutenant was a new office created by Henry VIII to
represent the royal power in each county. He was a person with good
enough connections at court to be selected by the king and served at
the king's pleasure, often for decades. He had limited powers of
direct control, so successful Lord Lieutenants worked with his deputy
lieutenants and dealt with the gentry through compromise, consensus,
and the inclusion of opposing factions. He was in charge of mobilising
the militia if necessary for defence, or to assist the king in
military operations. In
Yorkshire in 1588, the
Lord Lieutenant was the
Earl of Huntington, who urgently needed to prepare defences in the
face of the threatened invasion from the Spanish Armada. The Queen's
Privy Council urgently called upon him to mobilise the militia, and
report on the availability of men and horses . Huntington's challenge
was to overcome the reluctance of many militia men, the shortages of
arms, training mishaps, and jealousy among the gentry as to who would
command which unit. Despite Huntingdon's last-minute efforts, the
mobilisation of 1588 revealed a reluctant society that only grudgingly
answered the call to arms. The Armada never landed, and the militia
were not actually used. During the civil wars of the mid-17th
Lord Lieutenant played an even more important role in
mobilising his county either for king or for Parliament.
The day-to-day business of government was in the hands of several
dozen justices of the peace (JP). They handled all the real routine
police administrative functions, and were paid through a modest level
of fees. Other local officials included constables, church-wardens,
mayors, and city aldermen. The JP duties involved a great deal of
paperwork – primarily in Latin – and attracted a surprisingly
strong cast of candidates. For example, The 55 JPs in Devonshire
holding office in 1592 included:
Sir Francis Drake, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, Gilberts, Carews, Seymours,
Courtenays, and other names prominent among the men who laid the
foundations of the maritime greatness of England and of the existence
of America. Of the fifty-five, twenty-eight were at one time or
another high-sheriffs of the county, twenty more were then, or became
afterwards, knights, six sat in the House of Commons, and three in the
House of Lords.
Social history and daily life
The cultural achievements of the
Elizabethan era have long attracted
scholars, and since the 1960s they have conducted intensive research
on the social history of England.
House of Tudor
House of Tudor produced five monarchs who ruled during this period
(excluding Lady Jane Grey).
Tudor Revival architecture
Early modern Britain
Harrington, Peter. The Castles of Henry VIII. Oxford, Osprey, 2007.
^ John Guy (1988) Tudor England, Oxford University Press, p. 32
^ David M. Palliser, The Age of Elizabeth: England under the later
Tudors, 1547–1603 p. 300.
^ Ian Dawson, The Tudor century (1993) p. 214
^ Peter H. Marshall, Heretics and Believers: A History of the English
Reformation (Yale UP, 2017).
^ G. R. Elton, The Tudor Constitution: Documents and Commentary (1960)
^ Ronald H. Fritze, Historical Dictionary of Tudor England,
1485–1603 (1991) 419-20.
^ John Cannon, The Oxford Companion to British history (1997) pp
^ Sydney Anglo, "Ill of the dead: The posthumous reputation of Henry
VII", Renaissance Studies 1 (1987): 27–47. online
^ Steven Gunn, Henry VII's New Men and the Making of Tudor England
^ E. W. Ives, "Henry VIII (1491–1547)", Oxford Dictionary of
National Biography, (2009) accessed 8 Aug 2017
^ Richard Rex, Henry VIII and the English reformation (Palgrave
^ J.J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII (1968) pp 500–1.
^ A.F. Pollard, Henry VIII (1902) pp 50, 100–2.
^ N.A.M. Rodger, The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain
660 – 1649 (1997) pp 184, 221 236–7
^ David Loades, The Tudor Navy: An administrative, political and
military history (1992) is the standard history.
^ Elaine W. Fowler, English sea power in the early Tudor period,
1485–1558 (1965) is an older study.
^ G.R. Elton, Reform and Reformation: England, 1509–1558 (1977) pp
^ Sara Nair James, "Cardinal Wolsey: The English Cardinal Italianate"
in Christopher Cobb, ed. (2009). Renaissance Papers 2008. Camden
House. p. 1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ John Guy, Tudor England (1988) p 87.
^ S.T. Bindoff, Tudor England (1950), p 78
^ J.D. Mackie, The Earlier Tudors 1485 – 1558 (1952), pp 286–334.
^ G.R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government (1953).
^ He was a distant relative of
Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658) who ruled
a century later.
^ Christoper Coleman and David Starkey, eds., Revolution Reassessed:
Revision in the History of Tudor Government and Administration (1986)
^ Mackie, The Earlier Tudors 1485 – 1558 (1952), pp 413–17.
^ Mackie, The Earlier Tudors, pp 370–79.
^ John A. Wagner and Susan Walters Schmid (2011). Encyclopedia of
Tudor England. ABC-CLIO. p. 947.
^ D. E. Hoak (1976). The King's Council in the
Reign of Edward VI.
Cambridge UP. p. 89.
^ John A. Wagner and Susan Walters Schmid (2011). Encyclopedia of
Tudor England. ABC-CLIO. p. 847.
^ Penry Williams, The Tudor Regime (1979) pp 55–69.
^ Robert Tittler; Norman Jones (2008). A Companion to Tudor Britain.
John Wiley & Sons. p. 187.
^ W.K. Jordan, Edward VI: The Young King. The Protectorship of the
Duke of Somerset (1968)
^ G.R. Elton, The Tudor Constitution (1960) pp 372, 382–85.
^ Dickens, The English Reformation, pp 197–229.
^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Boy King: Edward VI and the Protestant
Reformation (2002) p 104.
^ G.R. Elton, Reform and Reformation (1977) pp. 333–50.
^ David Loades, "The reign of Edward VI: An historiographical survey"
Historian 67#1 (2000): 22+ online
^ David Loades, "Dudley, John, duke of Northumberland (1504–1553)",
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2008) accessed 8 Aug 2017
^ G.R. Elton, The Tudor Constitution (1960) pp 372, 382–85.
^ A.G. Dickens, The
English Reformation (1964) pp 205–17.
^ A.G. Dickens, The
English Reformation (1964) p 217
^ Mackie, The Earlier Tudors, pp 508–22.
^ Dickens, The English Reformation, 230-58.
^ Paulina Kewes, "The 1553 succession crisis reconsidered." Historical
Research (2017). doi:10.1111/1468-2281.12178
^ Stanley T. Bindoff, "A Kingdom at Stake, 1553." History Today 3.9
^ Thomas S. Freeman, "'Restoration and Reaction: Reinterpreting the
Marian Church'." Journal of Ecclesiastical History (2017). online
^ David Loades, "The
Reign of Mary Tudor: Historiography and
Research." Albion 21.4 (1989): 547–558. online
^ Christopher Haigh, English Reformations: religion, politics and
society under the Tudors (1992), 203–34.
^ Ann Weikel, "Mary I (1516–1558)" in Oxford Dictionary of National
Biography (2004) doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18245.
^ Haigh, English Reformations: religion, politics and society under
the Tudors (1992), 234.
^ Thomas F Mayer "A Test of Wills: Cardinal Pole, Ignatius Loyola, and
the Jesuits in England," in Thomas M. McCoog, ed., (1996). The
Reckoned Expense: Edmund Campion and the Early English Jesuits.
pp. 21–38. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ David M. Loades, Mary Tudor: A Life (1989) pp. 340–343.
^ Robert Tittler, The
Reign of Mary I (2nd ed. 1991), p. 80.
^ Roy Strong, The Cult of Elizabeth: Elizabethan Portraiture and
^ Paul Hilliam, Elizabeth I: Queen of England's Golden Age (2005).
^ John Morrill, ed. The Oxford illustrated history of Tudor &
Stuart Britain (1996) online pp 44, 325.
^ J.B. Black, The
Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603 (1959) pp 1–33,
^ John Guy, Queen of Scots: The True Life of Mary Stuart (2014).
^ Paul E.J. Hammer, Elizabeth's wars: war, government and society in
Tudor England, 1544–1604 (2003).
^ Guy, Queen of Scots , chapters 13–27
^ Black, The
Reign of Elizabeth pp 63–118,, 372–89.
^ David Loades,
Elizabeth I (2003) pp 175–178, 220–33.
^ John Cramsie, "The Changing Reputations of
Elizabeth I and James VI
& I," Reviews and History: Covering books and digital resources
across all fields of history (review no. 334 June 2003)
^ Penry Williams, The Later Tudors: England, 1547–1603 (1998) pp
^ M.L. Bush, "The Tudor polity and the pilgrimage of grace."
Historical Research 80.207 (2007): 47–72. online
^ Frances Rose-Troup, The western rebellion of 1549: an account of the
insurrections in Devonshire and Cornwall against religious innovations
in the reign of Edward VI, London: Smith, Elder, 1913 online.
^ Anthony Fletcher and Diarmaid Macculloch, Tudor Rebellions (5th ed.
2004) pp. 69–83
^ Fletcher (2004) pp. 90-95
^ Fritze, Historical Dictionary of Tudor England pp 351–53.
^ Krista Kesselring, The Northern Rebellion of 1569: Faith, Politics
and Protest in Elizabethan England (Springer, 2007).
^ Edward Potts Cheyney, The European Background of American History:
1300–1600 (1904) pp 261–70. online
^ Cheyney, The European Background (1904) pp 270–73.
^ Michael J. Braddick, "'Uppon This Instant Extraordinarie Occasion':
Military Mobilization in
Yorkshire before and after the Armada."
Huntington Library Quarterly 61#3/4 (1998): 429–455.
^ Victor L. Stater, Noble Government: the Stuart Lord Lieutenancy and
the Transformation of English Politics (1994).
^ Cheyney, The European Background p 277.
^ Penry Williams, The Later Tudors: England, 1547–1603 (New Oxford
History of England, 1998), chapters 6, 10, 11, 12.
^ John Morrill, ed., The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and
Stuart Britain (1995) chapters 5 to 10.
^ D.M. Palliser, The Age of Elizabeth: England Under the Later Tudors
(2nd ed. 1992)
^ Felicity Heal and Clive Holmes, eds., The gentry in England and
Wales, 1500–1700 (1994).
^ There is elaborate detail in Shakespeare's England. An Account of
the Life and Manners of his Age (2 vol. 1916). vol 1 online
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2008) 
Bindoff, S.T. Tudor England (1950), short scholarly survey. online
Bucholz, Robert, and Newton Key. Early modern England 1485–1714: A
narrative history (2009); University textbook
Collinson, Patrick, ed. The Sixteenth Century: 1485–1603 (Short
Oxford History of the British Isles) (2002)
Elton, G. R. England Under the Tudors (1974) online complete copy
Fritze, Ronald H. ed. Historical Dictionary of Tudor England,
1485–1603 (1991), 818pp; 300 short essays by experts emphasis on
politics, religion, and historiography. excerpt
Gunn, Steven. Henry VII's New Men and the Making of Tudor England
Guy, J. A. The Tudors: A Very Short Introduction (2010) excerpt and
Guy, J. A. Tudor England (1990) a leading comprehensive survey excerpt
and text search
Kinney, Arthur F. et al. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Tudor England
(2000) 837pp; also published as Tudor England: An Encyclopedia
Lockyer, Roger. Tudor and Stuart Britain: 1485-1714 (3rd ed. 2004),
576 pp excerpt
Mackie, J. D. The Earlier Tudors, 1485–1558 (1952), comprehensive
scholarly survey online
Morrill, John, ed. The Oxford illustrated history of Tudor &
Stuart Britain (1996) online; survey essays by leading scholars;
O'Day, Rosemary. The Routledge Companion to the Tudor Age (2010); also
published as The Longman Companion to the Tudor Age (1995) online
Rogers, Caroline, and Roger Turvey. Henry VII (Access to History, 3rd.
ed. 2005), textbook, 176pp.
Tittler, Robert and Norman Jones. A Companion to Tudor Britain.
Blackwell Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-631-23618-X.
Wagner, John A. Historical Dictionary of the Elizabethan World:
Britain, Ireland, Europe, and America (1999) online edition
Wagner, John A. and Susan Walters Schmid, eds. Encyclopedia of Tudor
England (3 vol. 2011).
Williams, Penry. The Later Tudors: England, 1547–1603 (1995) online
Black, J. B. The
Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603 (2nd ed. 1958) survey
by leading scholar Questia edition; online
Bridgen, Susan (2001). New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the
Tudors, 1485–1603. New York, NY: Viking Penguin.
MacCulloch, Diarmaid. Thomas Cranmer: A Life (1996).
Edwards, Philip. The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660
Elton, G. R. ed. Studies in Tudor and Stuart politics and government:
papers and reviews 1946–1972 (1974) online
Elton, G. R. The Parliament of England, 1559–1581 (1986) online
Levine, Mortimer. Tudor England 1485-1603 (Cambridge University Press:
Levine, Mortimer. Tudor Dynastic Problems 1460-1571 (Allen &
MacCaffrey Wallace T.
Elizabeth I (1993), scholarly biography
McLaren, Anne N. Political Culture in the
Reign of Elizabeth I: queen
and commonwealth 1558–1585 (Cambridge UP, 1999).
Neale, J. E. Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography (1934), scholarly
Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII (1968), scholarly biography; online
Starkey, David, and Susan Doran. Henry VIII: Man and Monarch (2009)
Starkey, David. The
Reign of Henry VIII: Personalities and Politics
Turvey, Roger, and Keith Randell. Access to History: Henry VIII to
Mary I: Government and Religion, 1509–1558 (Hodder, 2008), 240pp;
Williams, Penry. The Later Tudors: England, 1547–1603 (The New
Oxford History of England) (1998) excerpt and text search.
Wernham, Richard Bruce. Before the Armada: the growth of English
foreign policy, 1485–1588 (1966), a standard history of foreign
Wernham, Richard Bruce. After the Armada : Elizabethan England
and the struggle for Western Europe, 1588–1595 (1985)
Williams, Penry. The Tudor Regime (1981)
Religious, social, economic and cultural history
Butler, Katherine.Music in Elizabethan Court Politics (2015)
Campbell, Mildred. English yeoman under Elizabeth and the early
Clapham, John. A concise economic history of Britain: From the
earliest times to 1750 (1916), pp 185 to 305 covers 1500 to 1750.
Dickens, A.D. The
English Reformation (1965) online
Doran, Susan, and Norman Jones, eds. The Elizabethan World (2010)
essays by scholars
Duffy, Eamon. Reformation Divided: Catholics, Protestants and the
Conversion of England (2017) excerpt
Lipson, Ephraim. The economic history of England: vol 2: The Age of
Mercantilism (7th ed. 1964).
Manley, Lawrence, ed. London in the Age of Shakespeare: an Anthology
Marshall, Peter. Heretics and Believers: A History of the English
Reformation (2017) excerpt
English people on the eve of colonization,
1603–1630 (1954). scholarly study of occupations and roles online
Norton, Elizabeth, The Hidden Lives of Tudor Women: A Social History
Notestein, Wallace. A history of witchcraft in England from 1558 to
1718 (1911) online
Palliser, D. M. The Age of Elizabeth: England Under the Later Tudors,
1547–1603 (2nd ed 2014) wide-ranging survey of social and economic
Ponko, Vincent. "The Privy Council and the spirit of Elizabethan
economic management, 1558–1603." Transactions of the American
Philosophical Society 58.4 (1968): 1–63. online
Rex, Richard. Henry VIII and the
English Reformation (2nd ed. 2006)
Rowse, Alfred Leslie. The England of Elizabeth (2003).
Sim, Alison. The Tudor Housewife (McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP, 2001).
Tawney, R.H. The agrarian problem in the sixteenth century (1912)
Traill, H.D. and J.S. Mann, eds. Social England: a record of the
progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry,
commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to
the present day: Volume iii: From the accession of Henry VIII to the
death of Elizabeth" (1895) online; 876 pp; short essays by experts
Williams, Penry. Life in Tudor England (1969)
Williamson, James A. The Tudor Age (1961) 500 pp online edition
Willis, Deborah. Malevolent nurture: Witch-hunting and maternal power
in early modern England (Cornell UP, 1995).
Youings, Joyce. Sixteenth Century England (The Penguin Social History
of Britain) (1991)
Anglo, Sydney. “Ill of the dead. The posthumous reputation of Henry
VII,” Renaissance Studies 1 (1987): 27–47. online
Breen, Dan. "Early Modern Historiography." Literature Compass (2005)
Doran, Susan and Thomas Freeman, eds. Mary Tudor: Old and New
Perspectives (Palgrave MacMillan, 2011).
Duffy, Eamon. "The
English Reformation After Revisionism." Renaissance
Quarterly 59.3 (2006): 720–731.
Elton, G.R. Modern Historians on British History 1485–1945: A
Critical Bibliography 1945–1969 (1969), annotated guide to 1000
history books on every major topic, plus book reviews and major
scholarly articles. online
Freeman, Thomas S. "'Restoration and Reaction: Reinterpreting the
Marian Church'." Journal of Ecclesiastical History (2017). online
Furber, Elizabeth Chapin, ed. Changing Views on British History (1966)
Fussner, F. Smith. Tudor history and the historians (1970) online
Haigh, Christopher. "The recent historiography of the English
Reformation." Historical Journal 25.4 (1982): 995–1007.
Lewycky, Nadine. "Politics and religion in the reign of Henry VIII: A
historiographical review." (2009). online paper
Loades, David. "The
Reign of Mary Tudor: Historiography and Research."
Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies (1989):
547–558. in JSTOR
McCaffrey, Wallace. "Recent Writings on Tutor History," in Richard
Schlatter, ed., Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical
Writing since 1966 (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 71–98
MacCulloch, Diarmaid. "The myth of the English Reformation" History
Today (July 1991) 41#7
O'Day, Rosemary. The debate on the
English Reformation (2nd ed. 2015).
O'Day, Rosemary, ed. The Routledge Companion to the Tudor Age (2010)
Patterson, Annabel. "Rethinking Tudor Historiography." South Atlantic
Quarterly (1993) 92#2 pp: 185–208.
Pugliatti, Paola. Shakespeare the historian (Basingstoke: Macmillan,
Trimble, William Raleigh. "Early Tudor Historiography, 1485–1548."
Journal of the History of Ideas (1950): 30–41. online in JSTOR
Zagora, Perez. "English History, 1558–1640: A Bibliographical
Survey," in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. Changing views on British
history: essays on historical writing since 1939 (Harvard University
Press, 1966), pp 119–40
Archer, Ian W. and F. Douglas Price, eds. English Historical
Documents, 1558–1603 (2011), a wide-ranging major collection
Bland, A.E., P.A. Brown and R.H. Tawney, eds. English economic
history: select documents (1919). online 733pp; covers 1086 to 1840s.
Elton, G.R. ed. The Tudor constitution : documents and commentary
Felch, Susan M. ed.
Elizabeth I and Her Age (Norton Critical Editions)
(2009); 700pp; primary and secondary sources, with an emphasis on
Marcus, Leah S.; Rose, Mary Beth; and Mueller, Janel eds. Elizabeth I:
The Collected Works (U of Chicago Press, 2002).
Stater, Victor, ed. The Political History of Tudor and Stuart England:
A Sourcebook (Routledge, 2002) online
Tawney, R. H., and Eileen Power, eds. Tudor Economic Documents (3
vols. 1924). vol 1 on agriculture and industry online
Williams, C.H. ed. English Historical Documents, 1485–1558 (1957), a
wide-ranging major collection
Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII (21 vol
1862–1932) most volumes are online here
Vol. 1. 1509–1514 and Index.- Vol. 2., pt. 1. 1515–1516.- Vol. 2.,
pt. 2. 1517–1518.- Vol. 3, pt. 1–2. 1519–1523.- Vol. 4.
Introduction and Appendix, 1524–1530.- Vol. 4, pt. 1. 1524–1526.-
Vol. 4, pt. 2. 1526–1528.- Vol. 4, pt. 3. 1529–1530, with a
general index.- Vol. 5. 1531–1532.- Vol. 6. 1533.- Vol. 7. 1534.-
Vol. 8. 1535, Jan.-July.- Vol. 9. 1535, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 10. 1536,
Jan.-July.- Vol. 11. 1536, July–Dec.- Vol. 12, pt. 1. 1537,
Jan.-May.- Vol. 12, pt. 2. 1537, June–Dec.- Vol. 13, pt. 1. 1538,
Jan.-July.- Vol. 13, pt. 2. 1538, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 14, pt [i.e. pt.].
1. 1539, Jan.-July.- Vol. 14, pt. 2. 1539, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 15. 1540,
Jan.-Aug.- Vol. 16. 1540, Sept.- 1541, Dec.- Vol. 17. 1542.- Vol. 18,
pt. 1 1543, Jan.-July.- Vol. 18, pt. 2. 1543, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 19, pt.
1. 1544, Jan.-July.- Vol. 19, pt. 2. 1544, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 20, pt. 1.
1545, Jan.-July.- Vol. 20, pt. 2. 1545, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 21, pt. 1.
1546, Jan.-Aug.- Vol. 21, pt. 2. 1546, Sept.-1547, Jan.- Addenda: Vol.
1, pt. 1. 1509–1537 and undated. Nos. 1–1293.- Addenda: Vol. 1,
pt. 2. 1538–1547 and undated. Nos. 1294-end and index
The Tudors, information page edited by historian John Guy
Tudor food, learning resources from the British Library
BBC History – Tudor Period
Tudor and Stuart Ireland Conference
"The Tudor State", In Our Time, BBC Radio 4 discussion with John Guy,
Christopher Haigh and Christine Carpenter (Oct, 26, 2000)
House of Tudor
House of York
Royal house of the Kingdom of England
House of Stuart
Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
England in the Late Middle Ages
Wars of the Roses
Union of the Crowns
Commonwealth of England
Economy in the Middle Ages
Union with Scotland
House of Lords
House of Commons
Council of State
Secretary of State
Acts of Parliament: to 1483
New Model Army
Church of England
National flag (list)
Coat of arms
College of Arms
St George's Day
Articles on the